Royal Naval College, Greenwich
The Royal Naval College, was a Royal Navy training establishment between 1873 and 1998, providing courses for naval officers. It was the home of the Royal Navy's staff college; the equivalent in the British Army was the Staff College and the equivalent in the Royal Air Force was the RAF Staff College, Bracknell. The Royal Naval College, was founded by an Order in Council dated 16 January 1873; the establishment of its officers consisted of a President, always a Flag Officer. It was to take in officers who were Sub-Lieutenants and to operate as "the university of the Navy"; the Director of Studies, a civilian, was in charge of an Academic Board, while the Captain of the College was a naval officer who acted as chief of staff. The Royal Naval War College, established at Portsmouth in November 1900, transferred its activities to the college at Greenwich in 1914. During the First World War the Royal Naval College was requisitioned as a barracks and for scientific experiments; the training of officers was not resumed until 1919.
On 30 October 1939 the college began to train officers of the Women's Royal Naval Service. During the Second World War, the College increased the number of officers of both sexes trained for an expanded Navy, its major task was the training of fighting officers, around 35,000 men and women graduated during that period. In 1943, the beautiful Admiral's House on the north wing of King Charles Court was damaged by a direct hit from a German bomb; the Navy's Department of Nuclear Science and Technology opened on the college premises in 1959, JASON, the department's research and training reactor, was commissioned in the King William building in 1962. In 1967 Queen Elizabeth II knighted Francis Chichester on the river steps of the College, honouring his achievement in circumnavigating the world as a solo yachtsman, using the old route of the clippers, becoming the first to do so, his was the fastest such circumnavigation, taking nine months and one day. The Royal School of Naval Architecture, part of the College since 1873, transferred to University College London in 1967.
The Royal Naval College continued to train women until 1976, when their courses were transferred to the Britannia Royal Naval College. From 1983 the relocated Joint Services Defence College occupied much of the King Charles building. With a shrinking Royal Navy, the decision was taken to close RNC Greenwich in 1998. All initial officer training is now carried out at the Britannia Royal Naval College, the new Joint Services Command and Staff College, created in 1997, took over the staff college functions; the college was established in buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren and built between 1696 and 1712 intended to serve as the Greenwich Hospital, a home for disabled sailors. This closed in 1869, when the pensioners were transferred to other places, leaving the buildings available for a new use; the site of the former hospital had once been occupied by the medieval Palace of Placentia, or "Palace at Greenwich", begun by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, in 1428. After the Royal Navy departed in 1998 the buildings were opened to the public as the Old Royal Naval College.
See Category:Admiral presidents of the Royal Naval College, GreenwichThe President of the College was a full-time post until 1982 when it became an honorary role held by the Second Sea Lord. Presidents included: Vice-Admiral Sir Astley Cooper Key Admiral Sir Edward Gennys Fanshawe Admiral Sir Charles Frederick Alexander Shadwell Admiral Sir Geoffrey Phipps Hornby Admiral William Garnham Luard Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Brandreth Admiral Sir William Graham Admiral Sir Richard Vesey Hamilton Admiral Sir Walter James Hunt-Grubbe Admiral Sir Richard Tracey Admiral Sir Robert More-Molyneux Admiral Sir Robert Hastings Penruddock Harris Admiral Sir Arthur Dalrymple Fanshawe Admiral Sir John Durnford Admiral Sir Frederic William Fisher Vice-Admiral The Hon. Sir Alexander Edward Bethell Vice-Admiral Sir Lewis Bayly Admiral Sir Henry Bradwardine Jackson Vice-Admiral Sir William Christopher Pakenham Vice-Admiral Sir Frederick Tudor Rear-Admiral Herbert Richmond Admiral Sir George Hope Admiral Sir Richard Webb Vice-Admiral John McClintock Vice-Admiral Sir William Henry Dudley Boyle Vice-Admiral Sir Barry Domvile Vice-Admiral Sir Ragnar Colvin Vice-Admiral Sir Sidney Bailey Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Kennedy-Purvis Vacant Commodore Augustus Willington Shelton Agar VC Vice-Admiral Sir Patrick Brind Vice-Admiral Geoffrey Oliver Admiral Sir Harold Kinahan Vice-Admiral Sir Aubrey Mansergh Admiral Sir William Andrewes Vice-Admiral Sir Geoffrey Barnard Rear-Admiral David Cairns, 5th Earl Cairns Rear-Admiral Sir Alexander Gordon-Lennox Rear-Admiral Morgan Morgan-Giles Vice-Admiral Sir Ian Lachlan Mackay McGeoch Rear-Admiral Patrick Bayly Vice-Admiral Sir Horace Lyddon Rear-Admiral Edward Gueritz Rear-Admiral Martin Noel Lucey Rear-Admiral Edward William Ellis Rear-Admiral Derek Willoughby Bazalgette Rea
HMS Albion (R07)
HMS Albion, nicknamed "The Old Grey Ghost of the Borneo Coast", was a 22,000 ton Centaur-class light fleet carrier of the Royal Navy. She was built by Swan Wigham Richardson Ltd.. Her keel was laid down in March 1944 and she was launched in May 1947. On 18 October 1949, she was under tow by tugs Beamish and George V from Jarrow to Rosyth when Albion collided with SS Maystone 4 nautical miles from the Longstone Lighthouse. Maystone sank, Albion started to sink; the three tugs attempted to beach her near St Abbs Head but were hampered when Hector became disabled when a tow rope wrapped around her propellor. The tug HMS Restive was sent from Rosyth to assist and the destroyer HMS St James arrived and took Hector on tow until her crew managed to clear the propellor. Albion was berthed at Rosyth with 5 feet of water in her engine room, she was scheduled for completion in 1951 but not completed until May 1954. During the night of 19–20 June 1954, helicopters from Albion assisted in the search for survivors of a Swissair aircraft that had ditched in the English Channel off Folkestone, Kent.
After an initial work up with her air group, joined the Mediterranean Fleet in September that same year, becoming flagship of Flag Officer Aircraft Carriers. In 1956, after refitting at Portsmouth, Albion returned once again to the Mediterranean Sea for operations relating to the Suez Crisis where her air group struck key Egyptian airfields, covered the paratroopers landings. In July 1958, Albion had a sample of what she would one day become, when she embarked 42 Commando Royal Marines, with all its vehicles and additional equipment to the Middle East. Final fixed wing complement as embarked in 1959–60: 806 sqn. 8 Sea Hawk FGA6 Fighter-Attack 894 sqn. 12 Sea Venom FAW21 Night/All Weather Fighter 849 sqn. D flt. 4 Skyraider AEW1 Airborne Early Warning 815 sqn. 8 Whirlwind HAS7 Helicopter Anti-Submarine Warfare Ships Flight 1 Dragonfly HR5 Helicopter Search and RescueThe next two years saw her visit the Far East, New Zealand and the south Atlantic and Indian Oceans, before she returned to Portsmouth to pay off.
She was considered as a replacement for the Australian carrier HMAS Melbourne but was rejected and in January 1961 conversion begun for her to become a commando carrier. She recommissioned in 1962, training with 845 and 846 helicopter squadrons as well as 40 Commando Royal Marines before she joined the Far East Fleet. On 26 November 1962 she collided with a tug in Aden harbour, she was a vital asset in supporting operations ashore in Borneo during the Indonesian Confrontation. In 1967 she was part of the RN task force that covered the withdrawal from Aden, in 1971 was part of another withdrawal of British forces, this time in Singapore and the disbandment of the Far East Fleet, she sailed from Portsmouth in March 1971 for the Far East, under the command of Captain James Jungius, RN. She paid a brief visit to Ascension Island before visiting Durban in April 1971, she was in Bombay from 3 to 6 May 1971 and, after a passage of nearly seven weeks the ship embarked 40 Commando Royal Marines off Changi for an exercise.
A ceremonial entry into Singapore followed with 848 Naval Air Squadron providing a flypast as the air squadron disembarked to HMS Simbang. A month alongside in Singapore followed, for an assisted maintenance period. Having embarked the Australian Army Band, the ship sailed Singapore at the end of June for Japan, carrying out a full power trial and encountering typhoons on passage. Albion was in Kobe from 1 to 8 July 1971 and returned to Singapore. A night assault exercise followed in the Marang area, in company with a number of other warships and auxiliaries. After a rough passage the ship arrived in Fremantle on 9 August 1971 for an eight-day visit, shifting from tropical uniform to blue uniform for the Australian winter, she had another month alongside. Sailing Singapore on 20 September, she spent two days at the U. S. Naval Base Subic Bay and arrived Hong Kong on 30 September where she was alongside the British naval base, HMS Tamar, until 11 October. Back in Singapore on 15 October, her last two weeks at the Singapore Naval Base were spent storing, embarking 40 Commando Royal Marines and 848 Naval Air Squadron as part of the British withdrawal from the Far East.
A farewell parade of all British armed forces represented in Singapore was held at 1730 on 29 October 1971 at the base in Sembawang, the salute being taken by Air Chief Marshal Sir Brian Burnett. The ship sailed the next day and, on 31 October 1971, the ship was one of twenty in a steampast - and flypast - that marked the handover of the naval base to the ANZUK forces. Albion headed west. First call was Gan and on to Mombasa from 14–22 November, where the ship underwent a week's self-maintenance period in Kilindini harbour, she sailed to Masirah Island and, as part of the "Gulf Covering Force", assisted with the withdrawal of British forces form the Persian Gulf. On 10 December she was detached, at full speed, to the Bay of Bengal to aid United Kingdom citizens remaining in East Pakistan during the Indo-Pakistan War but was diverted to Gan, where she arrived on 15 December. From Gan, 40 Commando Royal Marines were flown home to the United Kingdom. For the ship, it was Christmas in the Indian Ocean and New Year in Cape Town, from where she sailed on 5 January 1972.
Back in home waters, she disembarked 848 Naval Air Squadron on 20 January and entered Portsmouth on 24 January 1972. After maintenance and leave, the ship sailed from Portsmouth on 11 April 1972, embarking 848 Naval Air Squadron, for the Mediterranean. After a visit
HMS Bristol (D23)
HMS Bristol is a Type 82 destroyer, the only vessel of her class to be built for the Royal Navy. Intended as the first of a class of large destroyers to escort the CVA-01 aircraft carriers projected to come into service in the early 1970s, Bristol turned out to be a unique ship: the rest of the class were cancelled with the CVA-01 carriers in the 1966 Strategic Defence Review. Following a long career which included the Falklands War, she was converted into a training ship in 1987 and continues to serve in that role. HMS Bristol is named after the English city of Bristol; the CVA-01 fleet aircraft carrier was designed to replace the World War II vintage aircraft carriers of the Royal Navy. The first plans were for two carriers and to protect these carriers four new Type 82 area air defence destroyers were to be built. In 1963, the Minister of Defence Peter Thorneycroft, announced in Parliament that one new aircraft carrier would be built, at an estimated cost of £56 million. However, a change of government and competition from the RAF saw the project being cancelled in the 1966 Defence White Paper.
This eliminated the requirement for the Type 82 class destroyer. However, one vessel of the original four was ordered on 4 October 1966 for use as a testbed for new technologies. HMS Bristol was launched with four new weapons and electronics systems. Bristol's hull was laid down by Swan Hunter & Tyne Shipbuilders Ltd on 15 November 1967, she was launched on 30 June 1969, accepted into service on 15 December 1972 and commissioned on 31 March 1973. Her estimated building cost was £24,217,000. Bristol saw a number of new systems introduced into the Navy, including the Sea Dart anti-aircraft and Ikara anti-submarine missile systems and was the first Royal Navy ship to carry the 4.5 inch Mk 8 gun. Another addition to the fleet was the new advanced Action Data Automated Weapons System Mk.2, a computer system designed to coordinate the ship's weapons and sensors. ADAWS-2 was a large advance on the rudimentary action information system of its predecessor the County-class destroyers, reliant on manual data input.
The Sea Dart system comprised a twin-arm launcher on the quarterdeck with a pair of radar Type 909 target illumination sets, an improvement over the single radar Type 901 set of the County design. The second weapon system was the Australian Ikara anti-submarine weapon. Ikara was a rocket-powered carrier that could deliver a small homing torpedo out to 10 miles from the ship; the Ikara was complemented by a Mark 10 Limbo anti-submarine mortar. The single 4.5 inch Mark 8 gun was not intended as an anti-aircraft weapon, as such had an elevation of only 55°. The weapon was designed for reliability over rate of fire, allowing only a single mounting to be shipped, the comparatively low rate of fire of 25 rounds per minute was ample for the intended anti-ship and shore-bombardment roles. Bristol, although capable of landing a Westland Wasp helicopter on the quarterdeck, lacked a hangar and aviation facilities and thus had to rely on external air support; the role which Bristol was built for never materialised, she spent most of her service in the 1970s trialling and building up experience using new weapons and computer systems.
A major boiler fire in 1974 destroyed the steam plant. Older ships might have been crippled by this, but Bristol was able to operate for three years using only her gas plant, demonstrating its flexibility and utility; the steam plant was repaired in 1976. In 1979 she was fitted out for frontline service with ECM, Corvus countermeasures launchers and a pair of World War II-era Oerlikon 20 mm cannon. During this refit the Limbo weapon was removed. Bristol was suitable for use as a flagship as she was large enough to embark the extra staff members necessary for this role, she served as the Royal Navy flagship during the 1981 Ocean Safari exercise. After a short refit, during which the mortar well was plated over to allow the landing of large helicopters on the quarterdeck, she joined the Royal Navy task force in the South Atlantic in the 1982 Falklands War. Bristol led the Bristol group of reinforcement ships south and joined the carrier battle group, Task Group 317.8. On 22 May she fired two Sea Dart missiles at spurious radar returns caused by interference with similar radars fitted on ships within the group.
After the destroyer Coventry was hit and subsequently sunk on 25 May, Bristol with Cardiff and Exeter carried out duties in the air warfare role. When the aircraft carrier Hermes, the flagship, returned to the UK, Bristol took over as flagship until 17 September, returning to the UK after being relieved by the carrier Illustrious. On return to the UK she entered a refit and, in light of the lessons of the conflict, had her light anti aircraft weapons augmented with a pair of twin Oerlikon/BMARC 30 mm GCM-A03 and a pair of single Oerlikon/BMARC 20 mm GAM-B01 guns. Loral-Hycor SRBOC countermeasures launchers were added to augment the elderly Corvus launchers. With the Royal Navy short on hulls after damages and losses incurred in the Falklands, Bristol remained in commission and made several overseas deployments until paid off for refit in 1984. Another boiler explosion when entering refit caused extensive damage; the major work undertaken in the refit was to replace the obsolete radar Type 965 with the new Type 1022 for long-range air search duties.
The Ikara system was removed.
James Gordon Brown is a British politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 to 2010. He served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1997 to 2007. Brown was a Member of Parliament from 1983 to 2015, first for Dunfermline East and for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath. A doctoral graduate of the University of Edinburgh, Brown spent his early career working as both a lecturer at a further education college and a television journalist, he entered Parliament in 1983 as the MP for Dunfermline East. He joined the Shadow Cabinet in 1989 as Shadow Secretary of State for Trade, was promoted to become Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1992. After Labour's victory in 1997, he was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer, becoming the longest-serving holder of that office in modern history. Brown's time as Chancellor was marked by major reform of Britain's monetary and fiscal policy architecture, transferring interest rate setting powers to the Bank of England, by a wide extension of the powers of the Treasury to cover much domestic policy and by transferring responsibility for banking supervision to the Financial Services Authority.
Controversial moves included the abolition of advance corporation tax relief in his first budget, the removal in his final budget of the 10% "starting rate" of personal income tax which he had introduced in 1999. In 2007, Tony Blair resigned as Prime Minister and Labour Leader and Brown was chosen to replace him in an uncontested election. After initial rises in opinion polls following Brown becoming Prime Minister, Labour's popularity declined with the onset of a recession in 2008, leading to poor results in the local and European elections in 2009. A year Labour lost 91 seats in the House of Commons at the 2010 general election, the party's biggest loss of seats in a single general election since 1931, making the Conservatives the largest party in a hung parliament. Brown remained in office as Labour negotiated to form a coalition government with the Liberal Democrats. On 10 May 2010, Brown announced he would stand down as leader of the Labour Party, instructed the party to put into motion the processes to elect a new leader.
Labour's attempts to retain power failed and on 11 May, he resigned as Prime Minister and Leader of the Labour Party. He was succeeded as Prime Minister by David Cameron, as Leader of the Labour Party by Ed Miliband. Brown played a prominent role in the campaign surrounding the Scottish independence referendum of 2014, galvanising support behind maintaining the union. Brown was born at the Orchard Maternity Nursing Home in Giffnock, Scotland, his father was John Ebenezer Brown, a minister of the Church of Scotland and a strong influence on Brown. His mother was Jessie Elizabeth "Bunty" Brown, she was the daughter of a timber merchant. The family moved to Kirkcaldy – the largest town in Fife, across the Firth of Forth from Edinburgh – when Gordon was three. Brown was brought up there with younger brother Andrew Brown in a manse. Brown was educated first at Kirkcaldy West Primary School where he was selected for an experimental fast stream education programme, which took him two years early to Kirkcaldy High School for an academic hothouse education taught in separate classes.
At age sixteen he wrote that he resented this "ludicrous" experiment on young lives. He was accepted by the University of Edinburgh to study history at the same early age of sixteen. During an end-of-term rugby union match at his old school, he received a kick to the head and suffered a retinal detachment; this left him blind in his left eye, despite treatment including several operations and weeks spent lying in a darkened room. At Edinburgh, while playing tennis, he noticed the same symptoms in his right eye. Brown underwent experimental surgery at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary and his right eye was saved by a young eye surgeon, Hector Chawla. Brown graduated from Edinburgh with a First-Class Honours MA degree in history in 1972, stayed on to obtain his PhD in history, titled The Labour Party and Political Change in Scotland 1918–29. In his youth at the University of Edinburgh, Brown was involved in a romantic relationship with Margarita, Crown Princess of Romania. Margarita said about it: "It was a solid and romantic story.
I never stopped loving him but one day it didn't seem right any more, it was politics, politics, I needed nurturing." An unnamed friend of those years is quoted by Paul Routledge in his biography of Brown as recalling: "She was sweet and gentle and cut out to make somebody a good wife. She was bright, though not like him, but they seemed made for each other."In 1972, while still a student, Brown was elected Rector of the University of Edinburgh, the convener of the University Court. He served as Rector until 1975, edited the document The Red Paper on Scotland. From 1976 to 1980 Brown was employed as a lecturer in politics at Glasgow College of Technology, he worked as a tutor for the Open University. In the 1979 general election, Brown stood for the Edinburgh South constituency, losing to the Conservative candidate, Michael Ancram. From 1980, he worked as a journalist at Scottish Television serving as current affairs editor until his election to Parliament in 1983. Brown was elected to Parliament on his second attempt as a Labour MP for Dunfermline East in the 1983 general election.
His first Westminster office mate was a newly elected MP from the Sedgefield constituency, Tony Blair. Brown became an opposition spokesman on Trade and Industry in 1985. In
Solent University is a public university based in Southampton, United Kingdom. It has 11000 students, its main campus is located on East Park Terrace near the city centre and the maritime hub of Southampton. Solent University students are represented by Solent Students' Union, based on the East Park Terrace campus; the university's origins can be traced back to a private School of Art founded in 1856, which became the Southampton College of Art. Mergers with the Southampton College of Technology, the College of Nautical Studies at Warsash, led to the establishment of the Southampton Institute of Higher Education in 1984. Southampton Institute became a university on 12 July 2005, adopting the name Southampton Solent University on 15 August 2005. Prior to 2005, Southampton Institute provided assistance to Nottingham Trent University in its provision of business focused degrees, relating to accountancy and professional ACCA qualifications; some Nottingham Trent University certificates included Southampton Institute stamps to indicate this agreement.
In 2015 the University came to an agreement with New College of the Humanities, London whereby it will validate some of their degrees. In November 2017, the Privy Council approved the change of name of Southampton Solent University to Solent University, with effect from 2018. Solent University has three primary locations: City and Timsbury Lake; the City campus is on the east side of East Park. This campus broadly includes the Sir James Matthews building, situated on the far side of the park. Part of the Warsash School of Maritime Science and Engineering is on the eastern bank of the Hamble River overlooking Southampton Water, while Timsbury Lake is located in Timsbury; the University has six major student Halls complexes: Chantry Deanery Emily Davies Hamwic Kimber Lucia Foster Welch All the halls are located a short walk away from the main teaching buildings. Five of the six halls are located south east of the city centre, between the St Mary's and Ocean Village areas of the Southampton, while Emily Davies is located to the north west of the city centre, near the Southampton Civic Centre.
Solent University is a comprehensive University offering programmes across five academic Schools, including the School of Art and Fashion. Solent's maritime courses have been ranked among the best in the world; the University has a growing reputation, have been climbing the major league tables year on year - most reaching 81st place in the Guardian League Table in 2019. The University has strong links with local and regional businesses, professional bodies and industry groups, all with a focus on providing the best routes into the workforce; the student yachting team has consisted of Olympians and are previous world champions. The University has a dedicated Research and Enterprise Office, providing cohesive support for research and innovation through a researcher development programme and the Research and Knowledge Exchange Awards. Solent has a strong record of research and innovation in the creative industries, with a focus on the fields of visual art and culture, music industries, screen research, communications and creative writing.
Developing research areas in creative and immersive technologies, such as virtual reality and augmented reality, are driving innovative research forward. We cover the range of the design process from inception through prototyping, to implementation and user experience and usability. Working with private and third sector industries, Solent focuses on research areas such as marketing, the ‘visitor economy’, SME partnerships, international economic development and innovation, cyber-crime. A particular focus is social policy in relation to employment and diversity in areas ranging from maritime and seafarers, to music and culture. Solent University has emerged as a leading provider of academic programmes relating to the study of sport and wellbeing; these programmes are informed by cutting-edge research in areas such as sports science, sports development, the sociology of sport, psychology and wellbeing, social care. A focus of current research is. Research in sports science focuses on strength and conditioning, the physiological basis of human performance in a range of sub-elite and elite sporting environments, the psychology of the coaching process.
The University is recognised as one of the leading centres for football-based research. One of the key research strengths of Solent has been in maritime, with its long history and association with shipping and seafarer training through Warsash Maritime Academy, now the Warsash School of Maritime Science and Engineering; the focus is on applied research and innovation that makes a real impact on industry, including a specific focus on maritime education and training, employment and safety, welfare. We have a developing area of research relating to sustainability and resilience, including environmental accounting, life cycle assessment. Other areas of research include additive manufacturing.
HMS Ardent (F184)
HMS Ardent was a Royal Navy Type 21 frigate. Built by Yarrow Shipbuilders Ltd, Scotland, she was completed with Exocet launchers in'B' position. Ardent took part in the Falklands War, where she was sunk by Argentine aircraft in the Falkland Sound on 21 May 1982. On 19 April 1982 Ardent sailed from HMNB Devonport near Plymouth for the Falkland Islands. En route, she escorted task force ships that had left late, on their way to Ascension Island, arriving on 3 May and sailing on the morning of the 7 May. On 9 May 1982 while 700 miles south west of Ascension, Ardent closed to within 200 yards of the starboard side of the troopship Canberra and provided a gun power demonstration to the troops sailing south. On 21 May 1982, whilst lying in Falkland Sound and supporting Operation Sutton by bombarding the Argentine airstrip at Goose Green, Ardent was attacked by at least three waves of Argentine aircraft; the air strikes caused Ardent to sink the next day. The first attack took place when a lone A-4 Skyhawk dropped two bombs at 16:00 Z, which straddled the frigate but both failed to explode.
The bulk of the air strikes began at 17:40 Z. Ardent was ordered to proceed west of North West Island along with Yarmouth to "split air attacks from the south". A group of three aircraft, either Skyhawks or IAI Daggers crossed the Falklands Sound from the west and turned to their left to attack from the north east. Cannon fire and three bombs struck home as the Argentine aircraft pressed their attack from the port side; the only defensive weapons which reacted properly were the 20 mm AA cannons. The Sea Cat anti-aircraft missile system failed to lock onto the attackers, who outmanoeuvred the 4.5" gun by carrying out their run out of its arc of fire. Two bombs exploded in the hangar area, destroying the Westland Lynx helicopter and blowing the Sea Cat launcher 80 ft into the air before it crashed back down onto the flight deck, the third crashed through the aft auxiliary machinery room but failed to explode; the aft switchboard was damaged, causing loss of power for some key assets, such as the main gun.
The hangar was left in flames, the crew suffered a number of casualties. Still in full control of her engines and steering, but defenceless, Ardent was told to head north, toward Port San Carlos, but at 18:00 Z five Skyhawks dropped numerous free-fall and retard bombs. A pattern of two to four bombs exploded in the port quarter, while an undetermined number of others which failed to explode penetrated into the ship; some of the remaining bombs exploded in the water nearby, battering the ship and causing minor flooding in the forward auxiliary machine room. The dining hall was shattered, communications between the bridge and the ship control centre were cut off, the ship lost steering; this attack caused many casualties among the damage-control teams working in the hangar. Ardent stopped in the shallow waters of the fires in her stern now out of control. With the ship listing Commander Alan West decided to abandon the ship. Yarmouth came alongside to take off survivors, the crew was transferred to Canberra.
At that time it was known. Ardent continued to burn throughout the night, accompanied by the occasional explosion, until she sank at 6:30 the next day, with only her foremast remaining above the water. Able Seaman John Dillon was able to remove debris from an injured sailor and, despite his own burns, got the man topside and into the water where they were both rescued. For his heroism he received a George Medal, one of three awarded for the war; the last man to leave was her captain, Commander Alan West, subsequently awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, served as First Sea Lord from 2002–2006. Within days naval divers removed her light AA guns for fitting to other ships and her foremast was used as a navigational warning and datum by her sister ship Arrow whilst she bombarded Goose Green; the wreck is designated as a prohibited area under the Falkland Islands Protection of Wrecks Act. According to the Argentine Air Force official website Ardent was the subject of two attacks from FAA aircraft: 14:00 Argentine time by a lone A-4B Skyhawk of 5th Air Group.
Four A-4B took off from Rio Gallegos at 11:30 UTC-3. After experiencing problems during the air-to-air refuelling, two aircraft were forced to abort and fly back to their base. Once over the Falklands Sound, the remainder Skyhawks chanced upon an unidentified transport ship – she was the abandoned Argentine cargo vessel Río Carcaraña –, attacked by one of the jets; the other fighter, piloted by the flight commander, Captain Pablo Carballo, dropped one 1,000 lb dumb bomb on a frigate he found at Grantham Sound. He returned safely; the bomb exploded on the stern. Carballo went on to attack Broadsword a few days later. 14:40 UTC-3 by IAI Daggers of 6th Air Group. A flight of two Daggers, led by Captain Mir González, was joined by a third Dagger returning from an aborted sortie, they headed together towards San Carlos, but were intercepted by a patrol of Sea Harriers vectored by Brilliant, the attached aircraft was shot down over West Falkland. The pilot was recovered later; the two original Daggers outran the British air patrol and entered Falklands Sound from the south.
They dropped two 1,000 lb bombs on her stern. They hit the craft with their 30 mm cannon. According to this report, the warship responded to the attack by firing anti-aircraft missiles. 15:01 UTC-3 three Argentine Navy A-4Q Skyhawks of 3rd Fighter and Attack Naval Sqd. hit Ardent with at least two bombs on the stern, a number of unexploded bombs which ripped into the hull, and
Britannia Royal Naval College
Britannia Royal Naval College known as Dartmouth, is the naval academy of the United Kingdom and the initial officer training establishment of the British Royal Navy. It is located on a hill overlooking the port of Dartmouth, England. Royal Naval officer training has taken place in Dartmouth since 1863; the buildings of the current campus were completed in 1905. Earlier students lived in two wooden hulks moored in the River Dart. Since 1998, BRNC has been the sole centre for Royal Naval officer training; the training of naval officers at Dartmouth dates from 1863, when the wooden hulk HMS Britannia was moved from Portland and moored in the River Dart to serve as a base. In 1864, after an influx of new recruits, Britannia was supplemented by HMS Hindostan. Prior to this, a Royal Naval Academy had operated for more than a century from 1733 to 1837 at Portsmouth, a major naval installation; the original Britannia was replaced by the Prince of Wales in 1869, renamed Britannia. The foundation stone for a new building at the college was laid by King Edward VII in March 1902.
Sir Aston Webb designed the shore-based college at Dartmouth, built by Higgs and Hill and completed in 1905. The first term of cadets entered at the R. N. College Osborne were transferred to Dartmouth in September 1905; the college was known as the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth. As a Royal Naval shore establishment, it was known by the ship name HMS Britannia; the college was named in 1953, when the name Britannia was given to the newly launched royal yacht HMY Britannia. The training ship moored in the River Dart at Sandquay the former Sandown class minehunter HMS Cromer, continues to bear the name Hindostan. Cadets joined the Royal Naval College, Osborne, at the age of 13 for two years' study and work before joining Dartmouth, they studied there for four years there before starting sea training at age 17. RNC Osborne closed in 1923; the entry age for the Naval College was changed to 16 in 1948, to 17 and 6 months in 1955. Until 1941, Dartmouth was in effect a specialised boarding school, with parents paying fees for tuition and board.
During the Second World War, after six Focke-Wulf aircraft bombed the College in September 1942, students and staff moved activities to Eaton Hall in Cheshire until the autumn of 1946. Two bombs had penetrated the College's main block, causing damage to the quarterdeck and surrounding rooms. In the early 21st century, officer cadets, as they are known until passing out from the college, can join between the ages of 18 and 32. While most cadets join BRNC after finishing university, some join directly from secondary school. All spend depending on specialisation. A large contingent of foreign and Commonwealth students are part of the student body; the Royal Fleet Auxiliary sends its officer cadets to BRNC for a 10-week initial officer training course, before they start at a maritime college. Following the closures of the Royal Naval Engineering College, Manadon, in 1994 and the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, in 1998, BRNC is the sole naval college in the United Kingdom. Removed from the main buildings is Sandquay, below the college on the River Dart.
It is used for seamanship and boat handling training. Cadets are required to know. To enter as an officer cadet, British entrants must have 180 or more UCAS points. Prospective cadets proceed to the Admiralty Interview Board, where they are tested mentally and physically. Several mental aptitude tests are administered, along with a basic physical fitness test and a medical examination. King George V and King George VI were naval cadets at Dartmouth; the first "significant encounter" between Prince Philip of Greece and the Princess Elizabeth took place at Dartmouth in July 1939, where Philip was a naval cadet. The Prince of Wales and the Duke of York attended Dartmouth. Prince William spent a brief period at the College after leaving Sandhurst as part of his training with all three of Britain's Armed Forces. Sheikh Mubarak Ali Yousuf Suoud Al-Sabah, a member of the Royal Family of Kuwait, attended the Royal Navy Young Officer Course at Britannia Royal Naval College in 2002. List below based on listing compiled by historian Colin Mackie.
Captain William E. Goodenough: May 1905 – August 1907 Captain Trevylyan D. W. Napier: August 1907 – July 1910 Captain Hugh Evan-Thomas: July 1910 – July 1912 Captain the Hon. Victor A. Stanley: July 1912 –? 1914 Rear-Admiral Trevylyan D. W. Napier: September–December 1914 Captain Edmond Hyde Parker:? 1914 – February 1915 Captain Norman C. Palmer: February 1915 – May 1916 Rear-Admiral William G. E. Ruck Keene: May 1916 – January 1919 Captain Eustace la T. Leatham: February 1919 – February 1921 Captain Francis A. Marten: February 1921 – January 1923 Captain the Hon. Herbert Meade: January 1923 – February 1926 Captain Martin E. Dunbar-Nasmith: February 1926 – February 1929 Captain Sidney J. Meyrick: February 1929 – December 1931 Captain Norman A. Wodehouse: December 1931 – December 1934 Captain Reginald V. Holt: December 1934 – December 1936 Captain Frederick H. G. Dalrymple-Hamilton: December 1936 – November 1939 Captain Robert L. B. Cunliffe: December 1939 – April 1942 Captain Edward A. Aylmer: April 1942 – December 1943 Captain Gerald H.
Warner: December 1943–? Captain Peveril B. R. W. William-Powlett: January 1946 – February 1948 Captain Hugh W. Faulkner: February 1948 – August 1949 Captain Norman V. Dickinson: August 1949 – April 1951 Captain Richard T. White: April 1951 – August 1953 Captain William G. Crawford