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Alaisiagae

In Romano-British culture and Germanic polytheism, the Alaisiagae were a pair of Celtic and Germanic goddesses deifying victory. The Alaisiagae were Celtic deities and Germanic deities who were worshipped in Roman Britain, altar-stones raised to them having been recovered in the United Kingdom at Vercovicium at Hadrian's Wall in England. Another centre of worship was the town of Bitburg, near the German-Belgian border, called “Beda Vicus,” which although Latin derives from the Celtic "Village of Beda.". One of the votive inscriptions to these goddesses reads: DEO MARTI THINCSO ET DVABVS ALAISAGIS BEDE ET FIMMILENE ET N AVG GERM CIVES TVIHANTI VSLM "To the god Mars Thincsus and the two Alaisagae and Fimmilena, the divine spirit of the emperor, the German tribesmen from Tuihantis willingly and deservedly fulfill their vow."Mars Thincsus is correlated with the Germanic war-god Týr. The latter was associated with a local assembly of free men. Political issues were discussed, judicial decisions were made, religious rites were held there.

Scherer suggests that they came from the district of Twenthe in the province of Overijssel, Netherlands. The second inscription reads: DEABVS ALAISIAGIS BAVDIHILLIE ET FRIAGABI ET N AVG N HNAVDIFRIDI V S L M The goddesses called the Alaisiagae are named on altar-stones from the same fort on Hadrian's Wall as being parallel with two Germanic goddesses: Celtic Boudihillia is equated with Germanic Fimmilena and Celtic Beda is equated with Germanic Friagabis; these parallel goddesses are taken to be Germanic not only because of clues in the inscriptions and the Germanic mercenaries at the wall at the time, but because they both have an initial ‘f-,’ a sound not known to have developed in Celtic at this time. The two goddesses are not known to be Roman. Beda may have been an abbreviation for Ricagambeda. Boudihillia and Beda are more Celtic names however; the altar stones of the Alaisiagae were recovered in the Temple of Mars at Vercovicium. This circular temple was found on top of Chapel Hill a little to the south of the fort, its walls of undressed stone facing with an earth and rubble infill enclosed an area measuring about 17¼ ft. across.

The insubstantial foundations indicate. The temple was built in the early-3rd century upon the ruins of a rectangular workshop in the vicus, destroyed during the barbarian incursions of AD196, it contained altars dedicated by the commanders and men of all three units known to be stationed at Vercovicium to the god Mars Thincsus, the Romanized aspect of a Teutonic god, a common occurrence among the Roman auxiliary units. Various altars have been found at this site dedicated to Mars and/or to the Celto-Germanic goddesses Alaisiagae. Boudihillia can be derived from the Proto-Celtic *Bōud-ī-hīlījā meaning'victory's fullness.' Beda is derived from the Proto-Celtic *Bed-ā meaning'burial.' Alaisiagae is derived from the Proto-Celtic *Ad-lājsījā-agai meaning'sending fears,' plausibly a byword for a notion of “dispatching terrors”. British Museum, England. Carlisle Museum, England. Lancaster museum, England. Newcastle Museum of Antiquities, Newcastle upon Tyne, England. Penrith Museum, England. Vercovicium Roman Museum, Northumberland, England.

York Castle Museum, England

Science Fiction Poetry Association

The Science Fiction & Fantasy Poetry Association was established as the Science Fiction Poetry Association in 1978 by Suzette Haden Elgin to bring together poets and readers interested in science fiction poetry. In 2015 the president of the SFPA was Bryan D. Dietrich, with Bryan Thao Worra starting as president in September 2016, with Vice-President Sandra J. Lindow and Secretary Shannon Connor Winward. In 2017, members of the Science Fiction Poetry Association voted to change the name of the organization to the Science Fiction & Fantasy Poetry Association, while keeping the acronym "SFPA", similar to the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America. Since its inception in 1978 the organization has administered the Rhysling Award for best science fiction poetry of the year; the award is given in two categories: "Best Long Poem", for works of 50 or more lines, "Best Short Poem", for works of 49 or fewer lines. It bestows the Dwarf Stars Award for short poem. Since the 1980s the Rhysling-winning poems are included in the Nebula Awards anthology published by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, along with the Dwarf Stars winning poems.

The two awards involve the publication of annual anthologies of nominated works. In 2013, SFPA inaugurated the Elgin Awards for poetry collections, named after SFPA founder Suzette Haden Elgin. Two awards are given annually, for best speculative chapbook and best full-length speculative poetry collection; the SFPA awards Grand Master status to poets who have been publishing genre poetry of high caliber, given “to an individual living at the time of selection whose body of work shall reflect the highest artistic goals of the SFPA, who shall have been publishing within the target genres of Science Fiction and Fantasy for a period of no fewer than 20 years, whose poetry has been noted to be exceptional in merit, scope and innovation.” The organization has published the journal Star*Line since 1978. Star * Line publishes poetry as well as providing industry news to members; the current editor of Star*Line is Vince Gotera. It has published the online magazine Eye to the Telescope since 2011. Eye to the Telescope has a rotating editorship, in order to broaden the scope of the organization's literary footprint.

Rhysling Anthology Dwarf Stars. Elgin, Suzette Haden. Mike Allen and Bud Webster; the Science Fiction Poetry Handbook. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Sam's Dot Publishing. P. 125 pp. ISBN 1-930847-81-5. Anyone who aspires to writing fantastic poetry should read this handbook carefully." – Joe HaldemanCS1 maint: uses editors parameter Roger Dutcher and Mike Allen, eds.. The Alchemy of Stars: Rhysling Award Winners Showcase. Science Fiction Poetry Association in cooperation with Prime Books. P. 170 pp. ISBN 0-8095-1162-2; this collection presents more than twenty-five years of the best poetry in the field of speculative literature. CS1 maint: uses editors parameter Reviews: "An essential purchase for anyone’s library of SF", Analog "The Alchemy of Stars gathers the best of science fiction and the best of poetry, melding them into a unique conglomerate", Strange Horizons Speculative poetry List of speculative poets Official website

Hydrogen peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula H2O2. In its pure form, it is a pale blue, clear liquid more viscous than water. Hydrogen peroxide is the simplest peroxide, it is used as an oxidizer, bleaching agent, antiseptic. Concentrated hydrogen peroxide, or "high-test peroxide", is a reactive oxygen species and has been used as a propellant in rocketry, its chemistry is dominated by the nature of its unstable peroxide bond. Hydrogen peroxide is unstable and decomposes in the presence of light; because of its instability, hydrogen peroxide is stored with a stabilizer in a weakly acidic solution in a dark coloured bottle. Hydrogen peroxide is found in biological systems including the human body. Enzymes that use or decompose hydrogen peroxide are classified as peroxidases; the boiling point of H2O2 has been extrapolated as being 150.2 °C 50 °C higher than water. In practice, hydrogen peroxide will undergo explosive thermal decomposition if heated to this temperature, it may be safely distilled at lower temperatures under reduced pressure.

Hydrogen peroxide is a nonplanar molecule with C2 symmetry. Although the O−O bond is a single bond, the molecule has a high rotational barrier of 2460 cm−1; the increased barrier is ascribed to repulsion between the lone pairs of the adjacent oxygen atoms and results in hydrogen peroxide displaying atropisomerism. The molecular structures of gaseous and crystalline H2O2 are different; this difference is attributed to the effects of hydrogen bonding, absent in the gaseous state. Crystals of H2O2 are tetragonal with the space group D44P4121. In aqueous solutions hydrogen peroxide differs from the pure substance due to the effects of hydrogen bonding between water and hydrogen peroxide molecules. Hydrogen peroxide and water form a eutectic mixture, exhibiting freezing-point depression down as low as -56°C; the boiling point of the same mixtures is depressed in relation with the mean of both boiling points. It occurs at 114 °C; this boiling point is 14 °C greater than that of pure water and 36.2 °C less than that of pure hydrogen peroxide.

Hydrogen peroxide has several structural analogues with Hm−X−X−Hn bonding arrangements. It has the highest boiling point of this series, its melting point is fairly high, being comparable to that of hydrazine and water, with only hydroxylamine crystallising more indicative of strong hydrogen bonding. Diphosphane and hydrogen disulfide exhibit only weak hydrogen bonding and have little chemical similarity to hydrogen peroxide. All of these analogues are thermodynamically unstable. Structurally, the analogues all adopt similar skewed structures, due to repulsion between adjacent lone pairs. Alexander von Humboldt synthesized one of the first synthetic peroxides, barium peroxide, in 1799 as a by-product of his attempts to decompose air. Nineteen years Louis Jacques Thénard recognized that this compound could be used for the preparation of a unknown compound, which he described as eau oxygénée – subsequently known as hydrogen peroxide. Today this term refers instead to water containing dissolved oxygen.

An improved version of Thénard's process used hydrochloric acid, followed by addition of sulfuric acid to precipitate the barium sulfate byproduct. This process was used from the end of the 19th century until the middle of the 20th century. Thénard and Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac synthesized sodium peroxide in 1811; the bleaching effect of peroxides and their salts on natural dyes became known around that time, but early attempts of industrial production of peroxides failed, the first plant producing hydrogen peroxide was built in 1873 in Berlin. The discovery of the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide by electrolysis with sulfuric acid introduced the more efficient electrochemical method, it was first implemented into industry in 1908 in Weißenstein, Austria. The anthraquinone process, still used, was developed during the 1930s by the German chemical manufacturer IG Farben in Ludwigshafen; the increased demand and improvements in the synthesis methods resulted in the rise of the annual production of hydrogen peroxide from 35,000 tonnes in 1950, to over 100,000 tonnes in 1960, to 300,000 tonnes by 1970.

Pure hydrogen peroxide was long believed to be unstable, as early attempts to separate it from the water, present during synthesis, all failed. This instability was due to traces of impurities, which catalyze the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide. Pure hydrogen peroxide was first obtained in 1894—almost 80 years after its discovery—by Richard Wolffenstein, who produced it by vacuum distillation. Determination of the molecular structure of hydrogen peroxide proved to be difficult. In 1892 the Italian physical chemist Giacomo Carrara determined its molecular mass by freezing-point depression, which confirmed that its molecular formula is H2O2. At least half a dozen hypothetical molecular structures seemed to be consistent with the available evidence. In 1934, the English mathematical physicist William Penney and the Scottish physicist Gordon Sutherland proposed a molecular structure for hydrogen peroxide, similar to the presently accepted one. Hydrogen peroxide was prepared industrially by hydrolysis of ammonium persulf

Jing Haipeng

Jing Haipeng is a Chinese pilot and astronaut selected as part of the Shenzhou program. A fighter pilot in the People's Liberation Army Air Force, he was selected to be a CNSA astronaut in 1998, he is the first Chinese astronaut to have flown on three missions: Shenzhou 7, Shenzhou 9 and Shenzhou 11. Jing was one of the six trainees for the Shenzhou 6 mission. Jing, along with Liu Boming and Zhai Zhigang were selected for the prime crew on Shenzhou 7 on September 17, 2008. On September 25, 2008, at 21:10 CST, they launched into space as the first three-man crew for China aboard China's third human spaceflight mission. Jing was selected as commander of Shenzhou 9, becoming the first repeat traveller of the Chinese program, he commanded the first manned mission to dock with the first Chinese space station, Tiangong 1, with the first female astronaut, Liu Yang. The third member of his crew was Liu Wang; the mission was launched on 16 June 2012. On October 15, 2016, a press release indicated Jing Haipeng would be the commander of the Shenzhou 11 mission, slated for departure only two days later.

The Shenzhou 11 launched at 07:30 on 17 October 2016 local time from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center using a Long March 2F launch rocket. The crew landed after the 33 day mission on 18 November 2016; the reentry module of the Shenzhou-11 spacecraft landed in Inner Mongolia around 2.15 p.m after detaching from the space lab on 17 November. After landing Jing Haipeng holds the record for the most cumulative time in space by a Chinese citizen with 47 days. In July 2017, Chairman Xi Jinping awarded Jing the Order of August First, the highest military award of People's Republic of China. List of Chinese astronauts Spacefacts biography of Jing Haipeng

Robert Buffum

Robert Buffum was an American soldier who fought in the American Civil War. Buffum was the third person to receive the country's highest award for bravery during combat, the Medal of Honor, for his action during the Great Locomotive Chase in Georgia in April 1862, he was honored with the award on 25 March 1863. Buffum was born on July 7, 1828 in Salem and enlisted into the 21st Ohio Infantry at Gilead, Ohio on September 2, 1861, he was among a group of Ohio men who volunteered to participate in a secret mission to disrupt Confederate communication. In April the group, led by James J. Andrews, which came to be called Andrews' Raiders, boarded a train in Georgia. On April 12, after the train had stopped in Big Shanty, they commandeered the train's engine and three boxcars and headed towards Chattanooga, Tennessee. Under pursuit from the Confederates, they destroyed telegraph lines along the way, they never abandoned the engine. They were all captured within a week; some of the men were hanged. Buffum was taken as a prisoner of war, but was exchanged on 17 March 1863.

Buffum died on July 20, 1871. His remains are interred in New York. One of the 19 of 22 men who, by direction of Gen. Mitchell, penetrated nearly 200 miles south into enemy territory and captured a railroad train at Big Shanty, Ga. in an attempt to destroy the bridges and track between Chattanooga and Atlanta. Great Locomotive Chase List of American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients: A–F

Sad Eyes

"Sad Eyes" is a song written and recorded by Robert John, released in April 1979. It debuted May 19 on the Billboard Hot 100, reaching the top of the chart on October 6; the song was produced by George Tobin in association with Mike Piccirillo. "Sad Eyes" is one of just a few non-disco, or disco-influenced, songs to top the 1979 pop chart, although by the anti-disco backlash had made it easier for other styles to reach the top. It is notable as the song that ended the six-week reign of the biggest smash hit of the year, The Knack's "My Sharona." Album credits list these musicians involved during the sessions. Robert John - vocals Dennis Belfield - bass Ed Greene - drums Stewart Levine, Mike Thompson - keyboards Darlene Love, George Tobin, Edna Wright - vocals Bill Neale - guitar Mike Piccirillo - engineer, vocals Ryan Ulyate - engineer Howard Lee Wolen - percussion, engineer A cover by American country music group Trader-Price peaked at number 55 on the Billboard Hot Country Singles chart in 1989.

Kyle Vincent recorded the song, released on Absolutely The Best of the 70s, credited to Bo Donaldson and The Heywoods, produced by Ron Dante. Another cover version appeared on Robin Lee's album, Black Velvet, released in 1990. "Sad Eyes" at AllMusic