The Tsimshian are an indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Their communities are mostly in coastal British Columbia and far southern Alaska, around Terrace and Prince Rupert in British Columbia, the Tsimshian people consist of approximately 10,000 members of seven First Nations. The Tsimshian are one of the largest First Nations peoples in northwest British Columbia, some Tsimshian migrated to Annette Island, where their descendants in the Metlakatla Indian Community number about 1450. Similar to numerous Native American peoples, the Tsimshian have a kinship system, with a societal structure based on a clan system. Descent and property are figured through the maternal line, early anthropologists and linguists had classified the Gitksan and Nishga as Tsimshian because of apparent linguistic affinities. The three were all referred to as Coast Tsimshian, even though some communities were not coastal and these three groups, identify as separate nations. Tsimshian translates to Inside the Skeena River, at one time the Tsimshian lived on the upper reaches of the Skeena River near present-day Hazelton, British Columbia.
The majority of Tsimshian still live in the lower Skeena River watershed near Kitimat, there are distinct groups of Tsimshian native peoples, the Nishga, the Gitksan, the Coast Tsimshian, and the Southern Tsimshian. The southern Tsimshian language had more prestige than the others and was used ceremonially by the Nishga. Kitkatla is still considered to be the most conservative of the Tsimshian villages, over time, these groups developed a new dialect of their ancestral language and came to regard themselves as a distinct population, the Tsimshian-proper. They continued to share the rights and customs of those who are known as the Gitxsan, in late prehistoric times, the Coastal Tsimshian gradually moved their winter villages out to the islands of Venn. They returned to their villages along the lower Skeena River when the salmon returned. Archaeological evidence shows 5,000 years of inhabitation in the Prince Rupert region. Kitkatla was probably the first Tsimshian village contacted by Europeans when Captain Charles Duncan, when the Hudsons Bay Company moved their fort to modern-day Port Simpson in 1834, nine Tsimshian villages moved to the surrounding area.
Many of the Tsimshian peoples in Canada still live in these regions, throughout the second half of the 19th century, epidemics of infectious disease contracted from Europeans ravaged their communities, as the First Nations had no acquired immunity to these diseases. In 1862 a smallpox epidemic killed many of the Tsimshian people, one in four Tsimshian died in a series of at least three large-scale outbreaks. In 1835, the population of the Tsimshian peoples was estimated at 8,500. By 1885, the population had dropped to 4,500,817 of whom moved to Alaska two years later
They are known as Cupik by the Chevak Cupik dialect-speaking Eskimos of Chevak and Cupig for the Nunivak Cupig dialect-speaking Eskimo of Nunivak Island. Both Chevak Cupik and Nunivak Cupig Eskimos are known as Cupik, the Yupik and Cupig speakers can converse without difficulty, and the regional population is often described using the larger term of Yupik. The Yupiit speak the Yupik language, of a total population of about 21,000 people, about 10,000 speak the language. The Yupik Eskimo combine a contemporary and a subsistence lifestyle in a blend unique to the Southwest Alaska. Today, the Yupik generally work and live in style but still hunt and fish in traditional subsistence ways. Most Yupik people still speak the language and bilingual education has been in force since the 1970s. The Yupiit are the most numerous of the various Alaska Native groups and speak the Central Alaskan Yupik language, a member of the Eskimo-Aleut family of languages. As of the 2000 U. S. Census, the Yupiit population in the United States numbered over 24,000, the vast majority of these live in the seventy or so communities in the traditional Yupik territory of western and southwestern Alaska.
As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the Yupik at 34,000 people is the largest Alaska Native tribal grouping, either alone or in combination, the Yupik had the greatest number of people who identified with one tribal grouping and no other race. In that census, nearly half of American Indians and Alaska Natives identified as being of mixed race, the traditional Yupik Eskimo village of Toksook Bay is located on Nelson Island,6.5 miles southeast of Tununak, in the Yukon- Kuskokwim Delta. Families from Tununak and Newtok joined them, and the settlement grew, the city was incorporated in 1972. As of 2011, the Alaska Department of Labor estimated its population at 598, the federally recognized Nunakauyarmiut Tribe is located here. They use commercial fishing and subsistence activities to supplement income and provide food sources. Herring roe and halibut are favorite harvests, originally the form Yupik was used in the northern area while the form Yupiaq was used in the southern area. The form Yup’ik is now used as a common term, Yupik comes from the Yupik word yuk meaning person plus the postbase -pik or -piaq meaning real or genuine, Yupik literally means real people.
The ethnographic literature sometimes refers to the Yupik people or their language as Yuk or Yuit, in the Hooper Bay-Chevak and Nunivak dialects of Yupik, both the language and the people are given the name Cupik. The use of an apostrophe in the name Yupik, compared to Siberian Yupik, the apostrophe represents gemination of the p sound. Migrating east, they reached the Bering Sea area about 10,000 years ago and this causeway became exposed between 20,000 and 8,000 years ago during periods of glaciation. E
The Alutiiq people, called by their ancestral name Sugpiaq as well as Pacific Eskimo or Pacific Yupik, are a southern coastal people of Alaska Natives. It is one of Eskimo languages, belonging to the Yup’ik branch of these languages and they are not to be confused with the Aleuts, who live further to the southwest, including along the Aleutian Islands. At present, the most commonly used title is Alutiiq Alutiik Alutiit, these terms derive from the names that Russian fur traders and settlers gave to the native people in the region. But, the ethnonyms of Sugpiaq-Alutiiq are a predicament, Russian occupation began in 1784 with the massacre of hundreds of Sugpiat at Refuge Rock just off the coast of Sitkalidak Island near the present-day village of Old Harbor. The Sugpiaq term for Aleut is Alutiiq, all three names are used now, according to personal preference. They traditionally lived a lifestyle, subsisting primarily on ocean resources such as salmon, halibut. Before contact with Russian fur traders, the Alutiiq lived in homes called ciqlluaq.
In the 21st century, the Alutiiq today live in fishing communities. In 2010 the high school in Kodiak responded to requests from students, the Kodiak dialect of the language was being spoken by only about 50 persons, all of them elderly, and the dialect was in danger of being lost entirely. Their traditional homelands include Prince William Sound and outer Kenai Peninsula, the Kodiak Archipelago, in the early 1800s there were more than 60 Alutiiq villages in the Kodiak archipelago with an estimated population of 13,000 people. Today more than 4,000 Alutiiq people live in Alaska, alvin Eli Amason and sculptor Sven Haakanson, executive director of the Alutiiq Museum, and winner of a 2007 MacArthur Fellowship. Loren Leman, Lieutenant-governor of Alaska, 2002-2006 Cungagnaq, Eastern Orthodox saint, chugach Awauq Massacre Alutiiq Museum Alaska Native Language Center, Alaska Native Languages Map Alaskan Orthodox Christian texts Alutiiq Museum
Culture of the Tlingit
In Tlingit culture a heavy emphasis is placed upon family and kinship, and on a rich tradition of oratory. Wealth and economic power are important indicators of status, but so is generosity and proper behavior, all signs of good breeding and ties to aristocracy. The Tlingit kinship system, like most Northwest Coast societies, is based on a matrilineal structure, the society is wholly divided into two distinct moieties, termed Raven and Eagle/Wolf. No word in Tlingit refers to moiety, since referring to a person by their clan membership is enough to determine their moiety affiliation. In colloquial English the term side is used among the Tlingit since moiety is a specialized term unfamiliar to most. The moieties provide the primary dividing line across Tlingit society, instead individuals identify with their matrilineal clan, a large group of people related by shared genealogy and possessory rights. Clan sizes vary widely, and some clans are found all the Tlingit lands whereas others are found only in one small cluster of villages.
The Tlingit clan functions as the property owner in the culture, thus almost all formal property amongst the Tlingit belongs to clans. If they become familiar with traditional cultural practice they either discover. Because of the emphasis on clan and matrilineal descent, the father played a relatively minor role in the lives of his children. Instead, what Europeans would consider the primary role was filled by the mothers brother, the childrens maternal uncle. This man served as caretaker and disciplinarian, beneath the clans are houses, smaller groups of people closely related by family, and who in earlier times lived together in the same large communal house. The physical house itself would be first and foremost property of the clan, each house was led by a chief, in Tlingit hít saatí house master, an elder male of high stature within the family. The term aan saatí is now used to refer to a city mayor in Tlingit, although the traditional position was not elected. The existence of a chief for every house lineage in a village confused many early European explorers and traders who expected a single autocratic chief in a village or region.
The hít saatí is usually the caretaker and administrator of house property and he may often refer to himself as the slave of clan and house valuables and regalia because his position is not one of true ownership. The funds for these potlatches may come primarily from the hít saatí, marriages among Tlingits, and occasionally between Tlingits and other tribes were arranged. The man moved into the house and became a member of that household
The majority of Southeast Alaskas area is part of the Tongass National Forest, the United States largest national forest. In many places, the border runs along the crest of the Boundary Ranges of the Coast Mountains. The region is noted for its scenery and mild rainy climate, Southeast Alaska is the northern terminus of the Inside Passage, a protected waterway of convoluted passages between islands and fjords, beginning in Puget Sound in Washington state. This was an important travel corridor for Tlingit and Haida Native peoples, in modern times it is an important route for Alaska Marine Highway ferries as well as cruise ships. Southeast Alaska has an area of 35,138 square miles comprising seven entire boroughs. Although it has only 6.14 percent of Alaskas land area, it is larger than the state of Maine, the Southeast Alaskan coast is roughly as long as the west coast of Canada. The 2010 census population of Southeast was 71,616 inhabitants, the largest islands are, from North to South, Chichagof Island, Admiralty Island, Baranof Island, Kupreanof Island, Revillagigedo Island and Prince of Wales Island.
Major bodies of water of Southeast Alaska include Glacier Bay, Lynn Canal, Icy Strait, Chatham Strait, Stephens Passage, Frederick Sound, Sumner Strait, and Clarence Strait. On August 20,1902, President Theodore Roosevelt established the Alexander Archipelago Forest Reserve, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park Sitka National Historical Park Wrangell-St. The most common species are sitka spruce and western hemlock. Major cities are Juneau and Sitka, other towns are Petersburg, Metlakatla, Hoonah, Kake, Klawock, Thorne Bay, Yakutat and Gustavus. This region is home to the easternmost town in Alaska. This area is the homeland of the Tlingit, and home of a historic settling of Haida as well as a modern settlement of Tsimshian. The region is connected to Seattle and the American Pacific Northwest economically and culturally. In modern times, southeastern Alaskans can often be identified by their choices, notably Xtratuf boots. Major industries in Southeast Alaska include commercial fishing and tourism and its members include Alcan Forest Products and Viking Lumber, which had been founded in Maine.
Debates over whether to expand logging in the federally owned Tongass are not uncommon, mining remains important in the northern area with the Juneau mining district and Admiralty mining district hosting active mines as of 2015. Gold was discovered in 1880 and played an important part in the history of the region
University of Alaska Fairbanks
The University of Alaska Fairbanks is a public research university in Fairbanks, United States. It is a campus of the University of Alaska System. UAF is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant institution, UAF was established in 1917 and opened for classes in 1922. UAF was originally named Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines, located just 200 miles south of the Arctic Circle, the Fairbanks campus unique location is situated favorably for arctic and northern research. The campus several lines of research are renowned worldwide, most notably arctic biology, arctic engineering, supercomputing, the University of Alaska Museum of the North is on the Fairbanks campus. Fairbanks is the home of the eLearning and Distance Education, in fall 2013, UAF enrolled 10,214 students. Of those students,59.3 percent were female and 40.7 percent were male,88 percent were undergraduates, as of May 2013,1,288 students had graduated during the immediately preceding summer and spring semesters. The station set the tone for the strongly research-oriented university that developed later, in the spring of 1915, the U. S.
Congress approved legislation that reserved about 2,250 acres of land for a campus around the research station. However, because most of the land in Tanana Valley remained unsurveyed for years, in 1929, Congress attempted to remedy the situation by granting the college an additional 100,000 acres anywhere in Alaska, but those rights were extinguished in 1959 when Alaska became a state. The ridge, which the indigenous Athabaskan people called Troth Yeddha, Charles E. Bunnell was appointed the university’s chief executive and served the university for 28 years. The new institution had its first opening day on September 18,1922, in 1923, the first commencement produced one graduate, John Sexton Shanly. In 1935, the Alaska Legislature passed a bill that changed the name of the college to the University of Alaska. From that point on, both the student population and research mission grew tremendously. The two other primary UA institutions are the University of Alaska Anchorage and the University of Alaska Southeast in Juneau, the Alaska Constitutional Convention was held in the freshly constructed Student Union Building on the Fairbanks campus from November 1955 to February 1956.
While the convention progressed, the became known as Constitution Hall. The campus’ old library and gymnasium was renamed Signers’ Hall after the Alaska Constitution was signed there in February 1956, elmer E. Mather Library UAF is Alaskas primary research university, conducting more than 90 percent of UA system research. The International Arctic Research Center, researches the circumpolar North and the causes, the Institute of Northern Engineering, an arm of the College of Engineering and Mines, conducts research in many different areas of engineering. The Institute of Arctic Biology conducts research focused on biological systems
Greenland is an autonomous constituent country within the Danish Realm between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, Greenland is the worlds largest island. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated country in the world, the Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited off and on for at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada, Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, and Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century.
The Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century, soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese briefly explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador. In the early 18th century, Scandinavian explorers reached Greenland again, to strengthen trading and power, Denmark-Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island. Greenland was settled by Vikings more than a thousand years ago, Vikings set sail from Greenland and Iceland, discovering North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached Caribbean islands. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262, the Kingdom of Norway was extensive and a military power until the mid-14th century. Thus, the two kingdoms resources were directed at creating Copenhagen, Norway became the weaker part and lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved. Greenland became a Danish colony in 1814, and was made a part of the Danish Realm in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark, in 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark.
However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC which was effected in 1985, Greenland contains the worlds largest and most northernly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Greenland is divided into four municipalities - Sermersooq, Qaasuitsup and it retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK3.4 billion, which is planned to diminish gradually over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources, the capital, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world, the early Viking settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter, along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding an area and settling there, he named it Grœnland
The Tlingit are an indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America. Their language is Lingít, meaning People of the Tides, the Russian name Koloshi or the related German name Koulischen may be encountered referring to the people in older historical literature, such as Shelikhovs 1796 map of Russian America. The Tlingit have a kinship system, with children considered born into the mothers clan. Their culture and society developed in the temperate rainforest of the southeast Alaska coast, the Tlingit maintained a complex hunter-gatherer culture based on semi-sedentary management of fisheries. An inland group, known as the Inland Tlingit, inhabits the far part of the province of British Columbia. With regular travel up rivers, the Tlingit developed extensive trade networks with Athabascan tribes of the interior. They overlap in territory with various Athabascan peoples, such as the Tahltan, Kaska, in Canada, the modern communities of Atlin, British Columbia, Teslin and Carcross, Yukon have reserves and are the representative Interior Tlingit populations.
The territory occupied by the modern Tlingit people in Alaska is not restricted to particular reservations, the corporation in the Tlingit region is Sealaska Corporation, which serves the Tlingit as well as the Haida and Tsimshian in Alaska. Tlingit people as a participate in the commercial economy of Alaska. As a consequence, they live in typically American nuclear family households with private ownership of housing, many possess land allotments from Sealaska or from earlier distributions predating ANCSA. Despite the legal and political complexities, the territory occupied by the Tlingit can be reasonably designated as their modern homeland. Tlingit people today consider the land from around Yakutat south through the Alaskan Panhandle, and including the lakes in the Canadian interior, as being Lingít Aaní, the Land of the Tlingit. Northern Tinglit live north of Frederick Sound to Cape Spencer, and including Glacier Bay and their territory can be battered by Pacific storms. These academic classifications are supported by similar self-identification among the Tlingit, the Tlingit culture is multifaceted and complex, a characteristic of Northwest Pacific Coast people with access to easily exploited rich resources.
In Tlingit culture a heavy emphasis is placed upon family and kinship and economic power are important indicators of rank, but so is generosity and proper behavior, all signs of good breeding and ties to aristocracy. Tlingit society is divided into two moieties, the Raven and the Eagle and these in turn are divided into numerous clans, which are subdivided into lineages or house groups. They have a kinship system, with descent and inheritance passed through the mothers line. These groups have heraldic crests, which are displayed on poles, feast dishes, house posts, jewelry
Sheldon Jackson was a Presbyterian minister and political leader. During this career he travelled about one million miles and established more than one hundred missions and churches, State of Alaska, and his efforts to suppress Native American languages. Sheldon Jackson was born in 1834 in Minaville in Montgomery County in eastern New York and his mother Delia Jackson was a daughter of New York State Assembly Speaker Alexander Sheldon. Jackson graduated in 1855 from Union College in Schenectady, New York and that same year, he became an ordained Presbyterian minister and married the former Mary Vorhees. He wanted to become a missionary overseas, but the Presbyterian board told the 5-foot Jackson, who had weak eyesight and was often ill, that he would be better suited for duty in the United States. He hence first worked in the north-central and western United States, Jacksons first assignment was at the Choctaw mission in Oklahoma Territory, where he worked until poor health forced him to go back East in 1859.
After his recovery he was appointed to La Crescent in Houston County in southeastern Minnesota and he spent ten years in Minnesota and Wisconsin, having organized or assisted in the establishment of twenty-three churches. Jacksons travels took him throughout the American West, with the completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869, a huge territory was opened to him. In the summer of 1869, Jackson went on a missionary tour using the railroad and stage lines, based in Denver, Jackson became the Presbyterian missions superintendent for Colorado, Montana, Utah Territory, Arizona Territory, and New Mexico Territory. He published from 1872 to 1882 the Rocky Mountain Presbyterian denominational newspaper and he frequently visited frontier areas to preach, such as the mining camp on Mount Bross in South Park, Colorado. However, an area of the United States even more challenging awaited him, Reverend Jackson found his major lifes work in the new territory of Alaska. In 1867, US Secretary of State William H.
Seward, the huge territory, with 20,000 miles of coastline, was initially called by many skeptics Sewards Folly. In 1877, Jackson began his work in Alaska and he became committed to the Christian spiritual and economic wellbeing of the Alaska Natives. He founded numerous schools and training centers that served these native people and his protégés included the Rev. Edward Marsden, a Tsimshian missionary among the Tlingit. Reverend Jackson had considerable common ground with another important American in the region, Captain Michael A. Healy of the United States Revenue Cutter Service, commander of the USRC Bear, was known for his concern for the native Alaskan Eskimos. During this time, Captain Healy, who had been the first African American to command a U. S. ship, was essentially the law enforcement officer of the U. S. government in the vast territory. In his twenty years of service between San Francisco and Point Barrow, he acted as a judge and policeman to Alaskan Natives, merchant seamen and his ship carried doctors and provided the only available trained medical care to many isolated communities.
The Native people throughout the vast regions of the came to know and respect this skipper
The Tanana Athabaskans, Tanana Athabascans or Tanana Athapaskans are an Alaskan Athabaskan peoples of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group. They are the inhabitants of the Tanana River drainage basin in east-central Alaska Interior, United States. Tanana River Athabaskan peoples are called in Lower Tanana and Koyukon language Ten Hʉtænæ, in Alaska, where they are the oldest, there are three or four groups identified by the languages they speak. These are the Tanana proper or Lower Tanana and/or Middle Tanana, Tanacross or Tanana Crossing, the Tanana Athabaskan culture is a hunter-gatherer culture and have a matrilineal system. Tanana Athabaskans were semi-nomadic and as living in semi-permanent settlements in the Tanana Valley lowlands, traditional Athabaskan land use includes fall hunting of moose, Dall sheep, and small terrestrial animals, and trapping. The Athabaskans did not have any formal tribal organization, Tanana Athabaskans were strictly territorial and used hunting and gathering practices in their semi-nomadic way of life and dispersed habitation patterns.
Each small band of 20–40 people normally had a winter camp with several seasonal hunting and fishing camps. Their neighbors are other Athabaskan-speaking peoples, in Alaska Koyukon, Gwichin, Hän, the language of the Upper Kuskokwim people more closely related to Lower Tanana language, but not neighbor. The homeland of the Tanana Athabaskan people can be divided into four distinct sections. 1) the Yukon Tanana upland draining to the Tanana River, 2) the Northway-Tanacross Lowlands, 3) the Eastern Alaskan range draining into the Tanana river, the Tanana Athabaskans have a system of matrilineal kinship. The Athabaskans loosely recognized membership in a bilateral group called regional band. In the winter, the band might split up into smaller units, called local bands. The regional band might meet again at a place and time in mid-winter for a gathering ceremony called a potlatch. At the end of the 19th century there were twelve regional bands living in the Tanana Athabaskan homeland,6 downriver bands and 6 upriver bands, the Lower Tanana regional bands, Minto or Minto Flats band – inhabiting the Minto Flats and Old Minto area.
Neighbors, Gwichin people, Koyukon people, Nenana-Toklat band, Wood River band, Nenana-Toklat band – inhabiting the Nenana River, Nenana Valley and Toklat River area. Neighbors, Koyukon people, Denaina people, Minto band, Wood River band, Wood River band – inhabiting the Wood River area. Neighbors, Denaina people, Nenana-Toklat band and Chena bands, Chena band — inhabiting the Chena River and Chena Village area. Neighbors, Gwichin people, Minto band, Salcha band, the Middle Tanana regional bands, Salcha or Salchaket band – inhabiting the Salcha River area
Alaska is a U. S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas–the southern parts of the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean lies to the south and southwest. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by area, the 3rd least populous, approximately half of Alaskas residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaskas economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy. The United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30,1867, the area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11,1912. It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3,1959, the name Alaska was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the peninsula. It was derived from an Aleut, or Unangam idiom, which refers to the mainland of Alaska. Literally, it means object to which the action of the sea is directed, Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere.
Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America and it is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use, Alaska is not part of the contiguous U. S. often called the Lower 48. The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system. Alaskas territorial waters touch Russias territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island, Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the area of the next three largest states, Texas and Montana. It is larger than the area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. Also referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States, as such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase.
The region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest and it contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, and Ketchikan, at one time Alaskas largest city. The Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital transportation link throughout the area. The Interior is the largest region of Alaska, much of it is uninhabited wilderness, Fairbanks is the only large city in the region