Volunteering is considered an altruistic activity where an individual or group provides services for no financial or social gain "to benefit another person, group or organization". Volunteering is renowned for skill development and is intended to promote goodness or to improve human quality of life. Volunteering may have positive benefits for the volunteer as well as for the person or community served, it is intended to make contacts for possible employment. Many volunteers are trained in the areas they work, such as medicine, education, or emergency rescue. Others serve on an as-needed basis, such as in response to a natural disaster; the verb was first recorded in 1755. It was derived from the noun volunteer, in C.1600, "one who offers himself for military service," from the Middle French voluntaire. In the non-military sense, the word was first recorded during the 1630s; the word volunteering has more recent usage—still predominantly military—coinciding with the phrase community service. In a military context, a volunteer army is a military body whose soldiers chose to enter service, as opposed to having been conscripted.
Such volunteers are given regular pay. During this time, America experienced the Great Awakening. People realized the cause for movement against slavery. Younger people started helping the needy in their communities. In 1851, the first YMCA in the United States was started, followed seven years by the first YWCA. During the American Civil War, women volunteered their time to sew supplies for the soldiers and the "Angel of the Battlefield" Clara Barton and a team of volunteers began providing aid to servicemen. Barton founded the American Red Cross in 1881 and began mobilizing volunteers for disaster relief operations, including relief for victims of the Johnstown Flood in 1889; the Salvation Army is one of the largest organizations working for disadvantaged people. Though it is a charity organization, it has organized a number of volunteering programs since its inception. Prior to the 19th century, few formal charitable organizations existed to assist people in need. In the first few decades of the 20th century, several volunteer organizations were founded, including the Rotary International, Kiwanis International, Association of Junior Leagues International, Lions Clubs International.
The Great Depression saw one of the first large-scale, nationwide efforts to coordinate volunteering for a specific need. During World War II, thousands of volunteer offices supervised the volunteers who helped with the many needs of the military and the home front, including collecting supplies, entertaining soldiers on leave, caring for the injured. After World War II, people shifted the focus of their altruistic passions to other areas, including helping the poor and volunteering overseas. A major development was the Peace Corps in the United States in 1960; when President Lyndon B. Johnson declared a War on Poverty in 1964, volunteer opportunities started to expand and continued into the next few decades; the process for finding volunteer work became more formalized, with more volunteer centers forming and new ways to find work appearing on the World Wide Web. According to the Corporation for National and Community Service, about 64.5 million Americans, or 26.5 percent of the adult population, gave 7.9 billion hours of volunteer service worth $175 billion.
This calculates at 3 hours per week at a rate of $22 per hour. Volunteer hours in the UK are similar. In 1960, after the so called revolutionary war in Cuba ended, Ernesto Che Guevara created the concept of volunteering work, it was created with the intention that workers across the country volunteer a few hours of work on their work centers. Many schools on all education levels offer service-learning programs, which allow students to serve the community through volunteering while earning educational credit. According to Alexander Astin in the foreword to Where's the Learning in Service-Learning? by Janet Eyler and Dwight E. Giles, Jr."...we promote more wide-spread adoption of service-learning in higher education because we see it as a powerful means of preparing students to become more caring and responsible parents and citizens and of helping colleges and universities to make good on their pledge to'serve society.'" When describing service learning, the Medical Education at Harvard says, "Service learning unites academic study and volunteer community service in mutually reinforcing ways....service learning is characterized by a relationship of partnership: the student learns from the service agency and from the community and, in return, gives energy, commitment and skills to address human and community needs."
Volunteering in service learning seems to have the result of engaging both mind and heart, thus providing a more powerful learning experience. While not recognized by everyone as a legitimate approach, research on the efficacy of service learning has grown. Janet Eyler and Dwight E. Giles conducted a national study of American college students to ascertain the significance of service learning programs, According to Eyler and Giles,"These surveys, conducted before and after a semester of community service, examine the impact of service-learning on students." They describe their experience with students involved in service-learning in this way: "Students like service-learning. When we sit down with a group of students to discuss service-learning experiences, their enthusiasm is unmistakable....it is clear that believe that what they
Gibraltar Botanic Gardens
The Gibraltar Botanic Gardens or La Alameda Gardens are a botanical garden in Gibraltar, spanning around 6 hectares. The Rock Hotel lies above the park. In 1816 the gardens were commissioned by the British Governor of Gibraltar General George Don, it was his intention that the soldiers stationed in the fortress would have a pleasant recreational area to enjoy when off duty, so inhabitants could enjoy the air protected from the extreme heat of the sun. The gardens were resurrected in 1991 by an external company when it was realised that since the 1970s they had fallen into a poor state. Three years the gardens had the addition of a zoo: the Alameda Wildlife Conservation Park. In 2001 a bronze sculpture of James Joyce's Molly Bloom was installed in the gardens; this running figure was commissioned from Jon Searle to celebrate the bicentenary of the Gibraltar Chronicle in 2001. General Don had commissioned a memorial of George Augustus Eliott, 1st Baron Heathfield in 1815, which did not materialise in the form requested.
A colossal statue of General Eliot, carved from the bowsprit of the Spanish ship San Juan Nepomuceno, taken at the Battle of Trafalgar was first created. That statue was taken to the Governor's residence, The Convent, where it stands today, being replaced by the present bronze bust in 1858; this statue is guarded for four 18th-century howitzers. The plants of the Alameda Gardens are a combination of native species and others brought in from abroad: Dracaena draco, a subtropical Dragon Tree native to the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Madeira and locally in western Morocco; the oldest dragon tree in the gardens is about 300 years old. Stone pine, a species of pine native of southern Europe the Iberian Peninsula. Wild Olive, a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae. Celtis australis, a deciduous tree that can be among 20 to 25 metres of height. Grevillea robusta, the largest species in the genus Grevillea. There is only one specimen of this tree in the gardens. Canary Island Date Palm, a large palm native to the Canary Islands off the Atlantic coast of north Africa.
Washingtonia filifera, a palm native to the desert oases of Central and southwestern Arizona, southern Nevada, extreme northwest Mexico and inland deserts of southern California. Howea forsteriana, endemic to Lord Howe Island. Solitaire Palm Ptychosperma elegans an evergreen shrub native to East Asia. Bougainvillea, a genus of flowering plants native to South America from Brazil west to Peru and south to southern Argentina. Asteraceae, the second largest family of flowering plants. Pelargonium, a genus of flowering plants. Succulent plant, water-retaining plants adapted to arid soil conditions; the Alameda Open Air Theatre was inaugurated once again on 12 April 1996 at four o'clock with three bands of music playing - the same number of bands as had attended 180 years before to the hour at the opening of the Alameda Gardens in 1816. In order to extend its use from just theatre to general use, a number of new features were introduced, like the waterfall and lake - the largest area of open fresh water on the Rock, with Koi Carp and a collection of exotic lilies.
Since its opening, this venue has been used for a variety of purposes, from beauty contests to band concerts weddings, dinner dances and variety shows. It is the main venue for the GIB Fringe; the theater is available for hire and all proceeds will go directly into continued improvements in the theatre and in the rest of Gibraltar's historic and improving Alameda Gardens. Useful information about the theater and its facilities: Seating Capacity: 435 Stage Area: 120 m2 Lighting Equipment: 34 Wide and Beams with colored filters if required. 3 stage and 3 public entrances. Bar, changing rooms and toilet facilities. Seating with table maximum capacity: 300 List of plants in the Gibraltar Botanic Gardens Gibraltar candytuft Alameda Wildlife Conservation Park Grove Poplar avenue "Gibraltar Botanical Gardens "The Alameda"". Government of Gibraltar. Retrieved 2007-11-27. Official website Alameda Gardens in the site of the Government of Gibraltar
The grey parrot known as the Congo grey parrot or African grey parrot, is an Old World parrot in the family Psittacidae. The Timneh parrot has since been split as a full species; the grey parrot is a medium-sized, predominantly grey, black-billed parrot. Its typical weight is 400 g, with a length around 33 cm, a wingspan of 46–52 cm, it has darker grey over the head and both wings, while the head and body feathers have a slight white edge to them. The tail feathers are red. Due to selection by parrot breeders, some grey parrots are or red. Both sexes appear similar; the colouration of juveniles is similar to that of adults, but the eye is dark grey to black, in comparison to the yellow irises around dark eyes of the adult birds. The undertail coverts are tinged with grey; the adults weigh 418–526 grams. Grey parrots may live for 40–60 years in captivity, although their mean lifespan in the wild appears to be shorter at about 23 years; the grey parrot is native to equatorial Africa, including Angola, the Congo, Ivory Coast, Ghana and Uganda.
The species is found inside a range from Kenya to the eastern part of the Ivory Coast. Current estimates for the global population range from 0.63 to 13 million birds. Populations are decreasing worldwide; the species seems to favor dense forests, but can be found at forest edges and in more open vegetation types. A population study published in 2015 found that the species had been ″virtually eliminated″ from Ghana with numbers declining 90 to 99% since 1992, they were found in only 10 of 42 forested areas, three roosts that once held 700–1200 birds each now had only 18 in total. Local people blamed the pet trade, the felling of timber for the decline. Populations are thought to be stable in Cameroon, in the Congo an estimated 15,000 are taken every year for the pet trade, from the eastern part of the country; the annual quota is 5,000. The grey parrot has escaped or been deliberately released into Florida, USA, but no evidence shows that the population is breeding. Grey parrots are monogamous breeders that nest in tree cavities.
Each couple of parrots needs their own tree to nest. The hen lays three to five eggs; the adults defend their nesting sites. Both parents help take care of the chicks. Grey parrot chicks require care from their parents in the nest; the parents take care of them until 4-5 weeks. Young leave the nest at the age of 12 weeks. Little is known about the courtship behavior of this species in the wild, they weigh 12 -- 372 -- 526 g when they leave their parents. They are frugivorous; the species prefers oil palm fruit and eat flowers and tree bark, as well as insects and snails. In the wild, the grey parrot is a ground feeder. In captivity, it can eat bird pellets, a variety of fruits such as pear, pomegranate and banana, vegetables such as carrot, cooked sweet potato, fresh kale and green beans, they need a source of calcium. The natural predators for this species include a number of raptors. Grey parrots in captivity have been observed to be susceptible to fungal infections, bacterial infections, nutritional insufficiency, malignant tumors, psittacine beak and feather disease and blood-worms.
Humans are by far the largest threat to wild grey populations. Between 1994 and 2003, over 359,000 grey parrots were traded on the international market. Around 21% of the population of the wild birds was being harvested every year. Mortality rates are high after they are captured until they reach market, ranging from 60–66%. Mortality among imported birds is high; this bird is hunted for its meat and for its parts, which are used in traditional medicines. As a result of the extensive harvest of wild birds, in addition to habitat loss, this species is believed to be undergoing a rapid decline in the wild and has therefore been rated as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. In October 2016, the Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Fauna and Flora extended the highest level of protection to grey parrots by listing the species under appendix 1, which bans global and domestic trade in the species; the species is common in captivity and is kept by humans as a companion parrot, prized for its ability to mimic human speech, which makes it one of the most popular avian pets.
An escaped pet in Japan was returned to his owner after repeating the owner's address. They are notorious for using them tirelessly. While they are intelligent birds, they need enrichment and attention in captivity or they can become distressed, they may be prone to behavioural problems due to their sensitive nature. Social isolation hastens ageing. Grey parrots are highly intelligent, having been shown to perform at the cognitive level of a 4- to 6-year-old child in some tasks. New experiments have shown that grey parrots can learn number sequences and can associate human voices with those humans' faces. Most notably, Dr. Irene Pepperberg's work with Alex the parrot showed his ability to learn over 100 words, differentiating between objects, colours and shapes. Grey mutations occur in the wild, like the Blue Ino, Incomplete Ino
Prevost's squirrel or Asian tri-colored squirrel is a species of rodent in the family Sciuridae. It is found in forest in the Thai-Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and nearby smaller islands, with an introduced population in northern Sulawesi, they eat fruits, seeds, flowers and bird eggs. It has been observed feeding on durians such as Durio graveolens; these squirrels drop the seeds when finished with their meal. This seed distribution away from the parent plant increases survival for the fruiting plant species; the "typical" subspecies of Prevost's squirrel are among the most colourful mammals in the world with their black upperparts and tail, reddish-orange underparts, whitish thighs and flanks. The markings in some subspecies are duller, C. prevostii pluto from northeastern Borneo is reddish-orange below and black above. Thorington, R. W. Jr. and R. S. Hoffman. 2005. Family Sciuridae. Pp. 754–818 in Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
Prevost's Squirrel at Animal Diversity Web
Prairie dogs are herbivorous burrowing rodents native to the grasslands of North America. The five species are: black-tailed, white-tailed, Gunnison's, Mexican prairie dogs, they are a type of ground squirrel, found in Canadian Prairies and Mexico. In Mexico, prairie dogs are found in the northern states, which lie at the southern end of the Great Plains: northeastern Sonora and northeastern Chihuahua, northern Coahuila, northern Nuevo León, northern Tamaulipas. In the United States, they range to the west of the Mississippi River, though they have been introduced in a few eastern locales. Despite the name, they are not canines. Prairie dogs are named for their warning call, which sounds similar to a dog's bark; the name was in use at least as early as 1774. The 1804 journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition note that in September 1804, they "discovered a Village of an animal the French Call the Prairie Dog", its genus, derives from the Greek for "dog mouse". The black-tailed prairie dog was first described by Lewis and Clark in 1804.
Lewis described it in more detail in 1806, calling it the "barking squirrel". Order Rodentia Suborder Sciuromorpha Family Sciuridae Subfamily Xerinae Genus Cynomys Gunnison's prairie dog, Cynomys gunnisoni White-tailed prairie dog, Cynomys leucurus Black-tailed prairie dog, Cynomys ludovicianus Mexican prairie dog, Cynomys mexicanus Utah prairie dog, Cynomys parvidens About 14 other genera in subfamily On average, these stout-bodied rodents will grow to be between 30 and 40 cm long, including the short tail, weigh between 0.5 and 1.5 kilograms. Sexual dimorphism in body mass in the prairie dog varies 105 to 136% between the sexes. Among the species, black-tailed prairie dogs tend to be the least sexually dimorphic, white-tailed prairie dogs tend to be the most sexually dimorphic. Sexual dimorphism peaks during weaning, when the females lose weight and the males start eating more, is at its lowest when the females are pregnant, when the males are tired from breeding. Prairie dogs are chiefly herbivorous.
They feed on grasses and small seeds. In the fall, they eat broadleaf forbs. In the winter and pregnant females supplement their diets with snow for extra water, they will eat roots, seeds and buds. Grasses of various species are eaten. Black-tailed prairie dogs in South Dakota eat western bluegrass, blue grama, buffalo grass, six weeks fescue, tumblegrass, while Gunnison’s prairie dogs eat rabbit brush, dandelions and cacti in addition to buffalo grass and blue grama. White-tailed prairie dogs have been observed to kill a competing herbivore. Prairie dogs live at altitudes ranging from 2,000 to 10,000 ft above sea level; the areas where they live can get as warm as 38 °C in the summer and as cold as −37 °C in the winter. As prairie dogs live in areas prone to environmental threats, including hailstorms and floods, as well as drought and prairie fires, burrows provide important protection. Burrows help prairie dogs control their body temperature as they are 5–10 °C during the winter and 15–25 °C in the summer.
Prairie dog tunnel systems channel rainwater into the water table which prevents runoff and erosion, can change the composition of the soil in a region by reversing soil compaction that can result from cattle grazing. Prairie dog burrows are 5–10 m long and 2–3 m below the ground; the entrance holes are 10–30 cm in diameter. Prairie dog burrows can have up to six entrances. Sometimes the entrances are flat holes in the ground, while at other times they are surrounded by mounds of soil either left as piles or hard packed; some mounds, known as dome craters, can be as high as 20–30 cm high. Other mounds, known as rim craters, can be as high as 1 m. Dome craters and rim craters serve as observation posts used by the animals to watch for predators, they protect the burrows from flooding. The holes possibly provide ventilation as the air enters through the dome crater and leaves through the rim crater, causing a breeze though the burrow. Prairie dog burrows contain chambers to provide certain functions.
They have nursery chambers for their young, chambers for night, chambers for the winter. They contain air chambers that may function to protect the burrow from flooding and a listening post for predators; when hiding from predators, prairie dogs use less-deep chambers that are a meter below the surface. Nursery chambers tend to be deeper, being two to three meters below the surface.. Social, prairie dogs live in large colonies or "towns" and collections of prairie dog families that can span hundreds of acres; the prairie dog family groups are the most basic units of its society. Members of a family group inhabit the same territory. Family groups of black-tailed and Mexican prairie dogs are called "coteries", while "clans" are used to describe family groups of white-tailed, Gunnison’s, Utah prairie dogs. Although these two family groups are similar, coteries tend to be more knit than clans. Members of a family group grooming one another, they do not perform these behaviors with prairie dogs from other family groups.
A prairie dog town may contain 15–26 family groups. There may be subgroups within a town, called "wards", which are separated by a physical barrier. Family groups exist within these wards. Most prairie dog family gr
Military history of Gibraltar during World War II
The military history of Gibraltar during World War II exemplifies Gibraltar's position as a British fortress since the early 18th century and as a vital factor in British military strategy, both as a foothold on the continent of Europe, as a bastion of British sea power. During World War II, Gibraltar served a vital role in both the Atlantic Theatre and the Mediterranean Theatre, controlling all naval traffic into and out of the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean. In addition to its commanding position, Gibraltar provided a defended harbour from which ships could operate in both the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Force H, under the command of Vice-Admiral James Somerville was based in Gibraltar and had the task of maintaining naval superiority and providing a strong escort for convoys to and from the besieged island of Malta. During the course of the war, Gibraltar came under aerial bombardment from Vichy French aircraft and from aircraft of the Italian Royal Air Force based on Sardinia.
Additionally, the fortress was the focus of underwater attacks by the Italian Royal Navy commando frogman unit and their human torpedoes. This Italian unit was based on the interned Italian ship SS Olterra in the nearby Spanish harbour of Algeciras. A number of attacks were carried out by Spanish and Gibraltarian agents acting on behalf of the German Abwehr. Inside the Rock of Gibraltar itself, miles of tunnels were excavated from the limestone. Masses of rock were blasted out to build an "underground city". In huge man-made caverns, offices, a equipped hospital were constructed, complete with an operating theatre and X-ray equipment. Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of French North Africa in November 1942, was coordinated from the "Rock". General Dwight D. Eisenhower, given command of the operation, set up his headquarters in Gibraltar during the planning phases of the operation. Following the successful completion of the North African campaign and the surrender of Italy in 1943, Gibraltar's role shifted from a forward operating base to a rear-area supply position.
The harbour continued to operate dry docks and supply depots for the convoy routes through the Mediterranean until V-E Day in 1945. World War II changed the lives of Gibraltarians; the decision to enforce mass evacuation in order to increase the strength of the Rock with more military and naval personnel meant that most Gibraltarians had nowhere to call'home'. Only those civilians with essential jobs were allowed to stay but it gave the entire community a sense of being'British' by sharing in the war effort. In early June 1940, about 13,500 evacuees were shipped to Casablanca in French Morocco. However, following the capitulation of the French to the German armies in June 1940, the new Pro-German French Vichy Government found the presence of Gibraltarian evacuees in Casablanca an embarrassment and sought opportunities for their removal; the opportunity soon arose when 15 British cargo vessels arrived under Commodore Crichton, repatriating 15,000 French servicemen, rescued from Dunkirk. Once their own rescued servicemen had disembarked, the ships were interned until they agreed to take away all the evacuees.
Although Crichton was unable to obtain permission to clean and restock his ships, when he saw the mass of civilians pouring through the dockyards, he opened up his gangways for boarding. Just beforehand, the British fleet had destroyed a number of French warships at Mers el-Kebir in order to prevent them ending up in German hands; the attack, during which 1,297 French sailors died, led to high tensions, which were evident when families were forced at bayonet point by French troops to board taking only what they could carry, leaving many possessions behind. However, when they arrived at Gibraltar, the Governor would not allow them to land, fearing that once the evacuees were back on the Rock, it would be impossible to evacuate them a second time. Crowds gathered in John Mackintosh Square in the centre of Gibraltar as the news broke, speeches were made and two City Councillors accompanied by the Acting President of the Exchange and Commercial Library went to see the Governor to ask that the evacuees be allowed to land.
After receiving instructions from London, a landing was allowed as long as the evacuees returned when other ships arrived to take them away from the Rock, by 13 July the re-evacuation back to Gibraltar had been completed. British conservative politician Oliver Stanley agreed to accept the evacuees in the United Kingdom, but he argued with Gibraltar over the number of people involved; the Governor, he declared, had given the number of evacuees first as 13,000 as 14,000 and as 16,000. He asked for the situation to be clarified, stressing the shortage of accommodation in Britain and insisting that only 13,000 could be accepted, 2,000 of whom were to be sent to the Portuguese Atlantic island of Madeira; the situation, replied General Liddell on 19 July, "is that this is a fortress liable to heavy and immediate attack and there should be no civilians here whereas there are 22,000. The 13,000 was the number sent to Morocco, more would have been sent had the situation there not altered." In London the evacuees were placed in the hands of the Ministry of Health, many were housed in Kensington area.
Concern for them in Gibraltar mounted as the air raids against London intensified, coupled with the arrival of harrowing letters, describing the circumstances in which the evacuees were living. In September rumours were circulating among the evacuees, in Gibraltar, that the possibility of re-evacuating the Gibral
Hermann's tortoise is one of five tortoise species traditionally placed in the genus Testudo, the others being the marginated tortoise, Greek tortoise, Russian tortoise, Kleinmann's tortoise. Two subspecies are known: the eastern Hermann's tortoise. Sometimes mentioned as a subspecies, T. h. peleponnesica is not yet confirmed to be genetically different from T. h. boettgeri. The specific epithet, honors French naturalist Johann Hermann; the subspecific name, honors German herpetologist Oskar Boettger. Testudo hermanni can be found throughout southern Europe; the western population is found in eastern Spain, southern France, the Balearic islands, Sardinia, Sicily and central Italy. The eastern population inhabits Serbia, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania and Greece, while T. h. hercegovinensis populates the coasts of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro. Hermann's tortoises are small to medium-sized tortoises from southern Europe. Young animals and some adults have attractive black and yellow-patterned carapaces, although the brightness may fade with age to a less distinct gray, straw, or yellow coloration.
They have hooked upper jaws and, like other tortoises, possess no teeth, just strong, horny beaks. Their scaly limbs are greyish to brown, with some yellow markings, their tails bear a spur at the tip. Adult males have long and thick tails, well-developed spurs, distinguishing them from females; the eastern subspecies T. h. boettgeri is much larger than the western T. h. hermanni, reaching sizes up to 28 cm in length. A specimen of this size may weigh 3–4 kg. T. h. hermanni grows larger than 18 cm. Some adult specimens are as small as 7 cm. In 2006, Hermann's tortoise was suggested to be moved to the genus Eurotestudo and to bring the subspecies to the rank of species. Though some factors indicate this might be correct, the data at hand are not unequivocally in support and the relationships between Hermann's and the Russian tortoise among each other and to the other species placed in Testudo are not robustly determined. Hence, it seems doubtful; the elevation of the subspecies to full species was tentatively rejected under the biological species concept at least, as there still seems significant gene flow.
Of note, the rate of evolution as measured by mutations accumulating in the mtDNA differs markedly, with the eastern populations have evolved faster. This is due to stronger fragmentation of the population on the mountainous Balkans during the last ice age. While this has no profound implications for taxonomy of this species, apart from suggesting that two other proposed subspecies are just local forms at present, it renders the use of molecular clocks in Testudo more dubious and unreliable than they are for turtles in general; the subspecies T. h. hermanni includes the former subspecies T. h. robertmertensi and has a number of local forms. It has a arched shell with an intensive coloration, with its yellow coloration making a strong contrast to the dark patches; the colors wash out somewhat in older animals, but the intense yellow is maintained. The underside has two connected black bands along the central seam; the coloration of the head ranges from dark green to yellowish, with isolated dark patches.
A particular characteristic is a yellow fleck on the cheek found in most specimens, although not in all. The forelegs have no black pigmentation on their undersides; the base of the claws is lightly colored. The tail in males possesses a spike; the shell protecting the tail is divided. A few specimens can be found with undivided shells, similar to the Greek tortoise; the subspecies T. h. hercegovinensis, known as the Dalmatian tortoise, the local T. h. peloponnesica are now included here. The eastern Hermann's tortoises have arched round carapaces, but some are notably flatter and more oblong; the coloration is brownish with isolated black flecks. The coloring tends to wash out quite in older animals; the underside is always solid horn color and has separate black patches on either side of the central seam. The head is brown to black, with fine scales; the forelegs possess fine scales. The limbs have five claws, which are darkly colored at their base; the hind legs are noticeably thicker than the forelegs plump.
The strong tail ends in a spike, which may be large in older male specimens. Females have noticeably smaller tail spikes, which are bent toward the body, they don't grow a huge amount. Early in the morning, the animals leave their nightly shelters, which are hollows protected by thick bushes or hedges, to bask in the sun and warm their bodies, they roam about the Mediterranean meadows of their habitat in search of food. They determine. In addition to leaves and flowers, the anim