Barringtonia asiatica is a species of Barringtonia native to mangrove habitats on the tropical coasts and islands of the Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean extending from Zanzibar in the east to Taiwan and the Philippines, Japan's Yaeyama Islands and Ogasawara Islands, New Caledonia, Solomon Islands, the Cook Islands and Futuna and French Polynesiain the west. It is grown along streets for decorative and shade purposes in some parts of India, for instance in some towns on the southeastern shore, it is known as Box Fruit due to the distinct box-shaped fruit it produces. The local name futu is the source of the name for the Polynesian island Futuna; the type specimen was collected by botanist Pehr Osbeck on a sandy beach area on the island of Java to be described by Carl Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum in 1753. It is a small to medium-sized tree growing to 7–25 m tall; the leaves are 20 -- 40 cm in length and 10 -- 20 cm in width. Fruit produced as mentioned earlier, is otherwise aptly known as the Box Fruit, due to distinct square like diagonals jutting out from the cross section of the fruit, given its semi spherical shape form from stem altering to a subpyramidal shape at its base.
The fruit measures 9–11 cm in diameter, where a thick spongy fibrous layer covers the 4–5 cm diameter seed. The fruit is dispersed in the same way as a coconut – by ocean current – and is water-resistant and buoyant, it can survive afloat for up to fifteen years. When washed ashore, soaked by rainwater, the seeds germinate. All parts of the tree are poisonous, the active poisons including saponins. Box fruits are potent enough to be used as a fish poison; the seeds are ground to a powder and used to stun or kill fish for easy capture, suffocating the fish while the flesh is unaffected. Barringtonia asiatica is a common plant in the Malaysian Mangroves and wetlands such as the Kuching wetlands and Bako National Park, its large pinkish-white, pompon flowers give off a sickly sweet smell to attract bats and moths which pollinate the flowers at night. Places that may have been named after Barringtonia asiatica Putat, Brunei Putat, Cebu Putatan, Kota Kinabalu Putatan, Muntinlupa Putatan
Bali Strait is a stretch of water separating Java and Bali while connecting the Indian Ocean and the Bali Sea. At its narrowest it is 2.4 kilometres wide. The Bali Strait is one of the bodies of water surrounding the island of Bali: Lombok Strait to the east, the Badung Strait to the southeast, the Bali Sea to the north, the Indian Ocean to the southwest, the Bali Strait to the west. Geologically the two islands of Bali and Java were joined until the end of the last Ice Age when the sea rose and cut the land bridge, they both share. On 28 January 1797 during the Bali Strait Incident a French squadron of six frigates encountered fleet of six British East Indiaman in the Bali Strait. Disguising themselves as ships of the line, the British merchant ships were able to intimidate the French into withdrawing; the temperature of the water in Bali Strait is subject to noticeable seasonal fluctuations, predetermined by the periods of monsoons. During the period of the northwestern monsoon, average temperature is about 28-29 °C, whereas in the southeast temperature drops to 26 °C.
Regardless of the season, the water temperature in the northern part of the strait is 1-1.5 degrees lower than it is in the southern part. The level of salinity is more stable: about 33 ‰ in the season of the northwestern monsoons and about 34 ‰ in the southeast period. Sea currents in the strait have a complex configuration dependent on monsoon seasons: during the northwesterly winds, the northern vector predominates, while in the south-east it is the southern one; the maximum speed - up to 13 km / h - flows reach the northern, most narrow part of the strait. Tidal currents have a semi-diurnal amplitude. At the beginning of the 21st century, there were noticeable negative trends in the development of the ecological situation in the strait and on its shores, related to human economic activity. Numerous cases of water pollution with industrial wastes, fertilizers, as well as chemicals used in gold mining on the Javanese shore are recorded
Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park
Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park or local people known as TNBTS is a national park located in East Java, Indonesia, to the east of Malang, to the south of Pasuruan and Probolinggo, to the southeast of Surabaya, the capital of East Java. It is the only conservation area in Indonesia that has a sand sea, the Tengger Sand Sea, across, the caldera of an ancient volcano from which four new volcanic cones have emerged; this unique feature covers a total area of 5,250 hectares at an altitude of about 2,100 metres. The massif contains the highest mountain in Java, Mount Semeru, four lakes and 50 rivers, it is named after the Tengger Kingdom. The Tengger Sand Sea has been protected since 1919; the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park was declared a national park in 1982. The Tengger massif is a massif within the park; the area is an active volcanic complex surrounded by a plain of sand. The volcanic complex of Tengger forms a condition where a new caldera of volcano forms inside a larger and more ancient caldera.
There are five volcanoes inside the Tengger Caldera: Mount Bromo, Mount Batok, Mount Kursi, Mount Watangan, Mount Widodaren. Mount Batok is the only peak, no longer active, is covered in casuarina trees. Mount Widodaren, located beside Mount Batok, contains the cave Widodaren, considered sacred by local people; the five volcanoes within the caldera are surrounded by a vast area of sand called the Tengger Sand Sea, which in turn is surrounded by a steep crater wall of the larger Tengger Caldera with height differences of about 200–600 metres. Other mountains around the Tengger caldera are: Mount Pananjakan, Mount Cemorolawang, Mount Lingker, Mount Pundak Lembu, Mount Jantur, Mount Ider-ider and Mount Mungal; the peak of Mount Pananjakan is the most popular place to watch the entire volcanic complex of Tengger. Further south in the national park, there is another volcanic complex called the Semeru Group or Jambangan Group; this area contains the highest peak of Mount Semeru. Other mountains within this area are Mount Lanang, Mount Ayek-ayek, Mount Pangonan Cilik, Mount Keduwung, Mount Jambangan, Mount Gentong, Mount Kepolo, Mount Malang.
The Semeru forest area has many rivers. The Semeru group is considered to be productive, producing volcanic matters such as lava, volcanic ash, hot cloud and spreading it to the surrounding area; the lower area is surrounded with fertile rice fields. The climate in Bromo Tengger Semeru is cold winter in middle year during May until September; the summers in early and late year here have a heavy of rainfall, while the winters in middle year have little and in midnight until dawn, the temperature always below zero Celsius, it makes frost and snow. According to Köppen and Geiger, this climate is classified as subtropical highland variety. According to height and temperature differences, the forests within the area can be classified into three zones: This zone is classified as a tropical rainforest, it can be found in the southern area of Semeru, East Semeru, West Semeru. This zone is dominated with plants of the families Fagaceae, Anacardiaceae and Rubiaceae. There are liana trees, such as a variety from the genus Calamus, Piper and Begonia, other plants from the family Araceae and Zingiberaceae.
There are 225 species of orchid in this area. Plant life is reduced in this area. Most of the species that grow in this area are pioneer species. There are some wooden plants such as cemara, mentinggi gunung, kemlandingan gunung, acacia bark and bottom plants such as Javanese edelweiss or senduro, Imperata cylindrica, Pteris sp. Themeda sp. and Centella asiatica. The Tengger Sand Sea in Tengger Caldera is a special ecosystem; the area is covered in volcanic sedimentation of sand from Mount Bromo activities. The resulting area is believed to be the only known desert-like area in Indonesia; the Tengger Sand Sea has been protected since 1919. The flora that cover this area are mentinggi cemara. Kemlandingan gunung and Javanese edelweiss can be found growing in this zone. On Mount Semeru, there is no plant life above the altitude of 3,100 m; this zone is covered in loose sandstones. Some endangered flora are protected in this park, such as Fagaceae, Sterculiaceae, Casuarina junghuhniana, Javanese edelweiss, about 200 species of endemic orchids.
There is a small diversity of fauna in the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park. There are about 137 species of birds, 22 species of mammals and 4 species of reptiles protected in the national park. Examples are besra, green peafowl, Javan rusa, Sumatran dhole, crab-eating macaque, marbled cat and Javan leopard; the area in and around the park is inhabited by the Tengger people, one of the few significant Hindu communities remaining on the island of Java. Their population of 600,000 is centered in thirty villages in the isolated Tengger mountains including Mount Bromo and areas within the park; the local religion is a remnant from the Majapahit era and therefore quite similar to that on Bali but with more animist elements. The Tengger people are believed to be descendents of the Majapahit empire and were driven into the hills after mass arri
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
G-Land known as Plengkung Beach, is an internationally renowned surf break situated on the Grajagan Bay, Alas Purwo National Park, East Java, Indonesia about half a day by road from the popular tourist destinations of Bali. G-Land is most reached via boat charter from Bali. Discovery In 1972, a core group of American surfers organized the first expedition to G-Land. Two surfers sent out ahead, went by local transport overland, arrived in Grajagan village near the river mouth and had to walk about 20km along the beach with their boards and food supplies setting up base camp for the boats arrival with more supplies and boards from Bali, they had little fresh water and would have to collect it off the sails when it rained. Surf Camps Soon after the discovery, Mike Boyum helped set up the first surf camp at G-Land, the start of the surf camp concept that has since spread across the globe. Balinese surfer Bobby Radiasa still runs it today. From the days of the original Boyum/Bobby's camp other camps have opened at G-Land offering various standards of accommodation and facilities to suit a range of holiday budgets, with G-Land Bobby's Surf Camp.
A second surf camp, located in the jungle in front of Speedies Reef is named Joyo's Surf Camp. The third surf camp, located closest to the only viewing tower and the paddle out point, is G-land Surf Camp; the south coast of Java faces the Indian Ocean, so it is exposed to large swells generated by low pressure systems circling Antarctica, many thousands of kilometers to the south. G-Land is situated on the eastern side of the Bay of Grajagan, so it has a westerly aspect; as a result, swell wraps around the point and into the eastern side of the bay, producing long, walling left-handers, which peel at a rapid rate along a half kilometer stretch of shallow coral reef, forming hollow tubes that remain open the whole way. The wind at G-Land blows offshore between the months of April and September, which happens to be when the swells are at their largest and most consistent. Since the swells are generated by low pressure systems circling Antarctica, their regularity coincides with the passage of these lows.
So, the swell arrive in pulses, each lasting for a couple of days, with a couple of days between each swell. Waves tend to be bigger and better at high tide, so it's best to plan a surf trip for the week following a full or new moon, since this is when the tide is high during the middle of the day. Java is situated in a tectonic subduction zone, where the Indo-Australian Plate is moving northward, sliding under the Eurasian Plate at a rate of 67 mm/yr. However, the tectonic plate slips a much greater distance, resulting in an earthquake. In 1994, a major earthquake, registering 7.2 on the Richter Scale, occurred in the Java Trench, 205 km SW of G-Land. The quake triggered a tsunami; the runup at G-Land was estimated to have been as high as 5.6 meters. No lives were lost at G-Land. However, 223 people perished further west, where the villages of Rajekwesi and Lampon were completely levelled by the tsunami. Surfer John Philbin was at G-Land on the night of the tsunami, he described thinking it must be big.
"But when the roar grew louder, I sat up inside my mosquito net, just as I did, a churning wall of water blew through my hut." Richie Lovett described the experience as "being hit by a train at full speed". Richard Marsh thought a tiger was attacking them, but realized it was a wave. Marsh and Lovett were swept hundreds of feet into the jungle by the wave. "I was panicking. It was a matter of surviving, just grabbing onto things to stay above the water, trying to keep all the debris away from my head and, above all, to get a breath." Marsh said. Lovett had to be returned to Australia for medical attention. "The hut had disappeared and I was entwined in logs and trees and bits of bamboo. When the water started to subside. I was stuck with my legs pinned under a whole lot of logs and rubbish." The other surfers visiting G-Land when the tsunami struck were Australians Monty Webber, Gerald Saunders, Rob Bain, Shanne Herring, Simon Law, Kevin Komick and Neal Purchase as well as Californians Tyler Rootleib, Eric Collision and Michael Klosterman.
Australian surf photographer Peter Boskovic, aka "Bosco" was at G-land during the tsunami. Documented by the Tsunami Survey Team. A long, world-class, barreling left hand reef/point break breaks along the east side of Grajagan Bay, it has long been considered one of the world's best left hand waves. The correct name of the point upon which the main wave breaks is "Plengkung." The wave becomes more critical the further down the point one rides the wave. It is one of the most rideable waves in the world in season, with offshore tradewinds and plentiful swell between the months of mid April to mid October; the G-Land surf break has been divided up into several sections. The first, at the top of the point, is called "Kongs," which breaks up to several hundred metres in length, can hold quite large sizes, it is not a barrel, nor genuinely world-class, but more a series of takeoff zones with some long wall sections, although it can barrel on occasions. This is where surfers can find the'key-hole', a section of the reef that allows a more forgivable paddle out.
This section picks up a lot of swell, is less than 3 feet, can be a saviour when the rest of the point is too small. This wave can some
Mount Gede Pangrango National Park
Mount Gede Pangrango National Park is a national park in West Java, Indonesia. The park is 150 km ² in area, it evolved from existing conservation areas, such as Cibodas Botanical Gardens, Cimungkat Nature Reserve, Situgunung Recreational Park and Mount Gede Pangrango Nature Reserve, has been the site of important biological and conservation research over the last century. In 1977 UNESCO declared it part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves. Mount Gede and Pangrango are twin volcanoes; the two summits are connected by a high saddle known as Kandang Badak. The mountain slopes are steep and are cut into flowing stream, which carve deep valleys and long ridges. Lower and upper montane and subalpine forests have been well studied. To the north of Mount Gede is a field of Javanese Edelweiss; the park contains a large number of species known to occur only within its boundaries, this may be a result of the disproportionate amount of research over many years. Gunung Gede-Pangrango is inhabited by 251 of the 450 bird species found in Java.
Among these are endangered species like the Javan hawk-eagle and the Javan scops owl. Among the endangered mammal species in the Park there are several primates such as the silvery gibbon, Javan surili and Javan lutung. Other mammals include Javan leopard, leopard cat, Indian muntjac, Java mouse-deer, Sumatran dhole, Malayan porcupine, Sunda stink badger, yellow-throated marten, Bartels's rat. Visitors enter the park by one of the four gates of the park: the Cibodas, Gunung Putri, Selabintana gates, all give access to the peaks. Cibodas gate is the site of the park's headquarters. From Jakarta, the area is two hours drive via Cibodas Botanical Gardens. Volcanoes of Indonesia Geography of Indonesia Official site Ministry of Forestry: Gunung Gede-Pangrango National Park