Walter Johannes Damrosch was a German-born American conductor and composer. He is best remembered today as long-time director of the New York Symphony Orchestra and for conducting the world premiere performances of George Gershwin's Piano Concerto in F and An American in Paris. Damrosch was instrumental in the founding of Carnegie Hall. Damrosch was born in Breslau, Silesia, a son of Helene von Heimburg, a former opera singer, the conductor Leopold Damrosch, brother of conductor Frank Damrosch and music teacher Clara Mannes, his parents were Lutheran. He exhibited an interest in music at an early age and was instructed by his father in harmony and studied under Wilhelm Albert Rischbieter and Felix Draeseke at the Dresden Conservatory, he emigrated with his parents in 1871 to the United States. During the great music festival given by his father in May 1881, he first acted as conductor in drilling several sections of the large chorus, one in New York City, another in Newark, New Jersey; the latter, consisting chiefly of members of the Harmonic Society, elected him to be their conductor.
During this time a series of concerts was given in which such works as Anton Rubinstein's Tower of Babel, Hector Berlioz's La damnation de Faust, Giuseppe Verdi's Requiem were performed. He was only 19 years of age, but showed marked ability in drilling large masses. In 1884, when his father initiated a run of all-German opera at the Metropolitan Opera in New York, Walter was made an assistant conductor. After his father's death in 1885, he held the same post under Anton Seidl and became conductor of the Oratorio and Symphony Societies in New York. On May 17, 1890, he married Margaret Blaine, the daughter of American politician and presidential candidate James G. Blaine, they had four daughters: Alice, Margaret and Anita. In 1946 Margaret Gretchen Damrosch Finletter published From the Top of the Stairs, an autobiography of her childhood growing up with music and meeting many famous people. Damrosch was best known in his day as a conductor of the music of Richard Wagner and was a pioneer in the performance of music on the radio, as such became one of the chief popularizers of classical music in the United States.
He conducted famed solo harpist Vincent Fanelli from 1908 to 1911. At the request of General Pershing he reorganized the bands of the A. E. F. in 1918. One of his principal achievements was the successful performance of Parsifal the most difficult of Wagner's operas, for the first time in the United States, in March 1886, by the Oratorio and Symphony societies. During his visit to Europe in the summer of 1886, he was invited by the Deutsche Tonkünstler-Verein, of which Franz Liszt was president, to conduct some of his father's compositions at Sondershausen, Thuringia. Carl Goldmark's opera Merlin was produced for the first time in the United States under Damrosch's direction, at the Metropolitan Opera House, 3 January 1887. Although now remembered exclusively as a conductor, before his radio broadcasts Damrosch was well known as a composer, he composed operas based on stories such as The Scarlet Letter and The Man Without a Country. Those operas are seldom performed now, his Wagner recordings are still available.
He composed songs such as the intensely dramatic Danny Deever. Damrosch was the National Broadcasting Company's music director under David Sarnoff, from 1928 to 1942, he hosted the network's Music Appreciation Hour, a popular series of radio lectures on classic music aimed at students. According to former New York Times critic Harold C. Schonberg in his collection Facing the Music, Damrosch was notorious for making up silly lyrics for the music he discussed in order to "help" young people appreciate it, rather than letting the music speak for itself. An example: for the first movement of Franz Schubert's Unfinished Symphony, the lyric went This is the symphony, That Schubert wrote and never finished. Although Damrosch took an interest in music technologies, he recorded sporadically, his first recording, the prelude to Bizet's Carmen, appeared in 1903. He recorded few extended works. C. for RCA Victor in the early 1930s. Walter Damrosch died in New York City in 1950. Damrosch Park at Lincoln Center is named in honor of his family.
The public school P186X Walter J. Damrosch School in the Bronx is named after him. A collection of photographs and other items compiled by his daughter Anita is among the Special Collections of the Lovejoy Library at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. Damrosch was the target of Theodor W. Adorno's criticism. Adorno, without always naming Damrosch, wrote during his rather unhappy tenure at the "Princeton Radio Research Project", funded by Sarnoff's RCA, that the Damrosch approach towards popularizing classical music was infantilizing and authoritarian, part of a broader, if not centrally planned, system of domination. Adorno showed ways of teaching both children and adults about classical music that would describe its form whereas Damrosch focused on being able to identify pictures of composers and the bare bones of symphonic themes. Adorno's criticism, rega
The Cleveland Orchestra, based in Cleveland, is one of the five American orchestras informally referred to as the "Big Five". Founded in 1918 by the pianist and impresario Adella Prentiss Hughes, the orchestra plays most of its concerts at Severance Hall; as of 2017, the incumbent music director is Franz Welser-Möst. In 2012 Gramophone Magazine ranked the Cleveland Orchestra number 7 on its list of the world's greatest orchestras, The New York Times referred to the orchestra in 2018 as "America's most understatedly amazing orchestra." The orchestra was founded in 1918 by Adella Prentiss Hughes, with Nikolai Sokoloff as its principal conductor. From early in its existence, it toured throughout the eastern United States, made radio broadcasts, recorded many albums. Subsequent principal conductors, with the title of Music Director, were Artur Rodziński, Erich Leinsdorf, George Szell. From 1964 to 1965, James Levine served as an apprentice to Szell with the Cleveland Orchestra, served as its assistant conductor until 1970.
Subsequent Music Directors were Pierre Boulez, Lorin Maazel, Christoph von Dohnányi. Franz Welser-Möst has been Music Director since 2002 and is contracted to remain through the 2021-2022 season. Szell's long reign as Music Director has been credited for the orchestra's rise to eminence, he reformed the orchestra in the late-1940s, firing a dozen musicians in the process with a dozen more leaving of their own volition. Szell is credited with giving the orchestra its distinct, European sound, he pushed an ambitious recording schedule with the orchestra, bringing its music to millions worldwide. Szell's influence has continued decades after his death. Cleveland is the smallest city amongst the traditional "Big Five" orchestras. However, musicians in Cleveland are treated as local celebrities, much like sports heroes elsewhere, fans seek autographs after performances and greet musicians on the street. Clevelanders are proud that their city boasts an orchestra that has several times been touted as America's finest, compared favorably to many of the great orchestras in Central Europe.
In the 1960s fans were known to "have airport rallies when the orchestra comes home from tour chant,'We're the best! We're the best!' and carry placards reading'Bravo!'" In addition to a vast catalog of recordings created with the ensemble's music directors, the orchestra has made many recordings with guest conductors Vladimir Ashkenazy, Oliver Knussen, Kurt Sanderling, Yoel Levi, Riccardo Chailly, Michael Tilson Thomas, Louis Lane. Past assistant conductors of the Cleveland Orchestra include Matthias Bamert, James Levine, Alan Gilbert, James Judd and Michael Stern. Severance Hall is the Cleveland Orchestra's home, it was built for the orchestra in 1931. The orchestra performs the majority of its concerts at Severance and uses the hall for rehearsals and to house their administrative offices; the concert organ there is by Ernest M. Skinner IV-94. During the summer months, the orchestra presents their annual Blossom Festival at the Blossom Music Center in Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio; until 2005, the Blossom Festival had its own music director.
The last person to serve in that capacity was Jahja Ling. After he stepped down from that position, the orchestra eliminated the post, now has current music director Franz Welser-Möst in charge of the classical music concerts at the Blossom Festival; the orchestra has long-term performing relationships in Lucerne, New York City, a residency in Miami, has conducted multi-concert tours on the West Coast off and on since the 1960s. 1918-1933 Nikolai Sokoloff 1933-1943 Artur Rodziński 1943-1946 Erich Leinsdorf 1946-1970 George Szell 1970-1972 Pierre Boulez 1972-1982 Lorin Maazel 1984-2002 Christoph von Dohnányi 2002–present Franz Welser-Möst 1999-2000 Marc-André Dalbavie 2001-2003 Matthias Pintscher 2003-2005 Susan Botti 2005-2007 Julian Anderson 2007-2009 Johannes Maria Staud 2009-2011 Jörg Widmann 2011-2013 Sean Shepherd 2013-2015 Ryan Wigglesworth 2015-2017 Anthony Cheung 2018–present Bernd Richard Deutsch Cleveland Orchestra Discography Cleveland Orchestra Youth Orchestra Cleveland Philharmonic Orchestra Cleveland Women's Orchestra Cleveland Chamber Symphony CityMusic Cleveland Red The Contemporary Youth Orchestra Big Five Rosenberg, Donald.
The Cleveland Orchestra Story. Cleveland: Gray & Company. ISBN 1-886228-24-8; the Cleveland Orchestra Official website Cleveland Orchestra history at the Wayback Machine from the Telarc website. Cleveland Orchestra Youth Orchestra Cleveland Orchestra Musicians
Sir Georg Solti, was a Hungarian-born orchestral and operatic conductor, best known for his appearances with opera companies in Munich and London, as a long-serving music director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Born in Budapest, he studied there with Béla Bartók, Leó Weiner and Ernő Dohnányi. In the 1930s, he was a répétiteur at the Hungarian State Opera and worked at the Salzburg Festival for Arturo Toscanini, his career was interrupted by the rise of the Nazis' influence on Hungarian politics, being of Jewish background he fled the harsh Hungarian anti-Jewish laws in 1938. After conducting a season of Russian ballet in London at the Royal Opera House he found refuge in Switzerland, where he remained during the Second World War. Prohibited from conducting there, he earned a living as a pianist. After the war, Solti was appointed musical director of the Bavarian State Opera in Munich in 1946. In 1952 he moved to the Frankfurt Opera, where he remained in charge for nine years, he took West German citizenship in 1953.
In 1961 he became musical director of the Covent Garden Opera Company, London. During his ten-year tenure, he introduced changes that raised standards to the highest international levels. Under his musical directorship the status of the company was recognised with the grant of the title "the Royal Opera", he became a British citizen in 1972. In 1969 Solti became music director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, a post he held for 22 years, he relinquished the position in 1991 and became the orchestra's music director laureate, a position he held until his death. During his time as the Chicago Symphony Orchestra's eighth music director, he served as music director of the Orchestre de Paris from 1972 until 1975 and principal conductor of the London Philharmonic Orchestra from 1979 until 1983. Known in his early years for the intensity of his music making, Solti was considered to have mellowed as a conductor in years, he recorded many works two or three times at various stages of his career, was a prolific recording artist, making more than 250 recordings, including 45 complete opera sets.
The most famous of his recordings is Decca's complete set of Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen, made between 1958 and 1965. Solti's Ring has twice been voted the greatest recording made, in polls for Gramophone magazine in 1999 and the BBC's Music Magazine in 2012. Solti was honoured by the recording industry with awards throughout his career, including a record 31 Grammy Awards as a recording artist. Solti was born György Stern on Maros utca, in the Hegyvidék district of the Buda side of Budapest, he was the younger of the two children of Teréz and Móricz "Mor" Stern, both of whom were Jewish. In the aftermath of the First World War it became the accepted practice in Hungary for citizens with Germanic surnames to adopt Hungarian ones; the right wing regime of Admiral Horthy enacted a series of Hungarianisation laws, including a requirement that state employees with foreign-sounding names must change them. Mor Stern, a self-employed merchant, felt no need to change his surname, but thought it prudent to change that of his children.
He renamed them after Solt, a small town in central Hungary. His son's given name, György, was acceptably Hungarian and was not changed. Solti described his father as "a kind, sweet man who trusted everyone, he shouldn't have, but he did. Jews in Hungary were tremendously patriotic. In 1914, when war broke out, my father invested most of his money in a war loan to help the country. By the time the bonds matured, they were worthless." Mor Stern was a religious man, but his son was less so. Late in life Solti recalled, "I upset him because I never stayed in the synagogue for longer than ten minutes." Teréz Stern was from a musical family, encouraged her daughter Lilly, eight years the elder of the children, to sing, György to accompany her at the piano. Solti remembered, "I made so many mistakes, but it was invaluable experience for an opera conductor. I learnt to swim with her." He was not a diligent student of the piano: "My mother kept telling me to practise, but what ten-year-old wants to play the piano when he could be out playing football?"Solti enrolled at the Ernö Fodor School of Music in Budapest at the age of ten, transferring to the more prestigious Franz Liszt Academy two years later.
When he was 12 he heard a performance of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony conducted by Erich Kleiber, which gave him the ambition to become a conductor. His parents could not afford to pay for years of musical education, his rich uncles did not consider music a suitable profession; the faculty of the Franz Liszt Academy included some of the most eminent Hungarian musicians, including Béla Bartók, Leó Weiner, Ernő Dohnányi and Zoltán Kodály. Solti studied under the first three, for piano, chamber music and composition respectively; some sources state that he studied with Kodály, but in his memoirs Solti recalled that Kodály, whom he would have preferred, turned him down, leaving him to study composition first with Albert Siklós and with Dohnányi. Not all the Academy's tutors were distinguished: Solti remembered with little pleasure the conducting classes run by Ernö Unger, "who instructed his pupils to use rigid little wrist motions. I attended the class for only two years, but I needed five years of practical conducting experience before I managed to unlearn what he had taught me".
After graduating from the Academy in 1930 Solti was appointed to the staff of the Hungarian State Opera. He found that working as a répétiteur, coaching singers in their roles and playing at rehearsals, was a more fruitful preparation than Unge
The Encyclopædia Britannica published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia. It was written by more than 4,000 contributors; the 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition. The Britannica is the English-language encyclopaedia/encyclopedia, in print for the longest time: it lasted 244 years, it was first published between 1768 and 1771 as three volumes. The encyclopaedia grew in size: the second edition was 10 volumes, by its fourth edition it had expanded to 20 volumes, its rising stature as a scholarly work helped recruit eminent contributors, the 9th and 11th editions are landmark encyclopaedias for scholarship and literary style. Beginning with the 11th edition and following its acquisition by an American firm, the Britannica shortened and simplified articles to broaden its appeal to the North American market. In 1933, the Britannica became the first encyclopaedia to adopt "continuous revision", in which the encyclopaedia is continually reprinted, with every article updated on a schedule.
In March 2012, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. announced it would no longer publish printed editions, would focus instead on Encyclopædia Britannica Online. The 15th edition had a three-part structure: a 12-volume Micropædia of short articles, a 17-volume Macropædia of long articles, a single Propædia volume to give a hierarchical outline of knowledge; the Micropædia was meant as a guide to the Macropædia. Over 70 years, the size of the Britannica has remained steady, with about 40 million words on half a million topics. Though published in the United States since 1901, the Britannica has for the most part maintained British English spelling. Since 1985, the Britannica has had four parts: the Micropædia, the Macropædia, the Propædia, a two-volume index; the Britannica's articles are found in the Micro- and Macropædia, which encompass 12 and 17 volumes each volume having one thousand pages. The 2007 Macropædia has 699 in-depth articles, ranging in length from 2 to 310 pages and having references and named contributors.
In contrast, the 2007 Micropædia has 65,000 articles, the vast majority of which contain fewer than 750 words, no references, no named contributors. The Micropædia articles are intended for quick fact-checking and to help in finding more thorough information in the Macropædia; the Macropædia articles are meant both as authoritative, well-written articles on their subjects and as storehouses of information not covered elsewhere. The longest article is on the United States, resulted from the merger of the articles on the individual states; the 2013 edition of Britannica contained forty thousand articles. Information can be found in the Britannica by following the cross-references in the Micropædia and Macropædia. Hence, readers are recommended to consult instead the alphabetical index or the Propædia, which organizes the Britannica's contents by topic; the core of the Propædia is its "Outline of Knowledge", which aims to provide a logical framework for all human knowledge. Accordingly, the Outline is consulted by the Britannica's editors to decide which articles should be included in the Micro- and Macropædia.
The Outline is intended to be a study guide, to put subjects in their proper perspective, to suggest a series of Britannica articles for the student wishing to learn a topic in depth. However, libraries have found that it is scarcely used, reviewers have recommended that it be dropped from the encyclopaedia; the Propædia has color transparencies of human anatomy and several appendices listing the staff members and contributors to all three parts of the Britannica. Taken together, the Micropædia and Macropædia comprise 40 million words and 24,000 images; the two-volume index has 2,350 pages, listing the 228,274 topics covered in the Britannica, together with 474,675 subentries under those topics. The Britannica prefers British spelling over American. However, there are exceptions such as defense rather than defence. Common alternative spellings are provided with cross-references such as "Color: see Colour." Since 1936, the articles of the Britannica have been revised on a regular schedule, with at least 10% of them considered for revision each year.
According to one Britannica website, 46% of its articles were revised over the past three years. The alphabetization of articles in the Micropædia and Macropædia follows strict rules. Diacritical marks and non-English letters are ignored, while numerical entries such as "1812, War of" are alphabetized as if the number had been written out. Articles with identical names are ordered first by persons by places by things. Rulers with identical names are organized first alphabetically by country and by chronology. Places that share names are
The concertmaster in the U. S. and Canada is the leader of the first violin section in an orchestra and the instrument-playing leader of the orchestra. After the conductor, the concertmaster is the second-most significant leader in an orchestra, symphonic band or other musical ensemble. Another common term in the U. S. is "First Chair." In the U. K. Australia and elsewhere in the English-speaking world, the term used is "leader." In an orchestra, the concertmaster is the leader of the first violin section. There is the second violins, led by the principal second violin. Any violin solo in an orchestral work is played by the concertmaster, it is required that the concertmaster be the most skilled musician in the section, experienced at learning music counting rests and leading the rest of the string section by their playing and bow gestures. The concertmaster sits to the conductor's left, closest to the audience, in what is called the "first chair," "first stand" or outside of the US "first desk." The concertmaster makes decisions regarding bowing and other technical details of violin playing for the violins, sometimes all of the string players.
They lead the orchestra in tuning before concerts and rehearsals, other technical aspects of orchestra management. Leading the orchestral tuning is not a mere formality. Several larger orchestras have one or more assistant concertmasters, who lead the orchestra in the concertmaster's absence; the concertmaster, along with the conductor and section principals, will participate in the auditions of important musicians in the orchestra. In a standard concert band, the concertmaster is the principal clarinet, oboe, or flute and leads the ensemble's tuning; the first-chair clarinet concertmaster will, in common practice, play all solos for their instrument. The lead flautist will receive similar responsibilities to the clarinet concertmaster, depending on several factors such as age and time spent in the ensemble; the concertmaster will, in both orchestral and wind band settings coordinate with other principals and section leaders, in most cases being their senior in terms of group pecking order. In brass bands, the role of concertmaster is filled by the principal solo cornet or trumpet.
The duties and tasks of the concertmaster are myriad. They act as the conduit between conductor and orchestra and are accountable to both parties. One of the principal tasks of the concertmaster is to provide bowings for the 1st violins prior to rehearsal; this entails a great knowledge of historical playing styles in addition to complete idiomatic understanding of the mechanics of string playing. Section leaders among the other strings will base their bowings on those of the concertmaster and these section leaders may confer during rehearsal in order to ensure unity and cohesion of execution between the string sections. Ensemble cohesion emanates directly from the contact and connection between these vital front desk positions; the concertmaster assumes responsibility for the tone and execution of the entire section of 1st violins, in addition to performing any solo passages that occur in a given piece. Another primary duty of the concertmaster is to translate instructions from the conductor into specific technical language for the strings.
Some conductors prefer to speak more broadly and defer to the concertmaster on such matters out of respect for the musicians who are expert specialists while the conductor is a generalist. Full-time professional orchestras work with several conductors through the course of a regular season. Accordingly, while the conductor may change week to week or month to month, the concertmaster lends a sense of stable and constant leadership day to day. While the impetus for the orchestra to play is given by the conductor's gestures, oftentimes for reasons of precision, the orchestra will follow the bow of the concertmaster as their cue to play; this is because the conductor's gestures exist in the abstract whereas the concertmaster produces sound along with their fellow musicians. Further, the idiosyncratic technique of some conductors can make it difficult for the orchestra to enter together, yet another duty of the concertmaster is to maintain a sense of decorum during rehearsals by setting a personal example and by monitoring the room to ensure all members of the orchestra are being cooperative.
It is more appropriate for the concertmaster to ask for quiet if there is a bit of chatter than it is for a guest conductor unfamiliar with the orchestra. In performances given in America and/or featuring American or British orchestras, the concertmaster will walk onstage individually after the rest of the orchestra is seated, bow and receive applause before the conductor appears. In continental European orchestras, this practice is uncommon. There, the concertmaster walks onstage with the rest of the orchestra; as the representative of the orchestra, the concertmaster will shake hands with the conductor at the beginning or end of a concert as a sign of mutual respect and appreciation. String quartet
New York Philharmonic
The New York Philharmonic the Philharmonic-Symphony Society of New York, Inc. globally known as New York Philharmonic Orchestra or New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra, is a symphony orchestra based in New York City. It is one of the leading American orchestras popularly referred to as the "Big Five"; the Philharmonic's home is David Geffen Hall, located in New York's Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. Founded in 1842, the orchestra is one of the oldest musical institutions in the United States and the oldest of the "Big Five" orchestras, its record-setting 14,000th concert was given in December 2004. The New York Philharmonic was founded in 1842 by the American conductor Ureli Corelli Hill, with the aid of the Irish composer William Vincent Wallace; the orchestra was called the Philharmonic Society of New York. It was the third Philharmonic on American soil since 1799, had as its intended purpose, "the advancement of instrumental music." The first concert of the Philharmonic Society took place on December 7, 1842 in the Apollo Rooms on lower Broadway before an audience of 600.
The concert opened with Beethoven's Symphony No. 5, led by Hill himself. Two other conductors, German-born Henry Christian Timm and French-born Denis Etienne, led parts of the eclectic, three-hour program, which included chamber music and several operatic selections with a leading singer of the day, as was the custom; the musicians operated as a cooperative society, deciding by a majority vote such issues as who would become a member, which music would be performed and who among them would conduct. At the end of the season, the players would divide any proceeds among themselves. After only a dozen public performances and four years old, the Philharmonic organized a concert to raise funds to build a new music hall; the centerpiece was the American premiere of Beethoven's Symphony No. 9, to take place at Castle Garden on the southern tip of Manhattan. About 400 instrumental and vocal performers gathered for this premiere, conducted by George Loder; the chorals were translated into. However, with the expensive US$2.00 ticket price and a war rally uptown, the hoped-for audience was kept away and the new hall would have to wait.
Although judged by some as an odd work with all those singers kept at bay until the end, the Ninth soon became the work performed most when a grand gesture was required. During the Philharmonic's first seven seasons, seven musicians alternated the conducting duties. In addition to Hill, Timm and Étienne, these were William Alpers, George Loder, Louis Wiegers and Alfred Boucher; this changed in 1849. Eisfeld along with Carl Bergmann, would be the conductor until 1865; that year, Eisfeld conducted the Orchestra's memorial concert for the assassinated Abraham Lincoln, but in a peculiar turn of events which were criticized in the New York press, the Philharmonic omitted the last movement, "Ode to Joy", as being inappropriate for the occasion. That year Eisfeld returned to Europe, Bergmann continued to conduct the Society until his death in 1876. Leopold Damrosch, Franz Liszt's former concertmaster at Weimar, served as conductor of the Philharmonic for the 1876/77 season, but failing to win support from the Philharmonic's public, he left to create the rival Symphony Society of New York in 1878.
Upon his death in 1885, his 23-year-old son Walter took over and continued the competition with the old Philharmonic. It was Walter who would convince Andrew Carnegie that New York needed a first-class concert hall and on May 5, 1891, both Walter and Russian composer Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky conducted at the inaugural concert of the city's new Music Hall, which in a few years would be renamed for its primary benefactor, Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie Hall would remain the orchestra's home until 1962; the Philharmonic in 1877 was in desperate financial condition, caused by the paltry income from five concerts in the 1876/77 season that brought in an average of only $168 per concert. Representatives of the Philharmonic wished to attract the German-born, American-trained conductor Theodore Thomas, whose own Theodore Thomas Orchestra had competed directly with the Philharmonic for over a decade and which had brought him fame and great success. At first the Philharmonic's suggestion offended Thomas because he was unwilling to disband his own orchestra.
Because of the desperate financial circumstances, the Philharmonic offered Theodore Thomas the conductorship without conditions, he began conducting the orchestra in the autumn of 1877. With the exception of the 1878/79 season – when he was in Cincinnati and Adolph Neuendorff led the group – Thomas conducted every season for fourteen years, vastly improving the orchestra's financial health while creating a polished and virtuosic ensemble, he left in 1891 to found taking thirteen Philharmonic musicians with him. Another celebrated conductor, Anton Seidl, followed Thomas on the Philharmonic podium, serving until 1898. Seidl, who had served as Wagner's assistant, was a renowned conductor of the composer's works. During his tenure, the Philharmonic enjoyed a period of unprecedented success and prosperity and performed its first world premiere written by a world-renowned composer in the United States – Antonín Dvořák's Ninth Symphony "From the New World". Seidl's sudden death in 1898 from food poisoning at the age of 47 was mourned.
Twelve thousand people applied for tickets to his funeral at the Metropolitan Opera House at 39th Street and Broadway and the streets were jammed for blocks with a "surging mass" of his admirers. According to Joseph Horowitz, Sei