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Alameda County, California

Alameda County is a county in the state of California in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,510,271, making it the 7th-most populous county in the state; the county seat is Oakland. Alameda County is included in the San Francisco Bay Area; the Spanish word alameda means either, "...a grove of poplars...or a tree lined street" a name used to describe the Arroyo de la Alameda. The willow and sycamore trees along the banks of the river reminded the early Spanish explorers of a road lined with trees. Although a strict translation to English might be "Poplar Grove Creek", the name of the principal stream that flows through the county is now "Alameda Creek." Alameda County is included in the San Francisco–Oakland–Berkeley, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. The county was formed on March 25, 1853, from a large portion of Contra Costa County and a smaller portion of Santa Clara County; the county seat at the time of the county's formation was located at Alvarado, now part of Union City.

In 1856, it was moved to San Leandro, where the county courthouse was destroyed by the devastating 1868 quake on the Hayward Fault. The county seat was re-established in the town of Brooklyn from 1872-1875. Brooklyn is now part of Oakland, the county seat since 1873. Much of what is now considered an intensively urban region, with major cities, was developed as a trolley car suburb of San Francisco in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the historical progression from Native American tribal lands to Spanish Mexican ranches to farms and orchards to multiple city centers and suburbs, is shared with the adjacent and associated Contra Costa County. The annual county fair is held at the Alameda County Fairgrounds in Pleasanton; the fair runs for four weekends from June to July. Attractions include horse racing, carnival rides, 4-H exhibits, live bands. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 821 square miles, of which 739 square miles is land and 82 square miles is water.

The San Francisco Bay borders the county on the west. The crest of the Berkeley Hills form part of the northeastern boundary and reach into the center of the county. A coastal plain several miles wide lines the bay. Livermore Valley lies in the eastern part of the county. Amador Valley continues west to the Pleasanton Ridge; the Hayward Fault, a major branch of the San Andreas Fault to the west, runs through the most populated parts of Alameda County, while the Calaveras Fault runs through the southeastern part of the county. The City and County of San Francisco, borders the county on the west, has a small land border with the city of Alameda, California due to land filling. Santa Clara County borders the county on the south. San Joaquin County borders the county on the east. Contra Costa County borders the county on the north. Stanislaus County borders the county on the eastern-most end of its southern boundary for 250 feet. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge A 2014 analysis by The Atlantic found Alameda County to be the fourth most racially diverse county in the United States—behind Aleutians West Census Area and Aleutians East Borough in Alaska, Queens County in New York—as well as the most diverse county in California.

The 2010 United States Census reported that Alameda County had a population of 1,510,271. The population density was 2,047.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Alameda County was 649,122 White, 190,451 African American, 9,799 Native American, 394,560 Asian, 12,802 Pacific Islander, 162,540 from other races, 90,997 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 339,889 persons: 16.4% Mexican, 0.8% Puerto Rican, 0.2% Cuban, 5.1% Other Hispanic. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,443,741 people, 523,366 households, out of which 32.6% had children under the age of 18 living within them, 47.0% married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.2% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.31. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.6% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 33.9% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 10.2% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 96.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $55,946, the median income for a family was $65,857. Males had a median income of $47,425 versus $36,921 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,680. About 7.7% of families and 11.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.5% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over. In 2000, the largest denominational group was the Catholics; the largest religious bodies were Judaism. According to 2018 US Census Bureau estimates, Alameda County's population was 38.6% White, 10.3% Black or African American, 30.8% Asian, 12.1% Some Other Ra

32 Canadian Brigade Group

32 Canadian Brigade Group of the Canadian Army is part of the 4th Canadian Division. It is centred on the Greater Toronto Area, as well as Niagara Brantford, it is headquartered at LCol George Taylor Denison III Armoury in Ontario. Colonel Daniel Stepaniuk, CD, is the Commander of 32 CBG whilst Chief Warrant Officer David Turnbull, CD, is the Brigade Sergeant-Major. Brigade Headquarters has a staff of 40 full-time and 20 part-time members, both military and civilian. 32nd Brigade Group was created, within 2 Militia District, on 1 April 1942 when the reserve force in Canada was reorganized for the war. Like today, the formation consisted of part-time soldiers who paraded and trained on evenings and weekends; the brigade group was closed down on 30 January 1946 and the headquarters itself closed on 2 April 1946. During its existence, the brigade group was headquartered in Toronto and it held the following organization: Canadian Infantry Corps 2nd Battalion, The Royal Regiment of Canada 2nd Battalion, 48th Highlanders of Canada 2nd Battalion, The Irish Regiment of Canada 2nd Battalion, The Toronto Scottish Regiment Canadian Armoured Corps 11th Armoured Regiment Royal Canadian Artillery 32nd Field Regiment, RCA Royal Canadian Engineers 2nd Field Company, RCE Royal Canadian Army Service Corps Brigade Group Company, 2nd Divisional, RCASC Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps No.2 Field Ambulance, RCAMC Royal Canadian Corps of Signals E Section, A Corps Signals, RCCS J Section, 2nd Divisional Signals, RCCS Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps / Royal Canadian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers No.2 Group, No.1 Divisional Workshop, RCEME No.5 Light Aid Detachment, RCEME No.6 Light Aid Detachment, RCEME No.7 Light Aid Detachment, RCEME No.8 Light Aid Detachment, RCEME 32 Canadian Brigade Group was recreated on 1 April 1997, with its headquarters located in Toronto, replacing the Toronto District Headquarters.

Resulting from a major restructuring of the army, it was established as one of ten reserve brigade groups organized across Canada. Although 32 CBG has a short history, this cannot be said of its units. Regiments like The 48th Highlanders of Canada, The Governor General's Horse Guards, The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada, The Queen's York Rangers, The Royal Regiment of Canada, The Lorne Scots, The Lincoln and Welland Regiment were all founded before Confederation. Most units have served in all of the military campaigns involving Canadians: Fenian raids, Red River Expedition, North-West Rebellion, South African War, both World Wars and the Korean War. Since the 1980s, they have been contributing to NATO missions around the world. Many soldiers of 32 Canadian Brigade Group have served on operations around the world. Nearly 70 members of the brigade deployed to Afghanistan in August 2006 and more than 120 others have returned from service in Kandahar during the winter of 2008-2009; the brigade has played a big role in disaster relief at home, helping Canadians during the Manitoba floods and the January 1998 ice storm.

It remains prepared to back up the emergency services of the Greater Toronto Area and Central Ontario whenever needed. The role of 32 CBG is to produce well-trained Reserve soldiers to enhance Canada's combat capability. Like all Reserve brigades and units, it trains part-time soldiers to serve as the basis of national mobilization, to respond to emergencies in Canada and to augment the Regular Force overseas, to be the army's link to the community. 32 CBG comprises part-time soldiers plus a small cadre from the Regular Force who help plan and execute the training. Soldiers of the Army Reserve ― traditionally, the Militia ― train an average of one night a week and one weekend a month. Many Reservists train full-time during the summer, because many of the younger soldiers are students. 32 CBG is an infantry-heavy brigade with 2100 soldiers in 10 units based in Toronto, Brantford, Scarborough, St. Catharines, Oakville and Mississauga, it has two reconnaissance regiments, two field artillery regiments, a field engineer regiment and six infantry battalions.

The brigade added two new, temporary armouries. The Queen's Own Rifles now have an infantry company in Scarborough, while the Toronto Scottish have established a company in Mississauga. In the Canadian Forces, an armoury is a place where a reserve unit trains and parades. List of armouries in Canada Military history of Canada History of the Canadian Army Canadian Forces Official Brigade Website

Military conquests of Umar's era

Umar was the second Rashidun Caliph and reigned during 634-644. Umar's caliphate is notable for its vast conquests, aided by brilliant field commanders, he was able to incorporate present day Iraq, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Jordan, Lebanon and part of Afghanistan and south western Pakistan into the empire of the Muslims. All of these were permanent conquests; the Byzantines lost more than three fourths of their territory and in Persia, the Sassanid empire ceased to exist. Muslims military invaded the neighboring Eastern Roman Empire in 634 soon after Conquest of Iraq in 633 during the reign of Caliph Abu Bakr. Damascus fall in September 634 and Emesa fall in March 635. In the years 635, Emperor Heraclius allied with Sassanid Persian Emperor Yazdegerd III on Yazdegerd III's request to crush the Muslim power. A well coordinated plan was agreed to launch a massive counterattack against Muslims in Iraq and Syria at once so that Muslims, because of the resulted pressure may retreat back to Arabia where they may be dealt in detail either by invading it or by economical and trade blockage.

Caliph Umar tackled the alliance by putting pressure tactics on Byzantine front and deceptive tactics on Persian front and engaging Yazdegerd III into negotiations, this rendered the alliance and a would be decisive plan abortive. The Byzantine forces were decisively defeated in Battle of Yarmouk fought in August 636, Persian army was defeated in Battle of Qadisiyyah three months in November 636. Muslim victory pertinently ended Byzantine rule south of Anatolia, Jerusalem fall in April 637 after a prolonged siege, Umar came to receive the key to the city by the Greek Orthodox patriarch and invited to offer Muslims prays at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Umar chose to pray some distance from the Church, so as not to endanger its status as a Christian temple. Fifty-five years the Mosque of Omar was constructed on the site where he prayed. After fall of Jerusalem, Umar permitted Jews to practice their religion and live in Jerusalem; the conquest of Levant completed in 637 after the last relentless resistance by Byzantines at Battle of Iron bridge, that resulted in Muslim occupation of Antioch, capital of eastern zone of Byzantine Empire in October 637.

Emperor Heraclius attempt to capture northern Syria in 638, with the aid of Christian Arabs of Jazira, prompted Muslims to invade Jazira in 638 and captured it securing the eastern flank of Syria from Byzantine attacks in future, soon after occupation of Jazira, Muslim columns marched north in Anatolia and plundered Byzantine provinces of Armenia, these were however only preemptive attacks on Armenia to eliminate all Byzantine presence north of Syria, Armenia was annexed in 643 During the Conquest of Persian Empire. These preemptive attack resulted in the creation of a buffer zone or no man's land in south-eastern Anatolia and Armenia, which would evolve into the al-'Awasim, it was what Umar wanted, as he is quoted saying The Byzantine empire exhausted after major defeats in Yarmouk and Northern Syria was left vulnerable to Muslims attacks and its existence in Anatolia was threatened. Umar was not interested in occupation of Anatolia, it had a cold and mountainous terrain with no economic incentives, soon after the occupation of Byzantine Armenia, the time when chaos was at its peak in Byzantium, Umar had rejected Khalid and Abu Ubaidah's proposal of invading Anatolia.

More over Umar, due to his strong desire to consolidate his rule in the conquered land and owing to his non-offensive policy left the remaining Byzantine empire on its own. The situation was a stalemate, Umar had power but not desire to cross into Byzantine Empire, Emperor Heraclius had desire but not left powerful enough to roll back his former rich provinces. For the security of northern Syria, Umar issued orders for annual raids into Byzantine territories in Anatolia and Muslims raided as far as Phrygia. After losing Levat, the economic life line of Byzantines and Armenia, the manpower hub, Emperor Heraclius was left incapable of any military come back, he rather focused to consolidate his power in Egypt. In his visit to Syria in 637 to receive surrender of Jerusalem, Amr ibn al-Aas tried to convince Umar for the invasion of Egypt, but Umar rejected on the ground that Muslim rule in Syria was still not firm. After the great plague in 639, Umar paid a visit to Syria and was again persuaded by Amr for the invasion of Egypt.

Along with various other reasons, Amr convinced Umar that Byzantine influence in Egypt is a continuous threat to Muslim rule in Palestine and that Egypt is the richest land on earth that can provide Muslims with immense wealth, economical stability and strategic location for trade with North Africa and Mediterranean. Hesitant for the expedition Umar rejected the proposal and is reported to have said: But decided to put the matter in Majlis al Shura in Madinah. Once approved by the parliament Umar issued orders for the invasion of Egypt in December 639 which completed in 642 at the eve of Muslim conquest of Persian highlands. See: Khalid's dismissal from army In late 638, following Khalid's invasion of Byzantine Armenia in eastern Anatolia, Khalid was dismissed from army by Umar; the exact reason remained unknown, but various scholars including Muslims and non-Muslims argue that Khalid's dismissal from army at zenith of his power was due to the fact that muslims started having faith in Khalid's command rather than God for being victorious which worried Umar, who saw this as a threat to religious believes of Muslims which says only to rely on God.

Khalid, on his return from an expedition of Amida and Edessa was