Muswell Hill is a suburban district of north London. It is in the London Borough of Haringey with a small part in the London Borough of Barnet, it is between Hampstead Garden Village, East Finchley and Crouch End. It has many streets with Edwardian architecture. Muswell Hill is in the N10 postcode district and in the Hornsey and Wood Green constituency. Muswell Hill, as defined by its postcode district, had a population of 27,992 in 2011; the earliest records of Muswell Hill date from the 12th century. The Bishop of London, the Lord of the Manor of Haringey, owned the area and granted 65 acres, located to the east of Colney Hatch Lane, to a newly formed order of nuns; the nuns called it Our Lady of Muswell. The name Muswell is believed to come from a natural spring or well, said to have miraculous properties. A traditional story tells that Scottish king Malcolm IV was cured of disease after drinking the water; the area became a place of pilgrimage for healing during medieval times. The River Moselle, which has its source in Muswell Hill and Highgate, derives its name from this district.
In the 18th century Muswell Hill was a scattered village consisting of detached villas with large gardens. In 1787 one commentator wrote that nowhere within 100 miles of London was there a village so pleasant or with such varied views. Little had changed by the middle of the 19th century. One of the houses of the time was The Limes; this house occupied the angle of Muswell Hill Road with Colney Hatch Lane and was a three-storeyed house with portico and two-storeyed wing approached by a double carriage drive through impressive gateways. The large grounds of the house included a lake. Opposite The Limes was Muswell Hill beyond that the Green Man inn, built of stone. Further down the hill past the Green Man was The Elms, a squat three-storeyed house improved by Thomas Cubitt standing in 11 acres, part of the grounds of which were laid out by Joseph Paxton. A short distance down the north side of Muswell Hill was The Grove, three storeys high and had nine bays with pedimented projections at each end.
It stood in 8 acres of grounds. In 1774 the house was occupied by Topham Beauclerk. A little farther down the hill stood Grove Lodge in wooded grounds. Altogether there were eight properties in Muswell Hill worthy of note in 1817. Parallel with Muswell Hill was a track known as St James's Lane which ran across a triangle of wasteland. By the middle of the 19th century houses were dispersed along the lane at the foot of, Lalla Rookh, a two-storeyed villa with a wide verandah. Other buildings there were cottages or huts, both single and in terraces, it was not until the end of the 19th century that Muswell Hill began to be developed more densely from a collection of country houses to the London village that it is today. The development was spurred by the opening in 1873 of Alexandra Palace, a massive pleasure pavilion built on the most easterly of north London's gravel hills and intended as the counterpart to the Crystal Palace on Sydenham Hill in south London. Alexandra Palace was served by a branchline railway from Highgate, with an intermediary station at Muswell Hill.
The foot of Alexandra Palace was served by another rail network with connecting services to Finsbury Park and Kings Cross stations. Most development was initiated in the early 20th century when the current street pattern was set out and elegant Edwardian retail parades were constructed; the shopping centre is based on roads that form three sides of a square: Fortis Green Road, Muswell Hill Broadway and the extension of the Broadway into Colney Hatch Lane. At each node point is a church: United Reformed, Church of England and Roman Catholic. One of the nodes, opposite St James's CoE, was the site of the Athenaeum music hall, opposite which a surviving art deco Odeon cinema was built in the 1930s; the site of the Ritz, a cinema at the top of Muswell Hill on the next node to the east, has been redeveloped as offices. Until the mid-20th century there was a rail branch line, the Muswell Hill Railway, from Highgate which passed through Muswell Hill, terminating at a station at Alexandra Palace, it was intended under the Northern Heights plan to integrate this into the London Underground Northern line.
However, this plan was cancelled after the Second World War, the railway line was abandoned in 1954. The line was converted to become the Parkland Walk; until the reorganisation of London's local government in 1965, Muswell Hill formed part of the Borough of Hornsey within the administrative county of Middlesex. The area subsequently became part of the London Borough of Haringey; the northern portion of Muswell Hill was part of the Friern Barnet Urban District in Middlesex, which subsequently became part of the London Borough of Barnet. In 1964, three young Muswell Hill residents, the brothers Ray and Dave Davies and Pete Quaiffe, formed The Kinks. Categorised in the United States as a British Invasion band, the Kinks are recognised as one of the most important and influential rock groups of the era; the Davies' parents' home at 6 Denmark Terrace, Fortis Green, remains a magnet for rock music tourists. In 1979 Wetherspoons opened their first pub, on Colney Hatch Lane. In March 2013 Muswell Hill was named one of the five most desirable places to live in London in the Sunday Times "Best Places To Live" guide.
Close to Alexandra Park and Highgate Wo
Day of the Fight
Day of the Fight is a 1951 American short subject documentary film directed by Stanley Kubrick. Kubrick financed the film himself. Shot in black-and-white, the film is based on an earlier photo feature he had done as a photographer for Look magazine in 1949. Day of the Fight shows Irish-American middleweight boxer Walter Cartier during the height of his career, on the day of a fight with middleweight Bobby James, which took place on April 17, 1950; the film opens with a short section on boxing's history, follows Cartier through his day, as he prepares for the 10 P. M. bout that night. He eats breakfast in his West 12th Street apartment in Greenwich Village goes to early mass and eats lunch at his favorite restaurant. At 4 P. M. he starts preparations for the fight. By 8 P. M. he is waiting in his dressing room at Laurel Gardens in Newark, New Jersey for the fight to begin. We see the fight itself, where he comes out victorious in a short match. Douglas Edwards as Narrator Walter Cartier as Himself Vincent Cartier as Himself - Walter's twin brother Nat Fleischer as Himself - boxing historian Bobby James as Himself - Walter's opponent Stanley Kubrick as Himself - man at ringside with camera Alexander Singer as Himself -man at ringside with camera Judy Singer as Herself - female fan in crowd The year after the fight chronicled in Day of the Fight took place, Walter Cartier made boxing history by knocking out Joe Rindone in the first forty-seven seconds of a match.
Cartier had played some bit parts in movies before he appeared in Day of the Fight, afterwards continued to appear in movies up until 1971, but he was most successful playing mild-mannered Private Claude Dillingham on the sitcom The Phil Silvers Show for the 1955-1956 season. Alexander Singer was a high school friend of Stanley Kubrick's, who acted as assistant director and a camerman for this film, he worked on Kubrick's Killer's Kiss and The Killing, went on to have a long career as a director of hour-long TV dramas. Douglas Edwards, who narrated Day of the Fight was a veteran television newscaster. At this time, he was the anchor for the first daily television news program, on CBS, which would be called Douglas Edwards with the News, The CBS Evening News. Edwards was replaced by Walter Cronkite in 1962, but remained a noted voice on CBS Radio news programs until he retired in 1988. Kubrick and Alexander Singer used daylight-loading Eyemo cameras that take 100-foot spools of 35mm black-and-white film to shoot the fight, with Kubrick shooting hand-held and Singer's camera on a tripod.
The 100-foot reels required constant reloading, Kubrick did not catch the knock-out punch which ended the bout because he was reloading. Singer did, however. Day of the Fight is the first credit on composer Gerald Fried's resume. Kubrick did not pay him for his work on the film. "He thought the fact that my doing the music" for the film "got me into the profession was enough payment", Fried told The Guardian in 2018 conceding that Kubrick's point was accurate. Fried, a childhood friend of Kubrick wrote the score for the director's Paths of Glory and three other films Although the original planned buyer of the picture went out of business, Kubrick was able to sell Day of the Fight to RKO Pictures for $4,000, making a small benefit of $100 above the $3,900 cost of making the film. According to Jeremy Bernstein, the film lost $100, as documented in a November 1965 interview with Kubrick. Day of the Fight was released as part of RKO-Pathé's "This Is America" series and premiered on 26 April 1951 at New York's Paramount Theater, on the same program as the film My Forbidden Past.
Frank Sinatra headlined the live stage show that day. Day of the Fight on IMDb Day of the Fight is available for free download at the Internet Archive Day of the Fight at the TCM Movie Database Day of the Fight at Stanley Kubrick: Master Filmmaker Day of the Fight at Kubrick Multimedia Film Guide The Kubrick Site Watch Day of the Fight
Stanley Kubrick was an American film director and producer. He is cited as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers in cinematic history, his films, which are adaptations of novels or short stories, cover a wide range of genres, are noted for their realism, dark humor, unique cinematography, extensive set designs, evocative use of music. Kubrick was raised in the Bronx, New York City, attended William Howard Taft High School from 1941 to 1945, he only received average grades, but displayed a keen interest in literature and film from a young age, taught himself all aspects of film production and directing after graduating from high school. After working as a photographer for Look magazine in the late 1940s and early 1950s, he began making short films on a shoestring budget, made his first major Hollywood film, The Killing, for United Artists in 1956; this was followed by two collaborations with Kirk Douglas, the war picture Paths of Glory and the historical epic Spartacus. His reputation as a filmmaker in Hollywood grew, he was approached by Marlon Brando to film what would become One-Eyed Jacks, though Brando decided to direct it himself.
Creative differences arising from his work with Douglas and the film studios, a dislike of the Hollywood industry, a growing concern about crime in America prompted Kubrick to move to the United Kingdom in 1961, where he spent most of the remainder of his life and career. His home at Childwickbury Manor in Hertfordshire, which he shared with his wife Christiane, became his workplace, where he did his writing, research and management of production details; this allowed him to have complete artistic control over his films, but with the rare advantage of having financial support from major Hollywood studios. His first British productions were two films with Peter Lolita and Dr. Strangelove. A demanding perfectionist, Kubrick assumed control over most aspects of the filmmaking process, from direction and writing to editing, took painstaking care with researching his films and staging scenes, working in close coordination with his actors and other collaborators, he asked for several dozen retakes of the same scene in a movie, which resulted in many conflicts with his casts.
Despite the resulting notoriety among actors, many of Kubrick's films broke new ground in cinematography. The scientific realism and innovative special effects of 2001: A Space Odyssey were without precedent in the history of cinema, the film earned him his only personal Oscar, for Best Visual Effects. Steven Spielberg has referred to the film as his generation's "big bang", it is regarded as one of the greatest films made. For the 18th-century period film Barry Lyndon, Kubrick obtained lenses developed by Zeiss for NASA, to film scenes under natural candlelight. With The Shining, he became one of the first directors to make use of a Steadicam for stabilized and fluid tracking shots. While many of Kubrick's films were controversial and received mixed reviews upon release—particularly A Clockwork Orange, which Kubrick pulled from circulation in the UK following a mass media frenzy—most were nominated for Oscars, Golden Globes, or BAFTA Awards, underwent critical reevaluations, his last film, Eyes Wide Shut, was completed shortly before his death in 1999 at the age of 70.
Kubrick was born in the Lying-In Hospital at 307 Second Avenue in Manhattan, New York City, to a Jewish family. He was the first of two children of Jacob Leonard Kubrick, known as Jack or Jacques, his wife Sadie Gertrude Kubrick, known as Gert, his sister, Barbara Mary Kubrick, was born in May 1934. Jack Kubrick, whose parents and paternal grandparents were of Polish-Jewish, Austrian-Jewish, Romanian-Jewish origin, was a doctor, graduating from the New York Homeopathic Medical College in 1927, the same year he married Kubrick's mother, the child of Austrian-Jewish immigrants. Kubrick's great-grandfather, Hersh Kubrick, arrived at Ellis Island via Liverpool by ship on December 27, 1899, at the age of 47, leaving behind his wife and two grown children, one of whom was Stanley's grandfather Elias, to start a new life with a younger woman. Elias Kubrick followed in 1902. At Stanley's birth, the Kubricks lived in an apartment at 2160 Clinton Avenue in the Bronx, his parents had been married in a Jewish ceremony, but Kubrick did not have a religious upbringing, would profess an atheistic view of the universe.
By the district standards of the West Bronx, the family was wealthy, his father earning a good income as a physician. Soon after his sister's birth, Kubrick began schooling in Public School 3 in the Bronx, moved to Public School 90 in June 1938, his IQ was discovered to be above average, but his attendance was poor, he missed 56 days in his first term alone, as many as he attended. He displayed an interest in literature from a young age, began reading Greek and Roman myths and the fables of the Grimm brothers which "instilled in him a lifelong affinity with Europe", he spent most Saturdays during the summer watching the New York Yankees, would photograph two boys watching the game in an assignment for Look magazine to emulate his own childhood excitement with baseball. When Kubrick was 12, his father Jack taught; the game remained a lifelong interest of Kubrick's. Kubrick, who became a member of the United States Chess Federation, explained that chess helped him develop "patience and discipline" in making decisions.
At the age of 13, Kubrick's father bought
Harrow is a large suburban town in the London Borough of Harrow, in the north-west of Greater London, England, 10.5 miles north-west of Charing Cross. Harrow-on-the-Hill is a conservation area with listed buildings of Georgian architecture; the area, which includes Headstone North, Marlborough, Headstone South and West Harrow electoral wards, had a population of 80,213 at the 2011 census. Harrow was a municipal borough of Middlesex before its inclusion in Greater London in 1965. Harrow is home to a large University of Harrow School and Harrow High School. Harrow's name comes from Old English hearg = " temple", on the hill of Harrow, where St. Mary's Church stands today; the name has been studied in detail by Keith Briggs. Harrow forms a commercial hub in the north-west of Greater London, including a well-connected town centre containing: two shopping centres Parades of shops throughout Station Road and the ascending, traditional College Road Over 300 m of a pedestranised shopping/café streets roads Harrow included Harrow on the Hill, the site of Harrow School, which sits on top of an outlying knoll and is contiguous with the centre of Harrow.
Much of Kenton and before 1716 all of Pinner were parts of Harrow, geographical facts which root the importance of Harrow as a meeting place and a place of business. Harrow Weald, is the district north of Wealdstone, both of which were also part of Harrow. Harrow may include the wards of Roxeth, Headstone North and Harrow on the Hill as well as the Greenhill, West Harrow and Headstone South wards listed above; the combined population of these wards is 80,213. In the 2011 census, the Greenhill ward was 42% white, 26% Indian, 9% Other Asian; the West Harrow ward was 44% white, 23% Indian, 12% Other Asian. In addition, Headstone South ward was 43 % white, 9 % Other Asian. Harrow on the Hill ward was 47% white, 19% Indian and 12% Other Asian; these ethnicity statistics are not representative of the other wards. Major employers include Kodak Alaris, the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital and Ladbrokes, which has its headquarters in Harrow. Harrow is home to a large University of Westminster campus and its oldest secondary schools are Harrow School and Harrow High School.
Harrow is served by a number of London Underground, London Overground and National Rail services: Harrow-on-the-Hill West Harrow South Harrow North Harrow Harrow & Wealdstone Headstone Lane A short railway line called the Stanmore branch line used to run from Harrow & Wealdstone to Stanmore Village, but this line was closed in 1964. On 23 December 1991 the IRA exploded a bomb on a train at Harrow-on-the-Hill station. Harrow bus station is close to Harrow on the Hill railway station. Harrow borough is patrolled by the Metropolitan Police Service; the service is provided through South Harrow Police Station and Fountain House, Headstone Drive, Kirkland House, Pinner Police Station, Northolt Road contact points supported by 22 Safer Neighbourhoods teams. Barnet is served by Northwick Park Hospital and specialists St Mark's Hospital and Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, which are run by National Health Service; the local Harrow CCG manages public provision of homecare throughout Harrow, state funded.
On 7 August 1838 Thomas Port died from injuries received in a train accident near Harrow. His gravestone in the parish churchyard of St Mary's, Harrow-on-the-Hill, states: "To the memory of Thomas Port, son of John Port of Burton-upon-Trent in the County of Stafford, Hat Manufacturer, who near this town had both legs severed from his body by the railway train. With great fortitude, he bore a second amputation by the surgeons and died from loss of blood, August 7th 1838, aged 33 years." On 26 November 1870 two trains collided at Harrow & Wealdstone station, killing 9 and injuring 44. On 8 October 1952 three trains collided at Wealdstone station, killing 112 people. Of the dead, 64 were railway employees on their way to work; the first and only contemporary artist-led gallery and studios in Harrow was set up in 2010 by the Usurp Art Collective. The space is called the Usurp Art Gallery & Studios and is based in West Harrow, a bohemian part of Harrow. Usurp Art provides professional support to artists, cultural programmes and runs the only public artists studios in the borough.
It is a flagship project for Arts Council England. Harrow has a Hindu temple dedicated to Sri Lord Ayyappa and is known as Sri Ayyappan Kovil, London The town has one association football team called Harrow Borough who play in the Isthmian League Premier Division. Harrow is the hometown of renowned fashion designer Dame Vivienne Westwood, who in the 1970s became one of the pioneers of'punk' culture and fashion. Harrow is twinned with: Douai, France Notes References Harrow Council Homepage
A doppelgänger is a non-biologically related look-alike or double of a living person, sometimes portrayed as a ghostly or paranormal phenomenon and seen as a harbinger of bad luck. Other traditions and stories equate a doppelgänger with an evil twin. In modern times, the term twin stranger is used; the word "doppelgänger" is used in a more general and neutral sense, in slang, to describe any person who physically resembles another person. The word doppelgänger is a loanword from the German Doppelgänger, a compound noun formed by combining the two nouns Doppel and Gänger; the singular and plural forms are the same in German, but English prefers the plural "doppelgängers". The first known use, in the different form Doppeltgänger, occurs in the novel Siebenkäs by Jean Paul, in which he explains his newly coined word by a footnote – while the word Doppelgänger appears, but with a quite different meaning. Like all nouns in German, the word is written with an initial capital letter. Doppelgänger and Doppelgaenger are equivalent spellings, Doppelganger is different and would correspond to a different pronunciation.
In English, the word should be written with a lower-case letter unless it is the first word of a sentence or part of a title. It is further common to drop the umlaut on the letter "a", writing "doppelganger". English-speakers have only applied this German word to a paranormal concept. Francis Grose's, Provincial Glossary of 1787 used the term fetch instead, defined as the "apparition of a person living." Catherine Crowe's book on paranormal phenomena, The Night-Side of Nature helped make the German word well-known. However, the concept of alter egos and double spirits has appeared in the folklore, religious concepts, traditions of many cultures throughout human history. In Ancient Egyptian mythology, a ka was a tangible "spirit double" having the same memories and feelings as the person to whom the counterpart belongs; the Greek Princess presents an Egyptian view of the Trojan War in which a ka of Helen misleads Paris, helping to stop the war.. This is depicted in Euripides' play Helen. In Norse mythology, a vardøger is a ghostly double, seen performing the person's actions in advance.
In Finnish mythology, this is called having an etiäinen, "a firstcomer". The doppelgänger is a version of the Ankou, a personification of death, in Breton and Norman folklore. Izaak Walton claimed that English metaphysical poet John Donne saw his wife's doppelgänger in 1612 in Paris, on the same night as the stillbirth of their daughter. German playwright Goethe described an experience in his autobiography Dichtung und Wahrheit in which he and his double passed one another on horseback. In addition to describing the doppelgänger double as a counterpart to the self, Percy Bysshe Shelley's drama Prometheus Unbound makes reference to Zoroaster meeting "his own image walking in the garden". Lord Byron uses doppelgänger imagery to explore the duality of human nature. In The Devil's Elixir, a man murders the brother and stepmother of his beloved princess, finds his doppelgänger has been sentenced to death for these crimes in his stead, liberates him, only to have the doppelgänger murder the object of his affection.
This was one of E. T. A. Hoffmann's early novels. Fyodor Dostoyevsky's novel The Double presents the doppelgänger as an opposite personality who exploits the character failings of the protagonist to take over his life. Charles Williams' Descent into Hell has character Pauline Anstruther seeing her own doppelgänger all through her life. Clive Barker's story "Human Remains" in his Books of Blood is a doppelgänger tale, the doppelgänger motif is a staple of Gothic fiction. In Stephen King's book, The Outsider, the antagonist is able to use the DNA of individuals to become their near perfect match through a science-fictional ability to transform physically; the allusion to it being a doppelganger is made by the group trying to stop it from killing again. The group discusses other examples of fictional doppelgangers that occurred throughout history to provide some context. In The CW supernatural drama series, The Vampire Diaries, actress Nina Dobrev portrayed the roles of several doppelgangers; the series focused on the doppelgangers of the sweet & genuine Elena and the malevolent & bitchy Katherine.
With the advent of social media, there have been several reported cases of people finding their "twin stranger" online, a modern term for a doppelgänger. Twinstrangers.net is a website where users can upload a photo of themselves and facial recognition software attempts to match them with another user of like appearance. The site reports that it has found numerous living doppelgängers—including three living doppelgängers of its founder Niamh Geaney. Heautoscopy is a term used in psychiatry and neurology for the hallucination of "seeing one's own body at a distance", it can occur as a symptom in schizophrenia and epilepsy, is considered a possible explanation for doppelgänger phenomena. Criminologists find a practical application in the concepts of facial familiarity and similarity due to the instances of wrongful convictions based on eyewitness testimony. In one case, a person spent 17 years behind bars persistently denying any involvement with the crime of which he was accused, he was released after someone was found who shared a striking resemblance and the same first name.
Alter ego Capgras delusion Doppelganger Week Evil twin Fetch Fylgja Sy
History of the Jews in Poland
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years. For centuries, Poland was home to the most significant Jewish community in the world. Poland was a principal center of Jewish culture, thanks to a long period of statutory religious tolerance and social autonomy; this ended with the Partitions of Poland which began in 1772, in particular, with the discrimination and persecution of Jews in the Russian Empire. During World War II there was a nearly complete genocidal destruction of the Polish Jewish community by Nazi Germany and its collaborators, during the 1939–1945 German occupation of Poland and the ensuing Holocaust. Since the fall of communism in Poland, there has been a Jewish revival, featuring an annual Jewish Culture Festival, new study programs at Polish secondary schools and universities, the work of synagogues such as the Nożyk Synagogue, Warsaw's Museum of the History of Polish Jews. From the founding of the Kingdom of Poland in 1025 through to the early years of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth created in 1569, Poland was the most tolerant country in Europe.
Historians have described the label paradisus iudaeorum. The country became a shelter for persecuted and expelled European Jewish communities and the home to the world's largest Jewish community of the time. According to some sources, about three-quarters of the world's Jews lived in Poland by the middle of the 16th century. With the weakening of the Commonwealth and growing religious strife, Poland's traditional tolerance began to wane from the 17th century onward. After the Partitions of Poland in 1795 and the destruction of Poland as a sovereign state, Polish Jews were subject to the laws of the partitioning powers, the antisemitic Russian Empire, as well as Austria-Hungary and Kingdom of Prussia. Still, as Poland regained independence in the aftermath of World War I, it was the center of the European Jewish world with one of the world's largest Jewish communities of over 3 million. Antisemitism was a growing problem throughout Europe in those years, from both the political establishment and the general population.
At the start of World War II, Poland was partitioned between the Soviet Union. One-fifth of the Polish population perished during World War II. Although the Holocaust occurred in German-occupied Poland, there was little collaboration with the Nazis by its citizens. Collaboration by individual Poles has been described as smaller than in other occupied countries. Statistics of the Israeli War Crimes Commission indicate that less than 0.1% of Poles collaborated with the Nazis. Examples of Polish attitudes to German atrocities varied from risking death in order to save Jewish lives, passive refusal to inform on them, to indifference, in extreme cases, participation in pogroms such as the Jedwabne pogrom. Grouped by nationality, Poles represent the largest number of people who rescued Jews during the Holocaust. In the post-war period, many of the 200,000 Jewish survivors registered at Central Committee of Polish Jews or CKŻP left the Polish People’s Republic for the nascent State of Israel and North or South America.
Their departure was hastened by the destruction of Jewish institutions, post-war violence and the hostility of the Communist Party to both religion and private enterprise, but because in 1946–1947 Poland was the only Eastern Bloc country to allow free Jewish aliyah to Israel, without visas or exit permits. Most of the remaining Jews left Poland in late 1968 as the result of the Soviet-sponsored "anti-Zionist" campaign. After the fall of the Communist regime in 1989, the situation of Polish Jews became normalized and those who were Polish citizens before World War II were allowed to renew Polish citizenship. Religious institutions were revived through the activities of Jewish foundations from the United States; the contemporary Polish Jewish community is estimated to have between 20,000 members. The number of people with Jewish heritage of any sort may be several times larger; the first Jews arrived in the territory of modern Poland in the 10th century. Travelling along trade routes leading east to Kiev and Bukhara, Jewish merchants, known as Radhanites, crossed Silesia.
One of them, a diplomat and merchant from the Moorish town of Tortosa in Spanish Al-Andalus, known by his Arabic name, Ibrahim ibn Yaqub, was the first chronicler to mention the Polish state ruled by Prince Mieszko I. In the summer of 965 or 966 Jacob made a trade and diplomatic journey from his native Toledo in Muslim Spain to the Holy Roman Empire and to Slavic countries; the first actual mention of Jews in Polish chronicles occurs in the 11th century. It appears that Jews were living in Gniezno, at that time the capital of the Polish kingdom of the Piast dynasty. Among the first Jews to arrive in Poland were those banished from Prague; the first permanent Jewish community is mentioned in 1085 by a Jewish scholar Jehuda ha-Kohen in the city of Przemyśl. As elsewhere in Central and Eastern Europe, the principal activity of Jews in medieval Poland was commerce and trade, including export and import of goods such as cloth, furs, wax, metal objects, slaves; the first extensive Jewish emigration from Western Europe to Poland occurred at the time of the First Crusade in 1098.
Under Bolesław III, the Jews, encouraged by the tolerant regime of this ruler, settled throughout Poland, including over
Frank Hart Rich Jr. is an American essayist and liberal progressive op-ed columnist, who held various positions within The New York Times from 1980 to 2011. He has produced television series and documentaries for HBO. Rich is writer-at-large for New York magazine, where he writes essays on politics and culture and engages in regular dialogues on news of the week for the "Daily Intelligencer", he served as executive producer of the long-running HBO comedy series Veep, having joined the show at its outset in 2011, of the HBO drama series Succession. Rich grew up in Washington, D. C, his mother, Helene Fisher, a schoolteacher and artist, was from a Russian Jewish family that settled in Brooklyn, New York, but moved to Washington after the stock market crash of 1929. His father, Frank Hart Rich, a businessman, was from a German Jewish family long-settled in Washington, he attended public schools and graduated from Woodrow Wilson High School in 1967. Rich attended Harvard College in Massachusetts. At Harvard, he became the editorial chairman of The Harvard Crimson, the university's daily student newspaper.
Rich was an honorary Harvard College scholar and a member of Phi Beta Kappa, received a Henry Russell Shaw Traveling Fellowship. He graduated in 1971 with an A. B. magna cum laude in American literature. Before joining The New York Times in 1980, Rich was a film and television critic for Time and a film critic for The New York Post, film critic and senior editor of New Times Magazine. In the early 1970s, he was a founding editor of the Richmond Mercury. Rich served as chief theater critic of The New York Times from 1980 to 1993, earning the nickname "Butcher of Broadway" for his power over the prospects of Broadway shows, he first won attention from theater-goers with an essay for The Harvard Crimson about the Broadway musical Follies, by Stephen Sondheim, during its pre-Broadway tryout run in Boston. In his study of the work, Rich was "the first person to predict the legendary status the show would achieve"; the article "fascinated" Harold Prince, the musical's co-director, "absolutely intrigued" Sondheim, who invited the undergraduate to lunch to further discuss his feelings about the production.
In a retrospective article for The New York Times Magazine, "Exit the Critic," published in 1994, Rich reflected on the controversies during his tenure as drama critic as well as on the playwrights he championed and on the tragedies that decimated the New York theater during the height of the AIDS crisis. A collection of Rich's theater reviews was published in a book, Hot Seat: Theater Criticism for The New York Times, 1980–1993, he wrote The Theatre Art of Boris Aronson, with Lisa Aronson, in 1987. From 1994 to 2011, Rich was an op-ed columnist for The New York Times, his columns, now appearing in New York Magazine, make regular references to a broad range of popular culture—including television, movies and literature. In addition to his long-time work for the Times and New York, Rich has written for many other publications, including The New York Review of Books; the commentator Bill O'Reilly, host of the Fox News Channel talk show The O'Reilly Factor, criticized Rich following Rich's criticism of Fox in 2004 as having a politically conservative bias.
Rich attracted controversy by dismissing the historical-drama film The Passion of the Christ, directed by Mel Gibson, as "nothing so much as a porn movie, replete with slo-mo climaxes and pounding music for the money shots."In a January 2006 appearance on The Oprah Winfrey Show, commenting on the James Frey memoir scandal, Rich expanded on his usage in his column of the term truthiness to summarize a variety of ills in culture and politics. His book, The Greatest Story Ever Sold: The Decline and Fall of Truth from 9/11 to Katrina, criticized the American media for what he perceived as its support of George W. Bush's administration's propaganda following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and during the run-up to the Iraq war. A July 2009 column focused on what Rich believes is the bigoted nature of President Barack Obama's detractors. On the Tea Party movement, which emerged in 2009, Rich opined that at one of their rallies they were "kowtowing to secessionists." He wrote that death threats and a brick thrown through a congressman's window were a "small-scale mimicry of "Kristallnacht".
In his essays at New York, Rich has continued to examine the American right, including its latest revival during the candidacy and presidency of Donald Trump. Since 2008, Rich has been a creative consultant for HBO, where he helps initiate and develop new programming and is an Executive Producer of Veep, the long-running comedy series created by Armando Iannucci and starring Julia Louis-Dreyfus, he is an Executive Producer of Succession, the HBO drama series created by Jesse Armstrong that debuted in June of 2018 to critical praise. Rich was an Executive Producer for the HBO documentaries Six by Sondheim, directed by James Lapine, Becoming Mike Nichols, directed by Douglas McGrath. Rich's journalistic honors include the George Polk Award for commentary in 2005 and, in 2011, the Goldsmith Career Award for Excellence in Journalism from Harvard University. In 2016, he received the Mirror Award for Best Commentary from the Newhouse School at Syracuse University, he was inducted into the Theater Hall of Fame in 2015.
Rich was twice a Pulitzer Prize finalist, in 1987 and 2005. Rich received Emmy Awards in 2015, 2016, 2017 for Veep, named Outstanding Comedy Series, he has won two Peabody Awards, fo