University of Edinburgh
The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities. The university has five main campuses in the city of Edinburgh, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university; the university played an important role in leading Edinburgh to its reputation as a chief intellectual centre during the Age of Enlightenment, helped give the city the nickname of the Athens of the North. The University of Edinburgh is ranked 18th in the world by the 2019 QS World University Rankings, it is ranked as the 6th best university in Europe by the U. S. News' Best Global Universities Ranking, 7th best in Europe by the Times Higher Education Ranking; the Research Excellence Framework, a research ranking used by the UK government to determine future research funding, ranked Edinburgh 4th in the UK for research power, 11th overall. It is ranked the 78th most employable university in the world by the 2017 Global Employability University Ranking.
It is a member of both the Russell Group, the League of European Research Universities, a consortium of 21 research universities in Europe. It has the third largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, after the universities of Cambridge and Oxford; the annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £949.0 million of which £279.7 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £931.3 million. Alumni of the university include some of the major figures of modern history, including 3 signatories of the American declaration of independence and 9 heads of state; as of March 2019, Edinburgh's alumni, faculty members and researches include 19 Nobel laureates, 3 Turing Award laureates, 1 Fields Medalist, 1 Abel Prize winner, 2 Pulitzer Prize winners, 2 currently-sitting UK Supreme Court Justices, several Olympic gold medallists. It continues to have links to the British Royal Family, having had the Duke of Edinburgh as its Chancellor from 1953 to 2010 and Princess Anne since 2011.
Edinburgh receives 60,000 applications every year, making it the second most popular university in the UK by volume of applications. It has 4th highest average UCAS entry tariff in Scotland, 5th overall in the UK. Founded by the Edinburgh Town Council, the university began life as a college of law using part of a legacy left by a graduate of the University of St Andrews, Bishop Robert Reid of St Magnus Cathedral, Orkney. Through efforts by the Town Council and Ministers of the City the institution broadened in scope and became formally established as a college by a Royal Charter, granted by King James VI of Scotland on 14 April 1582 after the petitioning of the Council; this was unprecedented in newly Presbyterian Scotland, as older universities in Scotland had been established through Papal bulls. Established as the "Tounis College", it opened its doors to students in October 1583. Instruction began under the charge of another St Andrews graduate Robert Rollock, it was the fourth Scottish university in a period when the richer and much more populous England had only two.
It was renamed King James's College in 1617. By the 18th century, the university was a leading centre of the Scottish Enlightenment. In 1762, Reverend Hugh Blair was appointed by King George III as the first Regius Professor of Rhetoric and Belles-Lettres; this formalised literature as a subject at the university and the foundation of the English Literature department, making Edinburgh the oldest centre of literary education in Britain. Before the building of Old College to plans by Robert Adam implemented after the Napoleonic Wars by the architect William Henry Playfair, the University of Edinburgh existed in a hotchpotch of buildings from its establishment until the early 19th century; the university's first custom-built building was the Old College, now Edinburgh Law School, situated on South Bridge. Its first forte in teaching was anatomy and the developing science of surgery, from which it expanded into many other subjects. From the basement of a nearby house ran the anatomy tunnel corridor.
It went under what was North College Street, under the university buildings until it reached the university's anatomy lecture theatre, delivering bodies for dissection. It was from this tunnel. Towards the end of the 19th century, Old College was becoming overcrowded and Sir Robert Rowand Anderson was commissioned to design new Medical School premises in 1875; the design incorporated a Graduation Hall, but this was seen as too ambitious. A separate building was constructed for the purpose, the McEwan Hall designed by Anderson, after funds were donated by the brewer and politician Sir William McEwan in 1894, it was presented to the University in 1897. New College was opened in 1846 as a Free Church of Scotland college of the United Free Church of Scotland. Since the 1930s it has been the home of the School of Divinity. Prior to the 1929 reunion of the Church of Scotland, candidates for the ministry in the United Free Church studied at New College, whilst candidates for the old Church of Scotland studied in the Divinity Faculty of the University of Edinburgh.
During the 1930s the two institutions came together. By the end of the 1950s, there were around 7,000 students matriculating annually. An Edinburgh Students' Representative Council was founded in 1884 by student Robert Fitzroy Bell. In 1889, the SRC voted to be housed in Teviot Row House; the Edinburgh University Sports Union, founded in 1866. The Edinburgh
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed over 4.5 billion years ago. Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space the Sun and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth revolves around the Sun in a period known as an Earth year. During this time, Earth rotates about its axis about 366.26 times. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted with respect to its orbital plane; the gravitational interaction between Earth and the Moon causes ocean tides, stabilizes Earth's orientation on its axis, slows its rotation. Earth is the largest of the four terrestrial planets. Earth's lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of Earth's surface is covered with water by oceans; the remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere.
The majority of Earth's polar regions are covered in ice, including the Antarctic ice sheet and the sea ice of the Arctic ice pack. Earth's interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the Earth's magnetic field, a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics. Within the first billion years of Earth's history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect the Earth's atmosphere and surface, leading to the proliferation of aerobic and anaerobic organisms; some geological evidence indicates. Since the combination of Earth's distance from the Sun, physical properties, geological history have allowed life to evolve and thrive. In the history of the Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion punctuated by mass extinction events. Over 99% of all species that lived on Earth are extinct. Estimates of the number of species on Earth today vary widely. Over 7.6 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and natural resources for their survival.
Humans have developed diverse cultures. The modern English word Earth developed from a wide variety of Middle English forms, which derived from an Old English noun most spelled eorðe, it has cognates in every Germanic language, their proto-Germanic root has been reconstructed as *erþō. In its earliest appearances, eorðe was being used to translate the many senses of Latin terra and Greek γῆ: the ground, its soil, dry land, the human world, the surface of the world, the globe itself; as with Terra and Gaia, Earth was a personified goddess in Germanic paganism: the Angles were listed by Tacitus as among the devotees of Nerthus, Norse mythology included Jörð, a giantess given as the mother of Thor. Earth was written in lowercase, from early Middle English, its definite sense as "the globe" was expressed as the earth. By Early Modern English, many nouns were capitalized, the earth became the Earth when referenced along with other heavenly bodies. More the name is sometimes given as Earth, by analogy with the names of the other planets.
House styles now vary: Oxford spelling recognizes the lowercase form as the most common, with the capitalized form an acceptable variant. Another convention capitalizes "Earth" when appearing as a name but writes it in lowercase when preceded by the, it always appears in lowercase in colloquial expressions such as "what on earth are you doing?" The oldest material found in the Solar System is dated to 4.5672±0.0006 billion years ago. By 4.54±0.04 Bya the primordial Earth had formed. The bodies in the Solar System evolved with the Sun. In theory, a solar nebula partitions a volume out of a molecular cloud by gravitational collapse, which begins to spin and flatten into a circumstellar disk, the planets grow out of that disk with the Sun. A nebula contains gas, ice grains, dust. According to nebular theory, planetesimals formed by accretion, with the primordial Earth taking 10–20 million years to form. A subject of research is the formation of some 4.53 Bya. A leading hypothesis is that it was formed by accretion from material loosed from Earth after a Mars-sized object, named Theia, hit Earth.
In this view, the mass of Theia was 10 percent of Earth, it hit Earth with a glancing blow and some of its mass merged with Earth. Between 4.1 and 3.8 Bya, numerous asteroid impacts during the Late Heavy Bombardment caused significant changes to the greater surface environment of the Moon and, by inference, to that of Earth. Earth's atmosphere and oceans were formed by volcanic outgassing. Water vapor from these sources condensed into the oceans, augmented by water and ice from asteroids and comets. In this model, atmospheric "greenhouse gases" kept the oceans from freezing when the newly forming Sun had only 70% of its current luminosity. By 3.5 Bya, Earth's magnetic field was established, which helped prevent the atmosphere from being stripped away by the solar wind. A crust formed; the two models that explain land mass propose either a steady growth to the present-day forms or, more a rapid growth early in Earth history followed by a long-term steady continental area. Continents formed by plate tectonics
Packraft and trail boat are colloquial terms for a small, portable inflatable boat designed for use in all bodies of water, including technical whitewater and ocean bays and fjords. A packraft is designed to be light enough to be carried for extended distances. Along with its propulsion system and safety equipment the entire package is designed to be light and compact enough for an individual to negotiate rough terrain while carrying the rafting equipment together with supplies and other survival or backcountry equipment. Modern packrafts vary from inexpensive vinyl boats lacking durability to sturdy craft costing over US $1,000. Most weigh less than nine pounds and carry a single passenger; the most popular propulsion systems involve a kayak paddle. Most they are paddled from a sitting position, although kneeling can be advantageous in some situations. Pioneering use of packrafts is difficult to trace, as float tubes, inner tubes, other small boats can in some of their uses be considered equivalent to packrafts, have been used around the world for over a century, beginning with the Halkett boat.
However, Dick Griffith is documented to have used a packraft to descend Copper Canyon's Urique River in 1952 before introducing them to the Alaska Mountain Wilderness Classic adventure race in 1982. Packrafts are now common equipment in that race. A variety of companies have made durable packrafts in the past including Sherpa and American Safety. Furthermore, aviator emergency rafts have been used for packrafting purposes in a variety of applications. Pioneering use of packrafts consisted of using boats intended as pool toys or lake craft in moving water while carrying gear or passengers; the discomfort of these non-durable boats led to the marketing of the modern packraft. Alaska is considered the birthplace of packrafting as long distance, non-motorized, landscape travel across untracked wilderness necessitates a small, portable boat for water crossings. Dick Griffith, Roman Dial, the Alaska Mountain Wilderness Classic, Sheri Tingey, Erin McKittrick, her husband Bretwood Higman all are, or have been, based in Alaska.
In the U. S. outside Alaska, Forrest McCarthy, Nathan Shoutis, Ryan Jordan have advanced backcountry packrafting in Wyoming, Washington and Arizona. Packrafting has become popular in elsewhere in Europe. Packrafts have been used in Mexico, Southeast Asia, New Zealand and tropical South America; the boats are carried to cross and float rivers and lakes while carried between watersheds. Packrafts have been used as portable boats for long distance wilderness travel, usage that reached its apogee in the Higman-McKittrick 4,500 mile expedition along the Pacific Coast from Seattle to the Aleutian Islands; this classical use has been modified by most packraft owners to shorter day trips that mix trail hiking and river and creek floats or lake paddles. In Europe packrafts are used together with train travel. Most of these hike and paddle applications are in gentler water of less. However, low-flow steep creeks rated to Class V and other whitewater runs that were considered suitable only for kayaks and bigger rafts, are now run by packrafters.
The addition of spray decks and thigh straps allow more precise control of the craft. Eskimo rolling in packrafts is now done routinely. Packrafts are popular among fishers and hunters as well as travelers who wish to carry a lightweight craft on airplanes. A typical cold water set-up including packraft with thigh straps and spray deck, safety lines, suitable clothing, inflation bag, backpack, dry bag weigh 15 pounds. While they can be inflated by mouth or electric pumps, most contemporary users carry light weight inflation bags. Distinction from "pool toy" In this article, packrafts/trail boats are differentiated from pool toys or flotation devices, which are intended for use in an enclosed and controlled body of water, such as a swimming pool. A packraft/trail boat is intended for use in open bodies of water. Distinction from "man-portable" A packraft is distinguished from a man-portable raft insofar as it is designed to be light enough to represent only a fraction of the total weight an individual can reasonably carry.
A packraft can be carried for extended periods, along with food, water and other supplies that would enable the individual to traverse long distances through difficult terrain. All rafts listed in this article weigh less than five pounds without paddles or spray decks. Packrafts are used in a variety of applications; these include: River crossings Whitewater Remote lake fishing Travel boats Adventure racing Open water crossings Remote river descents Hunting Canyoneering Aviator boats Rock climbing Access The expense of high quality packrafts costing $US500 - $US1000 has led to interest in using PVC inflatable boats and pool toys costing $US15 - $US100 as a cheap alternative. These vinyl substitutes are not designed for anything more challenging than boating on still water no further than an easy swim to shore. For this reason they have been described as'slackrafts'. Coracle Video clips of a variety of whitewater packrafting How-to video of Eskimo rolling a packraft tr
Magadan is a port town and the administrative center of Magadan Oblast, located on the Sea of Okhotsk in Nagayev Bay and serving as a gateway to the Kolyma region. Population: 95,982 . Magadan was founded in 1930 near the settlement of Nagayevo. During the Stalin era, Magadan was a major transit center for prisoners sent to labor camps. From 1932 to 1953, it was the administrative center of the Dalstroy organization—a vast and brutal forced-labor gold-mining operation and forced-labor camp system; the town served as a port for exporting gold and other metals mined in the Kolyma region. Its size and population grew as facilities were developed for the expanding mining activities in the area. Town status was granted to it on July 14, 1939. Magadan was visited by U. S. Vice-President Henry Wallace in May 1944, he took an instant liking to his secret policeman host, admired handiwork done by prisoners, glowingly called the town a combination of Tennessee Valley Authority and Hudson's Bay Company. Wallace's collaborative stance towards the Soviet Union discouraged the Democratic Party of the United States from renominating him as vice president in the summer of 1944, helping lead to the selection of Harry Truman in his place.
Magadan is the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with the urban-type settlements of Sokol and Uptar, incorporated as the town of oblast significance of Magadan—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, the town of oblast significance of Magadan is incorporated as Magadan Urban Okrug. Shipbuilding and fishing are the major industries; the town has a small international airport, the Sokol Airport. There is a small domestic airport nearby, Magadan 13; the unpaved Kolyma Highway leads from Magadan to the rich gold-mining region of the upper Kolyma River and on to Yakutsk. Magadan is isolated; the nearest major city accessible by road is Yakutsk, 2,000 kilometers away via an unpaved road, best used in the winter since there is no bridge over the Lena River at Yakutsk.. The principal sources of income for the local economy are gold mining and fisheries. Gold production has declined.
Fishing production, although improving from year to year, is still well below the allocated quotas as a result of an aging fleet. Other local industries include pasta and sausage plants, a distillery. Although farming is difficult owing to the harsh climate, there are many public and private farming enterprises; the town has a number of cultural institutions including the Regional Museum of Anthropology, a geological museum, a regional library and a university. The town has the new Orthodox Cathedral Church of the Trinity, a completed Roman Catholic Church of the Nativity and the Mask of Sorrow memorial, a large sculpture in memory of Stalin's victims, designed by Ernst Neizvestny; the Church of the Nativity is a part of the diocese of Anchorage and ministers to the survivors of the labor camps. It is staffed by several nuns; the town figures prominently in the labour camp literature of Varlam Shalamov and in the eponymous song by Mikhail Krug, was a focal point of the Long Way Round motorcycle journey made by Ewan McGregor, Charley Boorman and their team in 2004.
The climate of Magadan is subarctic. Winters are prolonged and cold, with up to six months of sub-zero high temperatures, so that the soil remains permanently frozen. Permafrost and tundra cover most of the region; the growing season is only one hundred days long. Average temperatures on the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk range from −22 °C in January to +12 °C in July. Average temperatures in the interior range from −38 °C in January to +16 °C in July. North-Eastern State University Nikolai Getman, artist Vadim Kozin, tenor Nina Lugovskaya, artist Yelena Välbe, Olympic cross-country skier Pavel Vinogradov, cosmonaut Dimitry Ipatov, ski jumper Sasha Luss, fashion model Viktor Rybakov, former European amateur boxing champion Anya Garnis, professional dancer, raised in Magadan, but not born there. Inna Korobkina, actress Magadan is twinned with: Anchorage, United States Tonghua, China Jelgava, Latvia Zlatitsa, Bulgaria Shuangyashan, China Магаданская городская Дума. Решение №96-Д от 26 августа 2005 г.
«Устав муниципального образования "Город Магадан"», в ред. Решения №61-Д от 15 сентября 2017 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав муниципального образования "Город Магадан"». Вступил в силу 1 января 2006 г.. Опубликован: "Вечерний Магадан", №3, 19 января 2006 г.. Магаданская городская Дума. Решение №49-Д от 1 июля 1999 г. «О установлении общегородского праздника "День города Магадана"». (Magadan Town Duma. Decision #49-D of July 1, 1999 On Establishing Town Holiday "Day of the Town o
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
Philip Michael'Phil' Packer is a British charity activist, who suffered serious injuries while serving with the British military in Iraq in 2008, has since engaged in numerous publicised physical challenges in support of his charity, the British Inspiration Trust, other causes. Packer sustained catastrophic spinal cord injuries in 2008, whilst on operational duty with British military forces in Iraq, he suffered a motor-complete T12/L1 spinal cord injury, was told he would never walk again. Following surgery and recuperation, his injury improved to T12/L1 motor-incomplete. Following his recuperation, Packer has embarked on numerous publicised physical challenges, both to raise money, to help himself recuperate psychologically from his injuries. In February 2009, less than a year after his injury, Packer rowed the English Channel with Alastair Humphreys. Next he entered the 2009 London Marathon, it took him thirteen days to complete the course the longest time in the event's history. By the end of the marathon he had raised £637,000 for wounded ex-servicemen.
The same year with support from an expert climbing team led by Andy Kirkpatrick, Packer was brought up El Capitan, the granite cliff in Yosemite National Park, over a period of 3 days. In 2010 Packer and BBC presenter Kate Silverton, with other personalities, took part in the National Three Peaks Challenge for Sport Relief, climbing the highest peaks in England and Wales in 72 hours; the challenge was the focus of the BBC documentary. He took part in the 2010 London Marathon, completing it in 26 hours. From January to December 2012, Packer walked 2012 miles throughout the U. K. and Northern Ireland. In September 2015, Packer again walked a marathon through London, taking 14 hours, to raise funds for BRIT. In 2010 Packer founded the British Inspiration Trust, which aims to "deliver inspiration to young people facing adversity"; the Trust was launched with an event at 10 Downing Street with Prime Minister David Cameron. His principal role is with BRIT but he has held positions in other charities: Ambassador for The Prince’s Trust Special Ambassador for The Royal Yachting Association’s Sailability Program Ambassador for The Douglas Bader Foundation Patron for The National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children NSPCC Team GO Patron of Cardiac Risk in the Young Vice Patron of The Helen Rollason Cancer Charity Ambassador for The UK The Scout Association Scout Association Ambassador for The Calvert Trust Special Ambassador for The Army Benevolent Fund – The Soldiers’ Charity Ambassador for The Football Foundation’s Inside Right Programme Envoy for The Royal Navy and Royal Marines Children’s Fund Envoy for Combat Stress Envoy for The National Autistic Society Envoy for Arthritis Research UK Vice President of The Children’s Trust Envoy for The Papworth Trust In 2009, he won the Helen Rollason Award at the BBC Sports Personality of the Year awards, was "Fundraiser of the Year" at the Pride of Britain Awards, received the Athlete of the Year Badge from The Scout Association.
Packer was made appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire in the Queen's Birthday Honours of 2010, received the Jane Tomlinson Inspiration Award from Runner's World. In 2012, Packer was awarded an honorary Master of Arts degree in Education from the University of Chichester. In 2014, he was awarded a Master of Arts degree in Psychological Trauma from the University of Chester. Phil Packer official website British Inspiration Trust website
Royal Geographical Society
The Royal Geographical Society is the UK's learned society and professional body for geography, founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences. Today, it is the leading centre for geographers and geographical learning; the Society has over 16,500 members and its work reaches millions of people each year through publications, research groups and lectures. The Society was founded in 1830 under the name Geographical Society of London as an institution to promote the'advancement of geographical science', it absorbed the older African Association, founded by Sir Joseph Banks in 1788, as well as the Raleigh Club and the Palestine Association. Like many learned societies, it had started as a dining club in London, where select members held informal dinner debates on current scientific issues and ideas. Founding members of the Society included Sir John Barrow, Sir John Franklin and Sir Francis Beaufort. Under the patronage of King William IV it became known as The Royal Geographical Society and was granted its Royal Charter under Queen Victoria in 1859.
From 1830 to 1840 the RGS met in the rooms of the Horticultural Society in Regent Street and from 1854 -1870 at 15 Whitehall Place, London. In 1870, the Society found a home when it moved to 1 Savile Row, London – an address that became associated with adventure and travel; the Society used a lecture theatre in Burlington Gardens, London, lent to it by the Civil Service Commission. However, the arrangements were thought to be rather squalid. A new impetus was given to the Society's affairs in 1911, with the election of Earl Curzon, the former Viceroy of India, as the Society's President; the premises in Savile Row were sold and the present site, Lowther Lodge in Kensington Gore, was purchased for £100,000 and opened for use in April 1913. In the same year the Society's ban on women was lifted. Lowther Lodge was built in 1874 for the Hon William Lowther by Norman Shaw, one of the most outstanding domestic architects of his day. Extensions to the east wing were added in 1929, included the New Map Room and the 750 seat Lecture Theatre.
The extension was formally opened by HRH the Duke of York at the Centenary Celebrations on 21 October 1930. The history of the Society was allied for many of its earlier years with'colonial' exploration in Africa, the Indian subcontinent, the polar regions, central Asia especially, it has been a key associate and supporter of many notable explorers and expeditions, including those of Darwin, Stanley, Shackleton and Hillary. The early history of the Society is inter-linked with the history of British Geography and discovery. Information, maps and knowledge gathered on expeditions was sent to the RGS, making up its now unique geographical collections; the Society published its first journal in 1831 and from 1855, accounts of meetings and other matters were published in the Society Proceedings. In 1893, this was replaced by The Geographical Journal, still published today; the Society was pivotal in establishing Geography as a teaching and research discipline in British universities, funded the first Geography positions in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
With the advent of a more systematic study of geography, the Institute of British Geographers was formed in 1933, by some academic Society fellows, including Andrew Charles O'Dell, as a sister body to the Society. Its activities included organising conferences, field trips and specialist research groups and publishing the journal, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers; the RGS and IBG co-existed for 60 years until 1992. In 1994, members were balloted and the merger agreed. In January 1995, the new Royal Geographical Society was formed; the Society works together with other existing bodies serving the geographical community, in particular the Geographical Association and the Royal Scottish Geographical Society. In 2004, The Society's historical Collections relating to scientific exploration and research, which are of national and international importance, were opened to the public for the first time. In the same year, a new category of membership was introduced to widen access for people with a general interest in geography.
The new Foyle Reading Room and glass Pavilion exhibition space were opened to the public in 2004 – unlocking the Society intellectually and physically for the 21st century. For example, in 2012 the RGS held an exhibition, in the glass Pavilion, of photographs taken by Herbert Ponting on Captain Robert Falcon Scott's expedition to the South Pole in 1912; the society is governed by its board of trustees called the council, chaired by its president. The members of council and the president are elected from its fellowship; the council consists of 36 members, 22 of which are elected by fellows and serve for a three-year term. In addition to the elected trustees, there are honorary members; the society has five specialist committees that it derives advice from Education Committee Research Committee Expedition and Fieldwork Committee Information Resources Committee Finance Committee Frederick John Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich The Earl of Ripon Sir George Murray Sir Roderick Murchison Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson Sir Clements Robert Markham Sir George Taubman Goldie Major Leonard Darwin Earl Curzon of Kedleston Douglas Freshfield (1914–1917