Gothenburg Book Fair
The Gothenburg Book Fair is an annual event held in Gothenburg, since 1985. It started as a trade fair, but is now the largest literary festival in Scandinavia and the second largest book fair in Europe after the Frankfurt Book Fair; the book fair takes place in the last week of September each year. It has 900 exhibitors annually. Official website
WikiLeaks is an international non-profit organisation that publishes secret information, news leaks, classified media provided by anonymous sources. Its website, initiated in 2006 in Iceland by the organisation Sunshine Press, claims a database of 10 million documents in 10 years since its launch. Julian Assange, an Australian Internet activist, is described as its founder and director. Since September 2018, Kristinn Hrafnsson has served as its editor-in-chief; the group has released a number of prominent document dumps. Early releases included documentation of equipment expenditures and holdings in the Afghanistan war and a report informing a corruption investigation in Kenya. In April 2010, WikiLeaks released the Collateral Murder footage from the 12 July 2007 Baghdad airstrike in which Iraqi journalists were among those killed. Other releases in 2010 included the Afghan War Diary and the "Iraq War Logs"; the latter allowed the mapping of 109,032 deaths in "significant" attacks by insurgents in Iraq, reported to Multi-National Force – Iraq, including about 15,000 that had not been published.
In 2010, WikiLeaks released the US State Department diplomatic "cables", classified cables, sent to the US State Department. In April 2011, WikiLeaks began publishing 779 secret files relating to prisoners detained in the Guantanamo Bay detention camp. During the 2016 US presidential election campaign, WikiLeaks released emails and other documents from the Democratic National Committee and from Hillary Clinton's campaign manager, John Podesta; these releases caused significant harm to the Clinton campaign, have been attributed as a potential contributing factor to her loss. The U. S. intelligence community expressed "high confidence" that the leaked emails had been hacked by Russia and supplied to WikiLeaks, while WikiLeaks denied their source was Russia or any other state. During the campaign, WikiLeaks promoted conspiracy theories about Hillary Clinton and the Democratic Party. In private conversations from November 2015 that were leaked, Julian Assange expressed a preference for a GOP victory in the 2016 election, explaining that "Dems+Media+liberals woudl form a block to reign in their worst qualities.
With Hillary in charge, GOP will be pushing for her worst qualities, dems+media+neoliberals will be mute." In private correspondence with the Trump campaign on election day, WikiLeaks encouraged the Trump campaign to contest the election results in case they lost. WikiLeaks has drawn criticism for its absence of whistleblowing on or criticism of Russia, for criticising the Panama Papers' exposé of businesses and individuals with offshore bank accounts. WikiLeaks has been criticised for inadequately curating its content and violating the personal privacy of individuals. WikiLeaks has, for instance, revealed Social Security numbers, medical information, credit card numbers and details of suicide attempts; the wikileaks.org domain name was registered on 4 October 2006. The website was established and published its first document in December 2006. WikiLeaks is represented in public by Julian Assange, described as "the heart and soul of this organisation, its founder, spokesperson, original coder, organiser and all the rest".
Sarah Harrison, Kristinn Hrafnsson and Joseph Farrell are the only other publicly known and acknowledged associates of Assange who are living. Harrison is a member of Sunshine Press Productions along with Assange and Ingi Ragnar Ingason. Gavin MacFadyen was acknowledged by Assange as a ″beloved director of WikiLeaks″ shortly after his death in 2016. WikiLeaks was established with a "wiki" communal publication method, terminated by May 2010. Original volunteers and founders were once described as a mixture of Asian dissidents, journalists and start-up company technologists from the United States, Europe and South Africa; as of June 2009, the website had more than 1,200 registered volunteers. Despite some popular confusion, related to the fact both sites use the "wiki" name and website design template, WikiLeaks and Wikipedia are not affiliated. Wikia, a for-profit corporation affiliated loosely with the Wikimedia Foundation, purchased several WikiLeaks-related domain names as a "protective brand measure" in 2007.
On 26 September 2018, it was announced that Julian Assange had appointed Kristinn Hrafnsson as editor-in-chief of WikiLeaks while the organisation's statement said Assange was remaining as its publisher. His access to the internet had been ended by his hosts in the Ecuadorian embassy in March 2019 as he had broken a commitment "not to issue messages that might interfere with other states". According to the WikiLeaks website, its goal is "to bring important news and information to the public... One of our most important activities is to publish original source material alongside our news stories so readers and historians alike can see evidence of the truth." Another of the organisation's goals is to ensure that journalists and whistleblowers are not prosecuted for emailing sensitive or classified documents. The online "drop box" is described by the WikiLeaks website as "an innovative and anonymous way for sources to leak information to journalists"; some describe WikiLeaks as journalistic organisation.
For example, in a 2013 resolution, the International Federation of Journalists, a trade union of journalists, called WikiLeaks a "new breed of media organisation" that "offers important opportunities for media organisations". Harvard professor Yochai Benkler praised WikiLeaks as a new form of journalistic enterprise, testifying at the court-martial of Chelsea Manning that "WikiLeaks did serve a
Cranleigh School is an independent English boarding school in the village of Cranleigh, Surrey. The Good Schools Guide described the school as a "Hugely popular school with loads on offer, improving academia and mega street cred. Ideal for the sporty, sociable and lovely child." It was opened on 29 September 1865 as a boys' school'to provide a sound and plain education, on the principles of the Church of England, on the public school system, for the sons of farmers and others engaged in commercial pursuits'. It grew and by the 1880s had more than 300 pupils although, as with many similar schools, it declined over the next 30 years and in 1910 numbers dropped to 150. Two powerful headmasters - Herbert Rhodes and David Loveday restored Cranleigh's fortunes. Cranleigh started to admit girls in the early 1970s and became co-educational in 1999; the current headmaster is Martin Reader with former East Housemaster, Simon Bird, as the Deputy Head. The school's Trevor Abbott Sports Centre was opened by Sir Richard Branson and the West House was opened by Baroness Greenfield.
New building projects include the completed extension onto Cubitt House as well as an environmentally friendly Woodland Workshop and a new £10 million Academic Centre named the Emms Centre. Named after David Emms, this was opened by Lord Patten of Barnes in 2009; the building includes new facilities for Modern Languages as well as a lecture theatre. A £2 million renovation of the chapel in 2009 included the installation of a £500,000 Mander organ. Afshin Feiz Anthony Ainley Tony Anholt Olivia Attwood Stacy Aumonier Thomas Alexander Barns Sir Nicholas Blake Hugh Blaker Derek Bourgeois Luke Braid Sir Gordon Brunton Sir David Calcutt Harry Calder Rob Curling Michael Cochrane Peter Conder Vivian Cox Peter Henry Emerson Eric Fellner David Garnett Paul Goodman Peter Gordon Bernard Gutteridge G. H. Hardy Nick Harper Victor Heerman Christopher Herrick Adam Holloway Frederick George Jackson Lieutenant General James Gordon Legge Patrick Marber John Mark George May, 1st Baron May Stuart Meaker Laurence Naismith Julia Ormond Jolyon Palmer Ollie Pope Major General Michael Reynolds CB Andrew Roberts Alan Rusbridger Michael Stuart-Moore, Vice-President of the Court of Appeal, Hong Kong Arthur Upfield Flight Lieutenant Zane Sennett Sam Smith Seb Stegmann Sewell Stokes E W Swanton Christopher Trace, the first presenter of the BBC's long-running Blue Peter children's programme James William Webb-Jones David Westcott Steve Batchelor Neil Bennett Revd.
William Booth Luis Cernuda Andrew Corran Vivian Cox David Emms Roger Knight Charles W L Parker Sir Michael Redgrave Mike Worsley Former pupils of the school may join the Old Cranleighan Society. About 6,500 past pupils are members; the Old Cranleighan Sports Club in Thames Ditton in Surrey is owned by the Society. The thirty seventh steam locomotive in the Southern Railway's Class V, built in 1934 was named "Cranleigh" after the school; this class of locomotive was known as the Schools Class because all 40 of the class were named after English public schools Cranleigh School website OC Society website OC Cricket Club website OC Hockey Club website OC Rugby Football Club website
University of Oslo
The University of Oslo, until 1939 named the Royal Frederick University, is the oldest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo. Until 1 January 2016 it was the largest Norwegian institution of higher education in terms of size, now surpassed only by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology; the Academic Ranking of World Universities has ranked it the 58th best university in the world and the third best in the Nordic countries. In 2015, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked it the 135th best university in the world and the seventh best in the Nordics. While in its 2016, Top 200 Rankings of European universities, the Times Higher Education listed the University of Oslo at 63rd, making it the highest ranked Norwegian university; the university has 27,700 students and employs around 6,000 people. Its faculties include Theology, Medicine, Mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences and Education; the university's original neoclassical campus is located in the centre of Oslo.
Most of the university's other faculties are located at the newer Blindern campus in the suburban West End. The Faculty of Medicine is split between several university hospitals in the Oslo area; the university was founded in 1811 and was modeled after the University of Copenhagen and the established University of Berlin. It was named for King Frederick VI of Denmark and Norway and received its current name in 1939; the university is informally known as Universitetet, having been the only university in Norway, until 1946 and was referred to as "The Royal Frederick's", prior to the name change. The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded in the university's Atrium, from 1947 to 1989, making it the only university in the world to be involved in awarding a Nobel Prize. Since 2003, the Abel Prize is awarded in the Atrium. Five researchers affiliated with the university have been Nobel laureates. In 1811, a decision was made to establish the first university in the Dano-Norwegian Union, after an agreement was reached with King Frederik VI, who had earlier believed that such an institution might encourage political separatist tendencies.
In 1813, The Royal Frederik's University was founded in a small city at that time. Circumstances changed one year into the commencement of the university, as Norway proclaimed independence. However, independence was somewhat restricted, as Norway was obliged to enter into a legislative union with Sweden based on the outcome of the War of 1814. Norway retained its own constitution and independent state institutions, although royal power and foreign affairs were shared with Sweden. At a time when Norwegians feared political domination by the Swedes, the new university became a key institution that contributed to Norwegian political and cultural independence; the main initial function of The Royal Frederick University was to educate a new class of upper-echelon civil servants, as well as parliamentary representatives and government ministers. The university became the centre for a survey of the country—a survey of culture, language and folk traditions; the staff of the university strove to undertake a wide range of tasks necessary for developing a modern society.
Throughout the 1800s, the university's academic disciplines became more specialised. One of the major changes in the university came during the 1870s when a greater emphasis was placed upon research, the management of the university became more professional, academic subjects were reformed, the forms of teaching evolved. Classical education came under increasing pressure; when the union with Sweden was dissolved in 1905, the university became important for producing educated experts in a society which placed increasing emphasis on ensuring that all its citizens enjoy a life of dignity and security. Education, health services and public administration were among those fields that recruited personnel from the university's graduates. Research changed qualitatively around the turn of the century as new methods, scientific theories and forms of practice changed the nature of research, it was decided that teachers should arrive at their posts as qualified academics and continue academic research alongside their role as teachers.
Scientific research—whether to launch or test out new theories, to innovate or to pave the way for discoveries across a wide range of disciplines—became part of the increased expectations placed on the university. Developments in society created a need for more and more specialised and practical knowledge, not competence in theology or law, for example; the university strove to meet these expectations through increasing academic specialisation. The position of rector was established by Parliament in 1905 following the Dissolution of the Union. Waldemar Christofer Brøgger became the university's first rector. Brøgger vacillated between a certain pessimism and a powerfully energetic attitude regarding how to procure finances for research and fulfill his more general funding objectives. With the establishment of the national research council after World War II, Brøgger's vision was fulfilled; this coincided with a massive rise in student enrollment during the 1960s, which again made it difficult to balance research with the demands for teaching.
In the years leading up to 1940, research was more linked with the growth of the nation, with progress an
The Ditchley Foundation based at Ditchley Park near Chipping Norton, aims to promote international understanding and relations Anglo-American relations, through a programme of around twelve annual conferences on matters of international interest. The foundation was established in 1958 by Sir David Wills, descendant of the tobacco importing family, W. D. & H. O. Wills of Bristol. At each conference, around forty international invitees are drawn from senior levels of politics, the armed forces and academia; the current director is James Arroyo OBE director for data at the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office, charged with adapting the organisation to the digital age. Discussion at each two-day conference begins with all members present, before participants divide into three sub-groups, each having its own chairman and rapporteur to summarise proceedings. Proceedings end with one more conference-wide session. Discussions are private and non-attributable, under the Chatham House Rule, but a full account is produced by the Director, posted on the Foundations website.
Sister organisations and Canadian Ditchley, help to shape the conference programme as well as select American and Canadian participants. The Rt Hon the Lord Hill of Oareford CBE. Current Chairman of Ditchley, he has roles as Senior Advisor, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer. He was European Commissioner for Financial Stability, Financial Services and Capital Markets Union; the Rt Hon George Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen, KT, GCMG, PC, Hon FRSE. He is Deputy-Chairman of TNK-BP, he was NATO Secretary General from 1999-2003 and UK Defence Secretary from 1997-1999, Chairman of The Ditchley Foundation, 2010-2017. Sir John Major, the former British Prime Minister, chairman of The Ditchley Foundation 2000-2009. Sir John Wheeler-Bennett. British historian. Sir Reginald Hibbert. Director 1982–1987. Sir Philip Adams. Director 1977–1982. Sir Michael Quinlan. Director 1992–1999. Sir Nigel Broomfield KCMG, Director 1999-2004 Sir Jeremy Greenstock GCMG, Director 2004 - 2010 Sir John Holmes GCVO, KBE, CMG, Director 2010 - 2016 The list below includes some current, but many former Governors David L. Aaron, former US Deputy National Security AdvisorVirginia Bottomley, former Secretary of State for Health Robin Butler, former Secretary of the Cabinet and Head of the Home Civil Service David Cameron, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Menzies Campbell, former Leader of the Liberal Democrat Party Robert Cooper, Director General, Council of the European Union David Hennessy, former Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Lords Douglas Hurd, former Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs Roy MacLaren, former Canadian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom John Major, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom David Miliband, former Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs Pauline Neville-Jones, former Minister of State for Security Malcolm Rifkind, former Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs.
John Sawers, former British diplomat and senior civil servant Jack Straw, former Home Secretary David Willetts, former Minister of State for Universities and Science Shirley Williams, former Secretary of State for Education and Science Our Good Conference Guide: Magic mountains for the mind - The Economist - 26 December 1987 - Volume 305 Official Web Site The Ditchley foundation council The Ditchley foundation governors The Ditchley Foundation from the autobiography of Harry Hodson Knives are out for Mandelson as new job begins Enron - Mandelson discussions at Ditchley
Kingston University London is a public research university located within the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, in South West London, United Kingdom. The university specialises in the arts, fashion, science and business, it received university status in 1992, before which the institution was known as Kingston Polytechnic. Its roots, however, go back to the Kingston Technical Institute, founded in 1899; the university has four campuses situated in Roehampton. Kingston University London, is a member of the Association of MBAs, the European University Association and the Association of Commonwealth Universities. Kingston was founded as Kingston Technical Institute in 1899, it offered courses in chemistry, electrical wiring and nursing. In 1917 Gipsy Hill College for teacher training opened, a predecessor of Kingston University. In 1930 the Kingston School of Art separated from the Technical Institute to become Kingston College of Art in 1945. In 1946 Gipsy Hill College moved to Kingston Hill.
In 1951, the first Penryhn Road campus buildings opened. Kingston was recognised as a'Regional College of Technology' by the Ministry of Education in 1957. In 1970, the College of Technology merged with the College of Art to become Kingston Polytechnic, offering 34 major courses, of which 17 were at degree level. In 1975, Kingston merged with the Gipsy Hill College of Education, incorporating the College's faculty into Kingston's Division of Educational Studies. Kingston was granted university status under the Further and Higher Education Act 1992. In 1993, Kingston opened the Roehampton Vale campus building and in 1995, Kingston acquired Dorich House. In 2008, the BBC obtained e-mails circulated within Kingston's School of Music, relating to the opinions of an external examiner moderating the BMus course; the messages showed. The examiner was persuaded to moderate her criticism following contact from a member of the University's staff; the e-mails detailed a plan to replace her with a more experienced and broad-based external examiner, a process which Kingston stressed breaks no rules relating to the appointment of such examiners.
In October 2008, Peter Williams, Chief Executive of the UK Quality Assurance Agency, presented the agency's findings to a Parliamentary Select Committee charged with investigating standards in British higher education. Following an investigation of the allegations by a former University staff member that undue pressure was applied to the School of Music's External Examiner, QAA upheld all charges of wrongdoing, as alleged. In 2015, Prime Minister David Cameron named and shamed four British universities which gave platforms to allegedly'extremist' speakers. Kingston's Vice Chancellor Julius Weinberg defended his decision to allow controversial speakers in the name of free speech. In 2008, an audio recording obtained by student media included two psychology lecturers asking students to inflate their graded opinions given as part of the National Student Survey. One member of staff was recorded as encouraging students to boost specific satisfaction scores, because "if Kingston comes down the bottom the bottom line is that nobody is going to want to employ you because they are going to think your degree is shit".
In response, Vice-Chancellor Peter Scott confirmed that the recording was genuine but added that he believed that the incident was an isolated one. In July 2008, the Higher Education Funding Council of England removed the University's Department of Psychology of the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences from the League Tables for the year as its sanction for having fraudulently manipulated the National Student Survey results; this is the main university campus located close to Kingston town centre. Students based here study: Arts and Social Sciences, Civil Engineering and Planning, Computing and Information Systems and Mathematics, Earth Sciences and Geography, Biosciences, Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, Radiography. Development at this site has extended it to the Learning Resources Centre. In 2015, the Union of Kingston Students, moved into the main building. Penrhyn Road houses the refurbished Fitness Centre. Kingston Hill caters to Nursing, Education, Music and Social Sciences. Before 1989, this campus was known as Gipsy Hill.
The Business School moved to a new building on the Kingston Hill Campus in 2012. Located on Grange road, Knights Park campus is home to the Kingston School of Art; the campus is built on the northern banks of the Hogsmill River and opened in 1939. The Roehampton Vale campus was opened in 1993 by Sir William Barlow, the president of the Royal Academy of Engineering; the site is located on the outskirts of Kingston. Facilities on site include a wind tunnel, engineering workshops, a flight simulator, a flying condition Learjet 25, plus automotive and aeronautical learning resources. Former church converted into the Kingston Drama students’ base, the Reg Bailey has two theatres with professional lighting and sound equipment, three rehearsal rooms and a costume room while its annexed Surrey Club is dedicated to Dance students through imposing performance studio with a state-of-the-art LED lighting system and professional sound technology, two rehearsal studios and a body conditioning room, all with sprung Harlequin floors.
The Reg Bailey has been home to such alumni members as Ben Barnes, Sam Chan, Mandy Takhar, Alphonsia Emmanuel, Jessie Cave, Laura Harling and Trevor Eve. The University’s 55-acre sports ground houses twelves football pitches, two rugby pitches, three cricket sq
Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland known internationally as the UK Parliament, British Parliament, or Westminster Parliament, domestically as Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories. It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and the overseas territories. Parliament is bicameral but has three parts, consisting of the Sovereign, the House of Lords, the House of Commons; the two houses meet in the Palace of Westminster in the City of Westminster, one of the inner boroughs of the capital city, London. The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the Lords Spiritual, consisting of the most senior bishops of the Church of England, the Lords Temporal, consisting of life peers, appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister, of 92 hereditary peers, sitting either by virtue of holding a royal office, or by being elected by their fellow hereditary peers.
Prior to the opening of the Supreme Court in October 2009, the House of Lords performed a judicial role through the Law Lords. The House of Commons is an elected chamber with elections to 650 single member constituencies held at least every five years under the first-past-the-post system; the two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Palace of Westminster in London. By constitutional convention, all government ministers, including the Prime Minister, are members of the House of Commons or, less the House of Lords and are thereby accountable to the respective branches of the legislature. Most cabinet ministers are from the Commons, whilst junior ministers can be from either House. However, the Leader of the House of Lords must be a peer; the Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Treaty of Union by Acts of Union passed by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, both Acts of Union stating, "That the United Kingdom of Great Britain be represented by one and the same Parliament to be styled The Parliament of Great Britain".
At the start of the 19th century, Parliament was further enlarged by Acts of Union ratified by the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland that abolished the latter and added 100 Irish MPs and 32 Lords to the former to create the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 formally amended the name to the "Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland", five years after the secession of the Irish Free State in 1922. With the global expansion of the British Empire, the UK Parliament has shaped the political systems of many countries as ex-colonies and so it has been called the "Mother of Parliaments". However, John Bright – who coined the epithet – used it in reference to the political culture of "England" rather than just the parliamentary system. In theory, the UK's supreme legislative power is vested in the Crown-in-Parliament. However, the Crown acts on the advice of the Prime Minister and the powers of the House of Lords are limited to only delaying legislation.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created on 1 January 1801, by the merger of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland under the Acts of Union 1800. The principle of ministerial responsibility to the lower House did not develop until the 19th century—the House of Lords was superior to the House of Commons both in theory and in practice. Members of the House of Commons were elected in an antiquated electoral system, under which constituencies of vastly different sizes existed. Thus, the borough of Old Sarum, with seven voters, could elect two members, as could the borough of Dunwich, which had completely disappeared into the sea due to land erosion. Many small constituencies, known as pocket or rotten boroughs, were controlled by members of the House of Lords, who could ensure the election of their relatives or supporters. During the reforms of the 19th century, beginning with the Reform Act 1832, the electoral system for the House of Commons was progressively regularised.
No longer dependent on the Lords for their seats, MPs grew more assertive. The supremacy of the British House of Commons was reaffirmed in the early 20th century. In 1909, the Commons passed the so-called "People's Budget", which made numerous changes to the taxation system which were detrimental to wealthy landowners; the House of Lords, which consisted of powerful landowners, rejected the Budget. On the basis of the Budget's popularity and the Lords' consequent unpopularity, the Liberal Party narrowly won two general elections in 1910. Using the result as a mandate, the Liberal Prime Minister, Herbert Henry Asquith, introduced the Parliament Bill, which sought to restrict the powers of the House of Lords; when the Lords refused to pass the bill, Asquith countered with a promise extracted from the King in secret before the second general election of 1910 and requested the creation of several hundred Liberal peers, so as to erase the Conservative majority in the House of Lords. In the face of such a threat, the House of Lords narrowly passed the bill.
The Parliament Act 1911, as it became, prevented the Lords from blocking a money bill, allowed them to delay any other bill for a maximum of three sessions, after which it could become law over their objections. However, regardless of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, t