Cecil Antonio Tony Richardson was an English theatre and film director and producer whose career spanned five decades. In 1964 he won the Academy Award for Best Director for the film Tom Jones, Richardson was born in Shipley, West Riding of Yorkshire in 1928, the son of Elsie Evans and Clarence Albert Richardson, a chemist. Those he cast in his student productions included Shirley Williams, John Schlesinger, Richardson was married to actress Vanessa Redgrave from 1962 to 1967. The couple had two daughters and Joely Richardson, both actresses and he left Redgrave for actress Jeanne Moreau, although the marriage he had anticipated never materialised. In 1972 he had a relationship with Grizelda Grimond, who was a secretary for Richardsons business partner Oscar Lewenstein, Grizelda gave birth to his daughter, Katharine Grimond, on 8 January 1973. Richardson was bisexual, but never acknowledged it publicly until after he contracted HIV and he died of complications from AIDS in 1991. In 1955, in his debut, Richardson produced Jean Giraudouxs The Apollo of Bellac for Television with Denholm Elliott.
Around the same time he began to be active in Britains Free Cinema movement, part of the British New Wave of directors, he was involved in the formation of the English Stage Company, along with his close friend George Goetschius and George Devine. He directed John Osbornes play Look Back in Anger at the Royal Court Theatre, in 1957 he directed Laurence Olivier as Archie Rice in Osbornes next play The Entertainer, again for the Royal Court. In 1964 Richardson received two Academy Awards for Tom Jones and his next film was The Loved One, during which he worked with established stars including John Gielgud, Rod Steiger and Robert Morse working in Hollywood both on location and on the sound stage. In his autobiography he confesses that he did not share the general admiration of Haskell Wexler and his musical composers included Antoine Duhamel, John Addison and Shel Silverstein. His screenwriters were Jean Genet, Christopher Isherwood, Terry Southern, Marguerite Duras, Edward Bond and Osborne eventually fell out during production of the film Charge of the Light Brigade.
The basic issue was Osbornes unwillingness to go through the rewrite process, Richardson himself had a different version. In his autobiography he writes that Osborne was angry at being replaced, in a small rôle, Osborne took literary revenge by creating a fictionalised and pseudonymous Richardson – a domineering and arrogant character whom everyone hated – in his play Hotel in Amsterdam. Stylistically, Richardsons work was highly varied, mademoiselle was shot noir-style on location in rural France with a static camera, monochrome film stock and no music. The Charge of the Light Brigade was part epic and part animated feature, ned Kelly was what might be called an Aussie-western. Laughter in the Dark and A Delicate Balance were psycho-dramas, joseph Andrews was a return to the mood of Tom Jones. He financed the escape from Wormwood Scrubs prison of the spy, in 1974 he went to Los Angeles to work on a script with Sam Shepard, and took up residence there
The Relapse, or, Virtue in Danger is a Restoration comedy from 1696 written by John Vanbrugh. The play is a sequel to Colley Cibbers Loves Last Shift, or and his virtuous wife is subjected to a determined seduction attempt, and resists with difficulty. Vanbrugh planned The Relapse around particular actors at Drury Lane, writing their stage habits, public reputations, one such actor was Colley Cibber himself, who played the luxuriant fop Lord Foppington in both Loves Last Shift and The Relapse. However, Vanbrughs artistic plans were threatened by a struggle between Londons two theatre companies, each of which was seducing actors from the other. Unlike Loves Last Shift, which never performed after the 1690s. Loves Last Shift can be seen as an sign of Cibbers sensitivity to shifts of public opinion. Such moments have not done the play any favours with modern critics, Loves Last Shift is the story of a last shift or trick that a virtuous wife, Amanda, is driven to reform and retain her rakish husband Loveless.
Loveless has been away for ten years, dividing his time between the brothel and the bottle, and no longer recognises his wife when he returns to London. Acting the part of a prostitute, Amanda lures Loveless into her luxurious house and treats him to the night of his dreams. Loveless is so impressed that he immediately reforms, a minor part that was a great hit with the première audience is the fop Sir Novelty Fashion, written by Cibber for himself to play. Combining daring sex scenes with sentimental reconciliations and Sir Noveltys buffoonery, Loves Last Shift offered something for everybody, Loveless falls for the vivacious young widow Berinthia, while Amanda barely succeeds in summoning her virtue to reject her admirer Worthy. The three central characters, Amanda and Sir Novelty, are the ones that recur in both plays, the remainder of the Relapse characters being new. In the trickster subplot, young Tom tricks his elder brother Lord Foppington out of his intended bride and this plot takes up nearly half the play and expands the part of Sir Novelty to give more scope for the roaring success of Cibbers fop acting.
Recycling Cibbers merely fashion-conscious fop, Vanbrugh lets him buy himself a title and equips him with enough aplomb, although Lord Foppington may be very industrious to pass for an ass, as Amanda remarks, he is at bottom a man who Nature has made no fool. Literary historians agree in esteeming him the greatest of all Restoration fops, evil, in the early 1690s, London had only one officially countenanced theatre company, the United Company, badly managed and with its takings bled off by predatory investors. Betterton and his colleagues set forth the bad finances of the United Company and the plight of the actors in a Petition of the Players submitted to the Lord Chamberlain. During this interval, a cooperative actors company took shape under the leadership of Betterton and was granted a Royal licence to act on 25 March, to the dismay of Rich, who saw the threat too late. In the following period of rivalry, the Patent Company was handicapped by a shortage of competent actors
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. Simplistically speaking, the person denominated actor or actress is someone beautiful who plays important characters, the actor performs in the flesh in the traditional medium of the theatre, or in modern mediums such as film and television. The analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής, literally one who answers, the actors interpretation of their role pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs even when the actor is playing themselves, as in forms of experimental performance art, or, more commonly, to act, is to create. Formerly, in societies, only men could become actors. When used for the stage, women played the roles of prepubescent boys. The etymology is a derivation from actor with ess added. However, when referring to more than one performer, of both sexes, actor is preferred as a term for male performers. Actor is used before the name of a performer as a gender-specific term.
Within the profession, the re-adoption of the term dates to the 1950–1960s. As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper, Im an actor – I can play anything. The U. K. performers union Equity has no policy on the use of actor or actress, an Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the. subject divides the profession. In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that Actress remains the term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. However, player remains in use in the theatre, often incorporated into the name of a group or company, such as the American Players. Also, actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as players, prior to Thespis act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, and in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are commonly called Thespians, the exclusively male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama, tragedy and the satyr play.
Western theatre developed and expanded considerably under the Romans, as the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies, from the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder
West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering East Sussex to the east, Hampshire to the west and Surrey to the north, and to the south the English Channel. Chichester in the southwest is the county town and only city in West Sussex, with the largest towns being Crawley, West Sussex has a range of scenery, including wealden and coastal. The highest point of the county is Blackdown, at 280 metres and it has a number of stately homes including Goodwood, Petworth House and Uppark and castles such as Arundel Castle and Bramber Castle. Over half the county is protected countryside, offering walking, although the name Sussex, derived from the Old English Sūþsēaxe, is from the Saxon period between AD477 to 1066, the history of human habitation in Sussex goes back to the Old Stone Age. The oldest hominin remains known in Britain were found at Eartham Pit, Sussex has been occupied since those times and has succumbed to various invasions and migrations throughout its long history. Prehistoric monuments include the Devils Jumps, a group of Bronze Age burial mounds, the Romans used the Weald for iron production on an industrial scale.
The foundation story is regarded as somewhat of a myth by most historians, the Kingdom of Sussex was absorbed into Wessex as an earldom and became the county of Sussex. With its origins in the kingdom of Sussex, the county of Sussex was traditionally divided into six units known as rapes. By the 16th century, the three western rapes were grouped together informally, having their own separate Quarter Sessions and these were administered by a separate county council from 1888, the county of Sussex being divided for administrative purposes into the administrative counties of East and West Sussex. In 1974, West Sussex was made a ceremonial county with the coming into force of the Local Government Act 1972. At the same time a part of the eastern rape of Lewes was transferred into West Sussex. Until 1834 provision for the poor and destitute in West Sussex was made at parish level, from 1835 until 1948 eleven Poor Law Unions, each catering for several parishes, took on the job. Most settlements in West Sussex are either along the south coast or in Mid Sussex, the town of Crawley is the largest in the county with an estimated population of 106,600.
The coastal settlement of Worthing closely follows with a population of 104,600, the seaside resort of Bognor Regis and market town Horsham are both large towns. Chichester, the county town, has a cathedral and city status, much of the coastal town population is part of the Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation. Rustington and Southwater are the next largest settlements in the county, there are several more towns in West Sussex, although they are of similar size to other villages. The smaller towns of the county are Arundel, Petworth, the larger villages are Billingshurst, Crawley Down, Henfield, Hurstpierpoint, Lindfield and Storrington. The current total population of the county makes up 1. 53% of Englands population, West Sussex is bordered by Hampshire to the west, Surrey to the north and East Sussex to the east
Surrey is a county in the south east of England. It shares borders with Kent to the east, East Sussex to the south-east, West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west and south-west, Surrey County Council sits extraterritorially at Kingston upon Thames, administered as part of Greater London since 1965. With a resident population of 1.1 million, Surrey is the most densely populated and third most populated county in the South East region, after Kent, the London boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and parts of Lewisham and Bromley were in Surrey until 1889. The boroughs of Croydon, Kingston upon Thames, Merton and Richmond upon Thames south of the River Thames were part of Surrey until 1965, when they too were absorbed into Greater London. In the same year, the county was extended north of the Thames by the addition of Spelthorne, due to this expansion, modern Surrey borders on the London boroughs of Hounslow and Hillingdon. It has the highest GDP per capita of any English county, Surrey is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the North Downs, running east-west.
To the north of the Downs the land is mostly flat, the geology of this area is dominated by London Clay in the east, Bagshot Sands in the west and alluvial deposits along the rivers. Much of Surrey is in the Metropolitan Green Belt and it contains a good deal of mature woodland. Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill, Leith Hill, Frensham Ponds, Newlands Corner and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons. Surrey is the most wooded county in England, with 22. 4% coverage compared to an average of 11. 8%. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of woodland in the UK. Surrey contains Englands principal concentration of lowland heath, on soils in the west of the county. Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with a network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Way. Accordingly, Surrey provides much in the way of leisure activities. The highest elevation in Surrey is Leith Hill near Dorking and it is either 293,294 or 295 metres above sea level and is the second highest point in southeastern England after Walbury Hill 297 metres in West Berkshire.
Surrey has a population of approximately 1.1 million people and its largest town is Guildford, with a population of 66,773, Woking comes a close second with 62,796. They are followed by Ewell with 39,994 people and Camberley with 30,155, towns of between 25,000 and 30,000 inhabitants are Ashford, Farnham and Redhill. Guildford is the county town, although the county administration was moved to Newington in 1791
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
John Fletcher (playwright)
John Fletcher was a Jacobean playwright. Though his reputation has been far eclipsed since, Fletcher remains an important transitional figure between the Elizabethan popular tradition and the drama of the Restoration. Fletcher was born in December 1579 in Rye, and he cried out at her death, So perish all the Queens enemies. Richard Fletcher died shortly after falling out of favour with the queen and he appears to have been partly rehabilitated before his death in 1596, however, he died substantially in debt. The upbringing of John Fletcher and his seven siblings was entrusted to his paternal uncle Giles Fletcher and his uncles connections ceased to be a benefit, and may even have become a liability, after the rebellion of the Earl of Essex, who had been his patron. Fletcher appears to have entered Corpus Christi College, Cambridge University in 1591 and it is not certain that he took a degree, but evidence suggests that he was preparing for a career in the church. Little is known about his time at college, but he followed the same path previously trodden by the University wits before him.
In 1606, he began to appear as a playwright for the Children of the Queens Revels, at the beginning of his career, his most important association was with Francis Beaumont. The two wrote together for close to a decade, first for the children and for the Kings Men, according to an anecdote transmitted or invented by John Aubrey, they lived together, sharing clothes and having one wench in the house between them. This domestic arrangement, if it existed, was ended by Beaumonts marriage in 1613, and their partnership ended after Beaumont fell ill, probably of a stroke. By this time, Fletcher had moved into an association with the Kings Men. He collaborated with Shakespeare on Henry VIII, The Two Noble Kinsmen, and the lost Cardenio, a play he wrote singly around this time, The Womans Prize or the Tamer Tamed, is a sequel to The Taming of the Shrew. In 1616, after Shakespeares death, Fletcher appears to have entered into an arrangement with the Kings Men similar to Shakespeares. Fletcher wrote only for that company between the death of Shakespeare and his own death nine years and he never lost his habit of collaboration, working with Nathan Field and with Philip Massinger, who succeeded him as house playwright for the Kings Men.
His popularity continued unabated throughout his life, during the winter of 1621 and he died in 1625, apparently of the plague. He seems to have buried in what is now Southwark Cathedral, although the precise location is not known. His mastery is most notable in two types and comedy of manners. In the preface to the edition of his play, Fletcher explained the failure as due to his audiences faulty expectations
Troilus and Cressida
Troilus and Cressida is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1602. It was described by Frederick S. Boas as one of Shakespeares problem plays, the play ends on a very bleak note with the death of the noble Trojan Hector and destruction of the love between Troilus and Cressida. The work has in recent years stimulated exceptionally lively critical debate and this is tragedy of a special sort—the tragedy the basis of which is the impossibility of conventional tragedy. Troilus and Cressida is set during the years of the Trojan War. Essentially, two plots are followed in the play, in one, Troilus, a Trojan prince, woos Cressida, another Trojan. They have sex, professing their love, before Cressida is exchanged for a Trojan prisoner of war. As he attempts to visit her in the Greek camp, Troilus glimpses Diomedes flirting with his beloved Cressida, while this plot gives the play its name, it accounts for only a small part of the plays run time. The majority of the play revolves around the leaders of the Greek and Trojan forces, Ajax is originally chosen as this combatant, but makes peace with Hector before they are able to fight.
Achilles is prompted to return to only after his dear friend and possible lover. A series of skirmishes conclude the play, during which Achilles catches Hector and has the Myrmidons kill him, the conquest of Troy is left unfinished, as the Trojans learn of the death of their hero. The story was a one for dramatists in the early 17th century. Thomas Heywoods two-part play The Iron Age depicts the Trojan war and the story of Troilus and Cressida, but it is not certain whether his or Shakespeares play was written first. In addition, Thomas Dekker and Henry Chettle wrote a play called Troilus and Cressida at around the time as Shakespeare. The play is believed to have written around 1602, shortly after the completion of Hamlet. It was published in quarto in two editions, both in 1609. No publication followed, until 1609, the stationers Richard Bonian,1609, and that year issued the first quarto, but in two states. Some commentators have attempted to reconcile these contradictory claims by arguing that the play was composed originally around 1600–02, but heavily revised shortly before its 1609 printing.
The play is noteworthy for its bitter and caustic nature, similar to the works that Shakespeare was writing in the 1605–08 period, King Lear, Coriolanus, in this view, the original version of the play was a more positive romantic comedy of the type Shakespeare wrote ca
Stratford-upon-Avon is a market town and civil parish in Warwickshire, England, on the River Avon,101 miles north west of London,22 miles south east of Birmingham, and 8 miles south west of Warwick. The estimated population in 2007 was 25,505, increasing to 27,445 at the 2011 Census, Stratford was originally inhabited by Anglo-Saxons and remained a village before lord of the manor, John of Coutances, set out plans to develop it into a town in 1196. In that same year, Stratford was granted a charter from King Richard I to hold a market in the town. As a result, Stratford experienced an increase in trade and commerce as well as urban expansion, the town is a popular tourist destination owing to its status as birthplace of English playwright and poet William Shakespeare, and receives approximately 2.5 million visitors a year. The Royal Shakespeare Company resides in Stratfords Royal Shakespeare Theatre, the street was a Roman road which connected Icknield Street in Alcester to the Fosse Way. The ford, which has used as a crossing since Roman times.
A survey of 1251-52 uses the name Stratford for the first time to identify Old Stratford, the name was used after that time to describe the area specifically surrounding the Holy Trinity Church and the street of Old Town. The settlement which became known as Stratford was first inhabited by Anglo-Saxons following their 7th century invasion of what would become known as Warwickshire. The land was owned by the church of Worcester and it remained a village until the late 12th century when it was developed into a town by lord of the manor, John of Coutances. John laid out a new plan in 1196 based on a grid system to expand Stratford. Additionally, a charter was granted to Stratford by King Richard I in 1196 which allowed a market to be held in the town. These two charters, which formed the foundations of Stratfords transformation from a village to a town, johns plans to develop Stratford into a town meant Stratford became a place of work for tradesmen and merchants. By 1252 the town had approximately 240 burgages, as well as shops, Stratfords new workers established a guild known as the Guild of the Holy Cross for their business and religious requirements.
Many of the towns earliest and most important buildings are located along what is known as Stratfords Historic Spine, the route of the Historic Spine begins at Shakespeares Birthplace in Henley Street. It continues through Henley Street to the top end of Bridge Street and into High Street where many Elizabethan buildings are located, the route carries on through Chapel Street where Nashs House and New Place are sited. The Historic Spine continues along Church Street where Guild buildings are located dating back to the 15th century, the route finishes in Old Town, which includes Halls Croft and the Holy Trinity Church. During Stratfords early expansion into a town, the access across the River Avon into and out of the town was over a wooden bridge. In 1480, a new masonry bridge was built to replace it called Clopton Bridge
There is mention of a place spelt as Ertlyngeleghe, in 1396, which may refer to Ardingly. The village is on the B2028 road, the parish covers an area of 3,974 acres. The 2001 Census recorded 1,833 people in 627 households of whom 830 were economically active, the population at the 2011 Census had increased to 1,936 St Peters parish church, towards the western end of the village, dates from the 14th century. Wakehurst Place and its grounds, Kew in the Country, are about 1.5 miles north of the village, Ardingly Reservoir is about 1 mile west of the village. The Big-Upon-Little rock formation is close to a footpath between Ardingly and West Hoathly, in June the South of England Agricultural Show early in the month and the London to Brighton cycle event attract visitors from across the country. The South of England Showground hosts regular antiques fairs, which are featured on the BBC Television game show Bargain Hunt. Every four years an international scout camp is held on the showground, attended by about 3,000 Scouts and Girl Guides from West Sussex, the most recent event called WS2008 was held in August 2008.
At the southern edge of the village is Ardingly College, an independent school, Ardingly has a low-frequency bus service to the nearby towns of Haywards Heath and Crawley. Ardingly railway station was opened 1 October 1864 by the London, the Southern Railway electrified the line in the 1930s but British Railways closed the line and station to passenger trains in 1963. The goods yard and connection to the line remain open as an ARC Aggregates terminal. The nearby Bluebell Railway owns the trackbed between Ardingly and Horsted Keynes and has a long-term aspiration to re-open the line. Frances Garnet Wolseley, 2nd Viscountess Wolseley, a celebrated horticulturist and gardening author, moved to Culpepers, Ardingly in 1920, jon Snow and television presenter, was born in Ardingly in 1947. Victoria County History, A History of the County of Sussex, Volume 7, The Rape of Lewes
The Merchant of Venice
The Merchant of Venice is a 16th century play by William Shakespeare in which a merchant in Venice must default on a large loan provided by an abused Jewish moneylender. It is believed to have written between 1596 and 1599. Also notable is Portias speech about the quality of mercy, critic Harold Bloom listed it among Shakespeares great comedies. Bassanio, a young Venetian of noble rank, wishes to woo the beautiful, having squandered his estate, he needs 3,000 ducats to subsidise his expenditures as a suitor. Bassanio approaches his friend Antonio, a merchant of Venice who has previously and repeatedly bailed him out. Antonio has already antagonized Shylock through his outspoken antisemitism, and because Antonios habit of lending money without interest forces Shylock to charge lower rates, Shylock is at first reluctant to grant the loan, citing abuse he has suffered at Antonios hand. He finally agrees to lend the sum to Bassanio without interest upon one condition, if Bassanio is unable to repay it at the specified date, Shylock may take a pound of Antonios flesh.
Bassanio does not want Antonio to accept such a condition, Antonio is surprised by what he sees as the moneylenders generosity. With money at hand, Bassanio leaves for Belmont with his friend Gratiano, Gratiano is a likeable young man, but is often flippant, overly talkative, and tactless. Bassanio warns his companion to exercise self-control, and the two leave for Belmont, meanwhile, in Belmont, Portia is awash with suitors. Her father left a will stipulating each of her suitors must choose correctly from one of three caskets – one each of gold and lead, if he picks the right casket, he gets Portia. The first suitor, the Prince of Morocco, chooses the gold casket, interpreting its slogan, Who chooseth me shall gain what many men desire, as referring to Portia. The second suitor, the conceited Prince of Arragon, chooses the silver casket, both suitors leave empty-handed, having rejected the lead casket because of the baseness of its material and the uninviting nature of its slogan, Who chooseth me must give and hazard all he hath.
The last suitor is Bassanio, whom Portia wishes to succeed, as Bassanio ponders his choice, members of Portias household sing a song which says that fancy is engendred in the eyes, With gazing fed, Bassanio chooses the lead casket and wins Portias hand. At Venice, Antonios ships are reported lost at sea so the merchant cannot repay the bond, Shylock has become more determined to exact revenge from Christians because his daughter Jessica eloped with the Christian Lorenzo and converted. She took an amount of Shylocks wealth with her, as well as a turquoise ring which Shylock had been given by his late wife. Shylock has Antonio brought before court, at Belmont, Bassanio receives a letter telling him that Antonio has been unable to repay the loan from Shylock. Portia and Bassanio marry, as do Gratiano and Portias handmaid Nerissa and Gratiano leave for Venice, with money from Portia, to save Antonios life by offering the money to Shylock
Dame Judith Olivia Dench CH DBE FRSA, known as Judi Dench, is an English actress and author. Dench made her debut in 1957 with the Old Vic Company. Over the following few years she performed in several of Shakespeares plays in such roles as Ophelia in Hamlet, Juliet in Romeo and Juliet and Lady Macbeth in Macbeth. Although most of her work during this period was in theatre, she branched into film work. She drew strong reviews for her role in the musical Cabaret in 1968. Over the next two decades, Dench established herself as one of the most significant British theatre performers, working for the National Theatre Company and the Royal Shakespeare Company. She achieved success in television during this period, in the series A Fine Romance from 1981 until 1984 and she has received the BAFTA Fellowship and the Special Olivier Award. In June 2011, she received a fellowship from the British Film Institute, Dench is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts. Dench was born in Heworth, North Riding of Yorkshire and her mother, Eleanora Olive, was born in Dublin, Ireland.
Her father, Reginald Arthur Dench, a doctor, was born in Dorset and moved to Dublin and he met Denchs mother while he was studying medicine at Trinity College, Dublin. Dench attended The Mount School, a Quaker independent secondary school in York and her brothers, one of whom was actor Jeffery Dench, were born in Tyldesley, Lancashire. Her niece, Emma Dench, is a Roman historian and professor previously at Birkbeck, University of London, and currently at Harvard University. In Britain, Dench has developed a reputation as one of the greatest actresses of the period, primarily through her work in theatre. She has more than once been named one in polls for Britains best actor. Through her parents, Dench had regular contact with the theatre and her father, a physician, was the GP for the York theatre, and her mother was its wardrobe mistress. Actors often stayed in the Dench household, during these years, Judi Dench was involved on a non-professional basis in the first three productions of the modern revival of the York Mystery Plays in the 1950s.
In 1957, in one of the last productions in which she appeared during this period, she played the role of the Virgin Mary, performed on a fixed stage in the Museum Gardens. Though she initially trained as a set designer, she became interested in school as her brother Jeff attended the Central School of Speech