Mobile–Tensaw River Delta
The Mobile–Tensaw River Delta is the largest river delta and wetland in Alabama. It encompasses 260,000 acres in a 40-by-10-mile area and is the second largest delta in the contiguous United States; the delta's northernmost point is the confluence of the Tombigbee and Alabama rivers and follows a southerly direction that opens into the head of Mobile Bay through the Mobile, Apalachee, Middle and Spanish rivers near the Battleship Parkway. It is contained within sections of Baldwin, Mobile and Washington counties; the Mobile–Tensaw delta is ecologically important and includes a wide variety of habitats, including Mesic flood plains, cypress-gum swamps, tidal brackish water marshes, bottomland forests and submersed grass beds. As one of the most biologically diverse regions in both Alabama and the United States, it is home to 126 species of fish, 46 mammals, 69 reptiles, 30 amphibians, at least 300 species of bird, including more than 110 which nest in the region; the delta's considerable biodiversity has led to it being described as an "American Amazon" by naturalist E. O. Wilson.
The delta lies in a river valley. Many separate inland streams joined as they flowed southward across land, once covered by the Gulf of Mexico. By the end of the last major ice age, when the sea level was much lower and Alabama's coastline was about 60 miles south of its present location, the waterways of the delta valley extended much farther than their current-day southern termination at the head of Mobile Bay; as the ice age ended and global temperatures increased, sea levels began to rise again to their present-day level. Humans inhabited the delta region at least as far back as 5,000 years ago. During the Mississippian periodically time, people of the Pensacola culture built earthen mounds along Bottle Creek and the Tensaw River. During the late prehistoric period, other peoples moved into the area, including the Taensas, the Creek, the Choctaw. In the 16th century, the area was visited by Spanish forces. French explorers arrived in the last years of the 17th century settling colonial Mobile in 1702 at Twenty-seven Mile Bluff on the Mobile River.
During the Creek War, Red Stick Creeks attacked Fort Mims near the confluence of the Alabama and Tombigbee rivers in August 1813, where they killed most of the mixed-blood Tensaw and Lower Town Creeks, intermarried whites and nearly 275 militia. The schooner Clotilda arrived in the Delta on July 7, 1860, carrying 103 enslaved West Africans captured in Dahomey, was scuttled to prevent being prosecuted under the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves, it was the last slave ship to enter the United States via the Atlantic slave trade. After the Emancipation Proclamation and the Thirteenth Amendment, many of the descendants of the Clotilda would establish the neighborhood of Africatown in Mobile; the last important battle of the American Civil War took place at the fortified town of Blakeley, located on the edge of the delta. A railroad line to connect Mobile to Montgomery, now part of the CSX system, opened across the delta in 1872. In the mid-1920s, the Causeway was built across the lowest part of the delta, connecting the western and eastern shores of Mobile Bay.
I-65 and I-10 were constructed to span different parts of the area. The delta was designated a National Natural Landmark in May 1974. Boating and fishing are popular in the Mobile Delta. Boat ramps and water access points are abundant throughout the area; the Bartram Canoe Trail provides a system of waterways. The area is known for its excellent bird watching. Hunting is a common pastime. Most of the Delta is shallow water. To access these areas airboats, kayaks, or other small craft are used. Delta Safaris at 5 Rivers and Delta Guides and Outfitters are two companies who offer both eco and hunting/fishing excursions in and around the delta
Mobile County, Alabama
Mobile County is the second most-populous county in the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, its population was 412,992, its county seat is Mobile, founded on the Mobile River. The city and county were named in honor of the indigenous Maubila tribe. Mobile County comprises Alabama Metropolitan Statistical Area; this area was occupied for thousands of years by varying cultures of indigenous peoples. The historic Choctaw had occupied this area along what became called the Mobile River when encountered by early French traders and colonists, who founded Mobile in the early eighteenth century; the British took over the territory in 1763 after defeating the French in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, it came under Spanish rule as part of Spanish Florida. Spain ceded the territory to the United States after the War of 1812. In the 1830s, the United States forced the removal of most of the Native Americans in the area under President Andrew Jackson's policy to relocate them to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.
Many of those who remained continued their culture. Among those is the MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians, recognized as a tribe in 1979 by the state, but not federally. After more than a century of European settlement, Mobile County was organized by the legislature and the proclamation of Governor Holmes of the Mississippi Territory on December 18, 1812; when Mississippi was separated and admitted as a state on December 10, 1817, after adopting its constitution on August 15, 1817, Mobile County became part of what was called the Alabama Territory. Two years the county became part of the state of Alabama, granted statehood on December 14, 1819; the city of Mobile, first settled by French colonists in the early 18th century as part of La Louisiane, was designated as the county seat from the early days of the county. Both the county and city derive their name from Fort Louis de la Mobile, a French fortification established in 1702; the word "Mobile" is believed to stem from a Choctaw Indian word for "paddlers".
The area was occupied by French colonists from 1702 -- 1763. It was ruled by the British from 1763–1780, when more American colonists began to enter the territory. At the end of the War of 1812, the United States took over the territory. At that time, new settlers were being attracted to the land, eager to develop short-staple cotton in the uplands area. Invention of the cotton gin made processing of this type of cotton profitable, stimulating wholesale development of new cotton plantations in the Black Belt during the antebellum years. Mobile developed as a major port for export of cotton. There were nine documented lynchings in Mobile from 1891 to 1981. March 31, 1891 Zachariah Graham October 2, 1906 Roy Hoyle October 2, 1906 Willie Thompson October 2, 1906 Corneilius Robinson September 22, 1907 Mose Dossett January 23, 1909 Richard Robertson July 31, 1910 Bill Walker June 6th 1919 James E. Lewis March 21, 1981 Michael DonaldCourthouse fires occurred in the years 1823, 1840, 1872. According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,644 square miles, of which 1,229 square miles is land and 415 square miles is water, it second-largest by total area. It includes several islands, including Gaillard Island and Mon Louis Island. Washington County Baldwin County Jackson County, Mississippi George County, Mississippi Greene County, Mississippi Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge According to the 2010 United States Census, the population of the county comprised the following racial and ethnic groups: 60.2% White 34.6% Black 0.9% Native American 1.8% Asian 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 1.5% Two or more races 2.4% Hispanic or Latino According to the 2000 United States Census, there were 399,843 people, 150,179 households, 106,777 families residing in the county. The population density was 324 people per square mile. There were 165,101 housing units at an average density of 134 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 63.07% White, 33.38% Black or African American, 0.67% Native American, 1.41% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.40% from other races, 1.04% from two or more races.
1.22% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 150,179 households out of which 34.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.50% were married couples living together, 17.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.90% were non-families. 24.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.13. In the county, the population dispersal was 27.50% under the age of 18, 10.00% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 12.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,710, the median income for a family was $40,378. Males had a median income of $32,329 versus $21,986 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,178.
About 15.60% of families and 18.50% of the population were
Escambia map turtle
The Escambia map turtle is a species of turtle in the family Emydidae. The species is endemic to the United States. G. ernsti is found in rivers which drain into Escambia Bay. The specific name, ernsti, is in honor of American herpetologist Dr. Carl Henry Ernst. Lovich JE, McCoy CJ. "Review of the Graptemys pulchra Group, with Descriptions of Two New Species". Annals of Carnegie Museum 61: 293-315.. Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Graptemys ernsti. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 29 July 2007
The Deirochelyinae are a subfamily of the Emydidae consisting of species native to North and South America, some of which are kept as pets. As a result of pet trade, one species, the red-eared slider, can now be found in many parts of the world. Genus Chrysemys Genus Deirochelys Genus Graptemys Genus Malaclemys Genus Pseudemys Genus Trachemys Family Emydidae on The Reptile Database
Baldwin County, Alabama
Baldwin County is a county of the U. S. state of Alabama. According to the 2015 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the population is 203,709; the county seat is Bay Minette. The county is named in honor of Senator Abraham Baldwin, though he never lived in what is now Alabama; the U. S. federal government designates Baldwin County as the Daphne-Fairhope-Foley, AL Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is located on the eastern side of Mobile Bay. Part of its western border with Mobile County is formed by the Spanish River, a brackish distributary river. Baldwin County was established on December 1809, ten years before Alabama became a state; the county had been a part of the Mississippi Territory until 1817, when the area was included in the separate Alabama Territory. Statehood was gained by Alabama in 1819. There have been numerous border changes to the county as population grew and other counties were formed. Numerous armies have invaded during the Revolutionary War, War of 1812, Civil War. In the first days of Baldwin County, the town of McIntosh Bluff on the Tombigbee River was the county seat.
The county seat was transferred to the town of Blakeley in 1810, to the city of Daphne in 1868. In 1900, by an act of the legislature of Alabama, the county seat was authorized for relocation to the city of Bay Minette. To achieve the relocation, the men of Bay Minette devised a scheme, they fabricated a murder to lure his deputy out of the Daphne. While the law was chasing down the fictitious killer during the late hours, the group of Bay Minette men stealthily traveled the seventeen miles to Daphne, stole the Baldwin County Courthouse records, delivered them to the city of Bay Minette, where Baldwin County's county seat remains. A New Deal mural, completed by WPA artists during the Great Depression, depicts these events, it hangs in the Bay Minette United States Post Office. Due to its proximity to the Gulf of Mexico, Baldwin County endures tropical weather systems, including hurricanes. Since the late 20th century, the county was declared a disaster area in September 1979 due to damage from Hurricane Frederic, in July 1997 due to Hurricane Danny, in September 1998 from Hurricane Georges, in September 2004 due to damage from Hurricane Ivan, again in August 2005 due to damage from Hurricane Katrina.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,027 square miles, of which 1,590 square miles is land and 438 square miles is water, it is the largest county by area in Alabama and the 12th-largest county east of the Mississippi River. It is larger than the US state of Rhode Island. Monroe County - northeast Escambia County, Florida - east Escambia County - east Mobile County - west Washington County - northwest Clarke County - northwest Two separate areas in Baldwin County have been designated as "Outstanding Alabama Water" by the Alabama Environmental Management Commission, which oversees the Alabama Department of Environmental Management; as of April 2007, only two other areas in Alabama have received what is the "highest environmental status" in the state. A portion of Wolf Bay and 42 miles of the Tensaw River in northern Baldwin County have received the designation. Officials believe. Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge Interstate 10 Interstate 65 U. S. Highway 31 U.
S. Highway 90 U. S. Highway 98 State Route 59 State Route 104 State Route 180 State Route 181 State Route 182 State Route 225 State Route 287 Bay Minette, 1R8, has a single runway 08/26, 5,497' Fairhope, KCQF, has a single runway 01/19, 6,604' Foley, 5R4, has a single runway 18/36, 3,700' Gulf Shores, Jack Edwards Airport JKA has two runways, 09/27 at 6,962' and 17/35 at 3,596'There are numerous private airports and heliports in Baldwin County. Considerable military airspace overlies much of adjacent bay and coastal waters. Commercial, scheduled service is from Pensacola International Airport. Whereas according to the 2010 United States Census Bureau: 85.7% White 9.4% Black 0.7% Native American 0.7% Asian 0.4% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 1.5% Two or more races 4.4% Hispanic or Latino As of the census of 2010, there were 182,265 people, 73,180 households, 51,151 families residing in the county. The population density was 110 people per square mile. There were 104,061 housing units at an average density of 54 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 85.7% White, 9.4% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.0% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. 4.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 73,180 households out of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.5% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.1% were non-families. 25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 23% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 28.3% from 45 to 64, 16.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.46 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,250, the median income for a family was $47,028.
Males had a med
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
Ringed map turtle
The ringed map turtle or ringed sawback is a species of turtle in the family Emydidae endemic to the southern United States. It is found only in the Pearl River system in Mississippi, it shares this range with the Pearl River map turtle. Males may attain a carapace length of 10 cm. Females are larger, may attain a carapace length of 22 cm. On the carapace are light-colored rings, which are thicker than the rings on Graptemys nigrinoda. Baur, G. 1890. Two New Species of Tortoises from the South. Science 16: 262-263. Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group 1996. Graptemys oculifera. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 29 July 2007