Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the
JoJo's Circus is a Canadian-American interactive stop-motion musical comedy series for preschool children. The series was created by the combined efforts of Jim Jinkins, David Campbell, Mildred Feltzenbaum, Lisa Jinkins and Eric Weiner and produced by Cuppa Coffee Studios and Cartoon Pizza; the series is written by Douglas Wood, the creative executive for Tiny Toon Adventures and Animaniacs and features songs with music by Jeffrey Zahn and Jim Latham and lyrics done by Judy Rothman. The theme song was sung by BECKY, later by Relient K for Disney Junior - Live on Stage! It first aired on the Disney Channel as part of the Playhouse Disney lineup from September 28, 2003, to February 14, 2007. JoJo's Circus marks the first stop-motion series done by Jinkins himself; the show aired in reruns on Disney Junior from 2012 to 2014. The series is set in Circus Town, a self-sufficient city whose cultural center is the "Big Top" tent; the story focuses on hostess JoJo Tickle, a young female clown, Goliath, JoJo's pet lion.
She and Goliath study at the Little Big Top Circus School, where all young soon-to-be circus performers learn under their teacher Mrs. Kersplatski. Along with her friends, JoJo learns while dealing with challenging situations. JoJo's Circus relies on repetition in its structure; each segment always begins with JoJo searching for Goliath, always hiding. JoJo is presented with the situation that will occupy the theme of the show. A song about the resolution of the situation, is sung by JoJo. At the conclusion of each episode, a secondary character asks, "What did you learn today, JoJo?", before she can reply, JoJo is whisked away for the finale, the "spotlight moment." JoJo is placed on a makeshift stage with various cameramen, lighting grips, producers running about, while the "Spotlight Moment" song plays, asking what she's learned, is sung and Jojo taps her foot along. Subsequently, JoJo explains. * Note in " Nighty Night," in "Sleep-Over Surprises," and in "My Clowny Valentine," a special lullaby version of the "Spotlight Moment" song is performed.
The show's voice directors are Debra Toffan. Johanna Claire "JoJo" Tickle: JoJo, the hostess of the show, is an inquisitive and active clown whose parents are famous circus clowns. She's kind-hearted, has a great sense of humor, boundless curiosity, excitement about life. Goliath the Lion: Goliath is JoJo's lion who co-hosts the show and attends school just like JoJo. He's part of the Tickle family; because of his playfulness, he hides from JoJo in the beginning of each episode. He is like JoJo's best friend. Skeebo David Seltzer/Funnyshoes: Skeebo, known as the class cowboy clown since he wears a floppy cowboy hat, a star badge on his vest and Purple Rectangle Glasses and is JoJo's best friend, attends school with her and the other circus kids. Skeebo's eager to make people laugh by testing new jokes, slight gags, tricks which sometimes fail to work. Skeebo has a pet dog named Harpo. Croaky Ann Frogini: Croaky, the great leaper of the group, met JoJo on the first day of school, when she realized she had different abilities and agreed to help each other learn different tricks.
Trina Rose Tightrope: Trina is a ballet dancing, tightrope walker. She comes across as abrupt and snobbish on occasion, but apologizes for her mistakes when she becomes aware of them. Mr. Tickle: Mr. Tickle — JoJo's dad and Peaches's husband — is a jolly clown who blasts off to work in a cannon. Miyoshi "Peaches" Tickle: Peaches is JoJo's mom and Mr. Tickle's wife, she is a tall, skinny clown, full of sunshine and makes goodies for her family and Circus Town residents. She's klutzy by nature, but a good juggler and sometimes catches 15 objects in the air when she accidentally trips. Mrs. Karen Kersplatski: She's JoJo's teacher and the big top ringmaster. A warm and encouraging teacher, Mrs. Kersplatski gives the circus kids a strong sense of mastery and confidence, with her combination of hard work and play. In the second season, she became Maya's stepmother, she is clumsy and after she trips, her catchphrase is "I'm OK!" Dinky Pachyderm: Dinky is a sweet and frisky baby elephant. While Dinky may be clumsy and somewhat oafish, when he dances, he turns into "Mr. Graceful."
His favorite game is "Hide and Seek". Tater Oliver Spudinski: Tater is one of the two kids in the Spudinski clan, his sleepy potato nature seems to be the antithesis to the "get up and go" feel of the show, but sometimes he can't help but join in the fun. In the second season, he has a baby sister named Small Fry. BalBoa: Bal Boa is a sneaky contortionist snake with a talent for making number and letter shapes. Bal Boa has a knack for troublemaking, he thinks it's fun to coax JoJo and others into doing what they are not supposed to do, the kids are sometimes susceptible to Bal Boa charms. Bal Boa is an expert on harvesting squirting flowers by doing a trance dance. Fellini and Federico Frogini: Also called the Flying Froginis, the two Italian-accented brothers are expert jumpers and trapeze artists. Fellini and Federico are uncle and father to Croaky. (Note in the first episode of the series "Take A Bow" the closed captioning stated tha
Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards
The Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards is an annual American children's awards ceremony show, produced by Nickelodeon. Held on a Saturday night in late March or early April, the show honors the year's biggest television and music acts as voted by viewers worldwide of Nickelodeon networks. Winners receive a hollow orange blimp figurine, a logo outline for much of the network's 1984–2009 era, which functions as a kaleidoscope; the show features musical acts. In recent years, slime stunts have been incorporated into the show; the KCAs host live entertainment. It has been known to overwhelmingly cover people with the network's trademark green slime; the series SpongeBob SquarePants has won the most KCA awards, with sixteen overall through the series' run. Individually, Selena Gomez has won the most trophies with eleven, followed by Will Smith and Adam Sandler. Whoopi Goldberg is the only person to have won a Kids' Choice Award, along with the mainstream "EGOT" combination of an Emmy, Grammy and Tony. Rosie O'Donnell has hosted the show most times, followed by Jack Black, John Cena.
Alan Goodman, Albie Hecht, Fred Seibert created the awards show after Nickelodeon produced a show called The Big Ballot in 1987, named for the ballots kids voted with. To vote, the viewers would send in ballots and before the show, the ballots would be counted and the winners would tape a thank you video that would be shown during the program. Goodman and Seibert felt that the network needed a bigger, more exciting platform. Hecht selected the awards logo from a series of network designs created by original logo designers Tom Corey and Scott Nash, overseen by Goodman and Seibert; the award was configured into the current blimp shape/kaleidoscope in 1990. The only change to the award since that time has been to change the embossed logotype on the side of the trophy for 2010 to fit the network's new logo typeface; as the Internet came into widespread use, the voting moved from a combination of 900 number telephone voting and ballots either mailed or completed at Pizza Hut locations, to moving online to the network's website and by 2007, text messaging.
Early years of Internet voting had the early adoption complications of ballot stuffing and adults voting before a new system where only one vote per Nick.com account became the procedure for voting on the awards. In 2010, an iPhone application and mobile browser voting was added; the 2009 Kids' Choice Awards featured a new award called "The Big Green Help Award" which goes to the celebrity who goes above and beyond to help the Earth. The inaugural award was presented to Leonardo DiCaprio. For the 2010 awards, "The Big Green Help" award was renamed "The Big Help" award, with First Lady Michelle Obama winning the first award under the rename. Unlike traditional awards shows, the Kids' Choice Awards uses other items to announce an award winner rather than a traditional envelope; the show sometimes uses balloons, T-shirts, giant letters, stickers. and a foot. Voting for Canadians became available for the 2010 ceremony with the inauguration of Nickelodeon's Canadian service in November 2009. In June 2010, Nickelodeon Latin America announced a Kids' Choice Awards for Mexico.
Other countries with their own Kids' Choice Awards include Brazil, United Kingdom and Indonesia, which are either original local productions, or inserted as continuity during their broadcast of the American ceremony. The Australian Kids' Choice Awards had its last one in 2012. In August 2011, Nickelodeon Latin America announced a Kids' Choice Awards for Argentina. In June 2014, Nickelodeon Latin America announced a Kids' Choice Awards for Colombia; this table shows the awards from the past. An asterisk next to a category indicates an award has been presented in that particular category every year since the inception of the Kids' Choice Awards in 1988; the Kids' Choice Awards are held in and around Southern California, with the exception of the first named KCA ceremony held in San Francisco at Candlestick Park. Previous ceremonies have been held at the Barker Hangar in Santa Monica, the Hollywood Bowl, the Grand Olympic Auditorium in Los Angeles, Universal Studios in Universal City, but at Pauley Pavilion on the UCLA campus.
After renovations to Pauley beginning in 2011, the show was moved to the Galen Center at USC. For the 2015 and 2016 shows, the ceremony occurred at the remodeled Forum in California. For the 2017 KCAs, it returned to the Galen Center. For the 2018 KCAs, it returned to The Forum; the 1987 Big Ballot studio show. The ceremony has been hosted multiple times by four individuals, with Candace Cameron Bure hosting in 1990 and 1994, Whitney Houston consecutively in 1995 and 1996 Rosie O'Donnell alone from 1997 until 2003; this was followed by Jack Black in 2006, 2008 and 2011, John Cena, who has
MTV is an American pay television channel owned by Viacom Media Networks and headquartered in New York City. The channel was launched on August 1, 1981, aired music videos as guided by television personalities known as "video jockeys". At first, MTV's main target demographic was young adults, but today it is teenagers high school and college students. Since its inception, MTV has toned down its music video programming and its programming now consists of original reality and drama programming and some off-network syndicated programs and films, with limited music video programming in off-peak time periods. MTV had struggled with the secular decline of music-related subscription-based media, its ratings had been said to be failing systematically, as younger viewers shift towards other media platforms, with yearly ratings drops as high as 29%. In April 2016, then-appointed MTV president Sean Atkins announced plans to restore music programming to the channel. Under current MTV president Chris McCarthy, reality programming has once again become prominent.
MTV has spawned numerous sister channels in the U. S. and affiliated channels internationally, some of which have gone independent, with 90.6 million American households in the United States receiving the channel as of January 2016. Several earlier concepts for music video-based television programming had been around since the early 1960s; the Beatles had used music videos to promote their records starting in the mid-1960s. The creative use of music videos within their 1964 film A Hard Day's Night the performance of the song "Can't Buy Me Love", led MTV on June 26, 1999, to honor the film's director Richard Lester with an award for "basically inventing the music video". In his book The Mason Williams FCC Rapport, author Mason Williams states that he pitched an idea to CBS for a television program that featured "video-radio", where disc jockeys would play avant-garde art pieces set to music. CBS rejected the idea, but Williams premiered his own musical composition "Classical Gas" on the Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, where he was head writer.
In 1970, Philadelphia-based disc jockey Bob Whitney created The Now Explosion, a television series filmed in Atlanta and broadcast in syndication to other local television stations throughout the United States. The series featured promotional clips from various popular artists, but was canceled by its distributor in 1971. Several music programs originating outside of the US, including Australia's Countdown and the United Kingdom's Top of the Pops, which had aired music videos in lieu of performances from artists who were not available to perform live, began to feature them by the mid-1970s. In 1974, Gary Van Haas, vice president of Televak Corporation, introduced a concept to distribute a music video channel to record stores across the United States, promoted the channel, named Music Video TV, to distributors and retailers in a May 1974 issue of Billboard; the channel, which featured video disc jockeys, signed a deal with US Cable in 1978 to expand its audience from retail to cable television.
The service was no longer active by the time MTV launched in 1981. In 1977, Warner Cable a division of Warner Communications and the precursor of Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment launched the first two-way interactive cable television system named QUBE in Columbus, Ohio; the QUBE system offered many specialized channels. One of these specialized channels was Sight on Sound, a music channel that featured concert footage and music-oriented television programs. With the interactive QUBE service, viewers could vote for their favorite artists; the original programming format of MTV was created by media executive Robert W. Pittman, who became president and chief executive officer of MTV Networks. Pittman had test-driven the music format by producing and hosting a 15-minute show, Album Tracks, on New York City television station WNBC-TV in the late 1970s. Pittman's boss Warner-Amex executive vice president John Lack had shepherded PopClips, a television series created by former Monkee-turned solo artist Michael Nesmith, whose attention had turned to the music video format in the late 1970s.
The inspiration for PopClips came from a similar program on New Zealand's TVNZ network named Radio with Pictures, which premiered in 1976. The concept itself had been in the works since 1966, when major record companies began supplying the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation with promotional music clips to play on the air at no charge. Few artists made the long trip to New Zealand to appear live. On Saturday, August 1, 1981, at 12:01 AM Eastern Time, MTV was launched with the words "Ladies and gentlemen and roll," spoken by John Lack and played over footage of the first Space Shuttle launch countdown of Columbia and of the launch of Apollo 11; those words were followed by the original MTV theme song, a crunching rock tune composed by Jonathan Elias and John Petersen, playing over the American flag changed to show MTV's logo changing into various textures and designs. MTV producers Alan Goodman and Fred Seibert used this public domain footage as a concept. A shortened version of the shuttle launch ID ran at the top of every hour in various forms, from MTV's first day until it was pulled in early 1986 in the wake of the Challenger disaster.
Columbia College (New York)
Columbia College is the oldest undergraduate college of Columbia University, situated on the university's main campus in Morningside Heights in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It was founded by the Church of England in 1754 as King's College, receiving a royal charter from King George II of Great Britain, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. Columbia was ranked as the 3rd best college in the United States by U. S. News and World Report after only Princeton and Harvard; the college is distinctive for its comprehensive Core Curriculum, is among the most selective colleges in its admissions. For the class of 2021, the college accepted 5.8% of its applicants, the second lowest acceptance rate in the Ivy League behind only Harvard. Columbia College was founded as King's College, by royal charter of King George II of Great Britain in the Province of New York in 1754. Due in part to the influence of Church of England religious leaders, a site in New York City in the Trinity Church yard, Wall Street on the island of Manhattan was selected.
Samuel Johnson was chosen as the college's first president and was the college's first professor. During this period and examinations, both oral and written, were conducted in Latin. In 1767, Samuel Bard established a medical college at the school, now known as the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, the first medical school to grant the Doctor of Medicine degree in America. Due to the American Revolutionary War, instruction was suspended from 1776 until 1784, but by the beginning of the war, the college had educated some of the nation's foremost political leaders. At this young age, King's College had educated Alexander Hamilton, who served as military aide to General George Washington and authored most of The Federalist Papers, as the first Secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton's first experience with the military came while a student during the summer of 1775, after the outbreak of fighting at Boston. Along with Nicholas Fish, Robert Troup, a group of other students from King's College, he joined a volunteer militia company called the "Hearts of Oak" and achieved the rank of Lieutenant.
They adopted distinctive uniforms, complete with the words "Liberty or Death" on their hatbands, drilled under the watchful eye of a former British officer in the graveyard of the nearby St. Paul's Chapel. In August 1775, while under fire from HMS Asia, the Hearts of Oak participated in a successful raid to seize cannon from the Battery, becoming an artillery unit thereafter. In 1776 Captain Hamilton would engage in the Battle of Harlem Heights, which took place on and around the site that would become home to his alma mater more than a century only to be entombed after his dueling death some years at the original home of King's College in Trinity Church yard. With the successful Treaty of Paris in 1783, the domestic situation was stable enough for the college to resume classes in 1784. With the new nation's independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain, the name of the institution was changed from King's College to Columbia College, the name by which the institution continues to be known today.
The college was chartered as a state institution, lasting only until 1787, when due to a lack of public financial support the school was permitted to incorporate under a private board of trustees. This 1787 charter remains in effect; the renamed and reorganized college, located in the new national capital under the Constitution and free from its association with the Church of England, students from a variety of denominations came to Columbia as a response to its growing reputation as one of the finest institutions of higher learning in the new nation. After a brief period of being housed in another lower Manhattan building on Park Place near the current location of New York City Hall, in 1857 the college moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in Manhattan. During the college's forty years at this location, in addition to granting the Bachelor of Arts and Doctor of Medicine degrees, the faculties of the college were expanded to include the Columbia Law School, the Columbia School of Mines.
The Columbia School of Mines awarded the first Ph. D. from Columbia in 1875. At this time, Columbia College was now not only the name of the original undergraduate college founded as King's College, but it encompassed all of the other colleges and schools of the institution. After Seth Low became president of Columbia College in 1890, he advocated the division of the individual schools and colleges into their own semi-autonomous entities under the central administration of the university; the complexity of managing the institution had been further increased when Barnard College for Women became affiliated with Columbia in 1889 followed by Teachers College of Columbia University in 1891. By this time, graduate faculties issuing the Doctor of Philosophy degree in philosophy, political science, the natural sciences had developed. Thus, in 1896, the trustees of Columbia College, under the guidance of Seth Low, approved a new name for the university as a whole, Columbia University in the City of Ne
Nick at Nite
Nick at Nite is an American programming block that broadcasts nightly over the channel space of Nickelodeon. It broadcasts from 9:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m on weekdays, Saturdays from 9:30 p.m. to 7:00 a.m. and Sundays from 8:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m.. Its programming start time varies with special programming among the two networks. Although it shares channel space with its parent channel, Nick at Nite is counted as a separate channel from Nickelodeon for ratings purposes. Both services are sometimes collectively referred to as "Nickelodeon/Nick at Nite," due to their common association as two individual channels sharing the same channel space. Nick at Nite appeals to adult and adolescent audiences with a lineup of live-action sitcom reruns and a limited amount of original programming. However, because it shares channel space with Nickelodeon, some of Nick at Nite's programming – programs that lead off the lineup each night – is aimed at preteens and adolescents between 8 and 16 years of age; the content on Nick at Nite is not as raunchy or violent as content on other primetime networks, encouraging a crossover audience between it and Nickelodeon viewers.
Due to its reliance on sitcom reruns whose cable syndication rights are limited to a certain part of the day owing to contracts with studios and/or distributors, Nick at Nite has no video on demand service. As of January 2016, Nick at Nite, is available in 92.0 million households in North America. After the Hearst Corporation, NBC and ABC announced in the summer of 1984 that they would spin off A&E into a separate 24-hour cable channel and cease transmitting its programming over Nickelodeon's channel space to take better advantage of valuable satellite time, MTV Networks President Bob Pittman asked Nickelodeon general manager Geraldine Laybourne to develop programming for the time period. After futile attempts at original program development, Laybourne asked programming and branding consultants Alan Goodman and Fred Seibert of Fred/Alan Inc. to come up with programming ideas. After being presented with over 200 episodes of The Donna Reed Show and Seibert conceived the idea of the "first oldies TV network."
They modeled the new evening and overnight programming block on the successful oldies radio format, "The Greatest Hits of All Time," and branded the block with their next evolution of MTV- and Nickelodeon-style imagery and bumpers. Head programmer Debby Beece led the team to the name "Nick at Nite" for the new block. Fred/Alan developed the original logo with Tom Corey and Scott Nash of Boston advertising firm Corey McPherson Nash, creators of the well-recognized Nickelodeon orange logo. Nick at Nite debuted at 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time on July 1985, as a block on Nickelodeon, its initial programming was a mix of sitcoms and one drama series, led by Dennis the Menace, accompanied by The Donna Reed Show, the offbeat comedy Turkey Television, Route 66. A nightly film presentation, branded as the Nick at Nite Movie, aired at 9:00 p.m. Eastern Time through the end of the decade, included such classic films as the 1947 film The Red House and the 1937 film A Star Is Born; the same five-hour block of programs repeated from 1:00 a.m. and ran until Nickelodeon began its broadcast day at 6:00 a.m.
Eastern Time. As Nick at Nite grew, it would add to its library of shows – branching out to rerun sketch comedy, such as episodes from the early seasons of Saturday Night Live as well as the Canadian series SCTV, it briefly reran the 1970s mock local talk show Fernwood 2 Night. As the years went by, the channel's sitcom library swelled to over a hundred shows. For the channel's 20th birthday celebration in June 2005, TV Land aired an episode from every series that had appeared on Nick at Nite. By the early 1990s, Nick at Nite began running a full schedule of programming, with overnight hours filled by a mix of secondary runs of shows airing on its evening schedule and series that were no longer shown on the evening lineup. In 1995, Nick at Nite celebrated its 10th Anniversary with a week-long event, in which the channel aired "hand picked episodes" of every series that had aired on Nick at Nite since its July 1985 debut; each episode was introduced with its history, episode number, references to the individual program's original run on Nick at Nite.
Flemington, New Jersey
Flemington is a borough in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 4,581, reflecting an increase of 381 from the 4,200 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 153 from the 4,047 counted in the 1990 Census, it is the county seat of Hunterdon County. Most of the borough is in the Amwell Valley, but northwest portions of the borough sit on the Hunterdon Plateau. Flemington is an independent municipality surrounded by Raritan Township and is located near the geographic center of the township. Before European settlement, the land that comprises Flemington, as was all of Hunterdon County, was the territory of the Lenni Lenape Native Americans. In 1712, as part of a land parcel of 9,170 acres, the Flemington area was acquired by William Penn and Daniel Coxe; the surrounding fertile farmland dictated. Early German and English settlers engaged in industries dependent on farm products; as time passed poultry and dairy farms superseded crops in agricultural importance.
An example of early settlement families was Johann David and Anna Maria Ephland, who emigrated in 1709 from Germany through London to New York and settled on his 147.5-acre farm in 1717. They raised their seven children, two from his previous marriage, on the farm that now makes up the core of Flemington. In 1785, Flemington was chosen as the County Seat of Hunterdon. Fire destroyed the old courthouse in 1826 and the City of Lambertville made an unsuccessful attempt to have the seat relocated there. Flemington remained the Courthouse which stands today on Main Street was built. What is now Flemington was formed as a town by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 14, 1870, within portions of Raritan Township, it became a village as of June 1894, still within Raritan Township. Flemington was incorporated as an independent borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 7, 1910, based on the results of a referendum held on April 26, 1910, was formally separated from Raritan Township.
The borough's incorporation was confirmed on April 27, 1931. The borough was named for Samuel Fleming. In 1856, the Hunterdon County Agricultural society purchased 40 acres of land that would accommodate the people and livestock for the County Fair; the purpose of this Fair was to promote competition between farmers, stock raisers and machinery manufacturers. The fair was held every year at the Flemington Fairgrounds, the site of Flemington Fair Speedway. From 1992 through 1995, the speedway hosted the Race of a race for modified racers; the speedway hosted a NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series race from 1995 to 1998. In 2003, the County Fair adopted a new name, The Hunterdon County 4-H and Agricultural Fair, moved to the South County Park in East Amwell Township. On February 13, 1935, a jury in Flemington found Bruno Richard Hauptmann guilty of the kidnapping and murder of Charles Lindbergh's baby boy. By 1980, 65% of Flemington borough had been included on the New Jersey Register of Historic Places and is now on the National Register of Historic Places as the Flemington Historic District.
Union Hotel - Early 19th century hotel in downtown Flemington that served as a restaurant until its 2008 closure. The current structure dates to 1877, built on the site of what had been a stagecoach stop that dates to 1814. Hunterdon County Courthouse - Historic court house where the Lindbergh Trial took place. Now used for County offices. Fleming Castle / Samuel Fleming House - First house in Flemington, 5 Bonnell Street. Purchased by the Borough of Flemington in 2005 and operated as a historical museum by the Friends of Fleming Castle. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 1.077 square miles, all of, land. Flemington is surrounded by Raritan Township, making it part one of 21 pairs of "doughnut towns" in the state, where one municipality surrounds another; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 4,581 people, 1,815 households, 996.435 families residing in the borough. The population density was 4,252.2 per square mile. There were 1,926 housing units at an average density of 1,787.8 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the borough was 78.48% White, 3.93% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 5.81% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 8.71% from other races, 2.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 26.15% of the population. There were 1,815 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.6% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 45.1% were non-families. 37.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.20. In the borough, the population was spread out with 22.3% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 33.9% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.3 years. For every 100 females there were 105.5 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 106.9 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $54,261 and the median family income was $66,042.
Males had a median income of $45,934 versus $47,917 for females. The per c