Louis XV of France
Louis XV, known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five; until he reached maturity on 15 February 1723, the kingdom was ruled by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, as Regent of France. Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until the Cardinal's death in 1743, at which time the young king took sole control of the kingdom, his reign of 59 years was the second longest in the history of France, exceeded only by his predecessor and great-grandfather, Louis XIV, who had ruled for 72 years. In 1748, Louis returned the Austrian Netherlands, won at the Battle of Fontenoy of 1745, he ceded New France in North America to Spain and Great Britain at the conclusion of the disastrous Seven Years' War in 1763. He incorporated the territories of the Duchy of Lorraine and the Corsican Republic into the Kingdom of France, he was succeeded in 1774 by his grandson Louis XVI, executed by guillotine during the French Revolution.
Two of his other grandsons, Louis XVIII and Charles X, occupied the throne of France after the fall of Napoleon I. Historians give his reign low marks as wars drained the treasury and set the stage for the governmental collapse and French Revolution in the 1780s. Louis XV was the great-grandson of Louis XIV and the third son of the Duke of Burgundy, his wife Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, the eldest daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy, he was born in the Palace of Versailles on 15 February 1710. When he was born, he was named the Duke of Anjou; the possibility of his becoming King seemed remote. However, the Grand Dauphin died of smallpox on 14 April 1711. On 12 February 1712 the mother of Louis, Marie Adélaïde, was stricken with measles and died, followed on 18 February by Louis's father, the former Duke of Burgundy, next in line for the throne. On 7 March, it was found that both Louis and his older brother, the former Duke of Brittany, had the measles; the two brothers were treated with bleeding.
On the night of 8–9 March, the new Dauphin died from the combination of the disease and the treatment. The governess of Louis, Madame de Ventadour, would not allow the doctors to bleed Louis further; when Louis XIV died on 1 September 1715, Louis, at the age of five, inherited the throne. The Ordinance of Vincennes from 1374 required that the kingdom be governed by a regent until Louis reached the age of thirteen; the title of Regent was given to his cousin Philippe, the Duke of Orleans. Louis XIV, distrusted Philippe, a renowned soldier, but was regarded by the King as an atheist and libertine; the King referred to Philippe as a Fanfaron des crimes. Louis XIV wanted France to be ruled by his favorite but illegitimate son, Duke of Maine, in the council. In August 1714, shortly before his own death, the King rewrote his will to restrict the powers of the regent. Philippe, nephew of Louis XIV, was named president of the council, but other members included the Duke of Maine and his allies. Decisions were to be made by majority vote, meaning that the Regent could be outvoted by Maine's party.
Orléans saw the trap, after the death of the King, he went to the Parlement of Paris, an assembly of nobles where he had many allies, had the Parlement annul the King's will. In exchange for their support, he restored to the Parlement its droit de remontrance – the right to challenge the King's decisions, removed by Louis XIV; the droit de remontrance would impair the monarchy's functioning and marked the beginning of a conflict between the Parlement and King which led to the French Revolution in 1789. On 9 September 1715, the Regent had the young King transported away from the court in Versailles to Paris, where the Regent had his own residence in the Palais Royal. On 12 September, he performed his first official act, opening the first lit de justice of his reign at the Palais Royal. From September 1715 until January 1716 he lived in the Château de Vincennes, before moving to the Tuileries Palace. In February 1717, when he reached the age of seven, he was taken from his governess Madame Ventadour and placed in the care of François de Villeroy, the 73-year-old Duke and Maréchal de France, named as his governor in Louis XIV's will of August 1714.
Villeroy instructed the young King in court etiquette, taught him how to review a regiment, how to receive royal visitors. His guests included the Russian Tsar Peter the Great in 1717. Louis learned the skills of horseback riding and hunting, which became the great passion of the young King. In 1720, following the example of Louis XIV, Villeroy had the young Louis dance in public in two ballets at the Tuileries Palace on 24 February 1720, again in The Ballet des Elements on 31 December 1721; the shy Louis evidently did not enjoy the experience. The King's tutor was the Abbé André-Hercule de Fleury, the bishop of Fréjus, who saw that he was instructed in Latin, history
Henry Pelham was a British Whig statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 27 August 1743 until his death. He was the younger brother of Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, who served in Pelham's government and succeeded him as Prime Minister. Pelham is considered to have been Britain's third Prime Minister after Sir Robert Walpole and the Earl of Wilmington. Pelham's premiership was uneventful in terms of domestic affairs, although it was during his premiership that Great Britain experienced the tumult of the 1745 Jacobite uprising. In foreign affairs, Great Britain fought in several wars. Upon Pelham's death, his brother Newcastle took full control of the ministry. Pelham, Newcastle's younger brother, was a younger son of the Thomas Pelham, 1st Baron Pelham and his wife, the former Grace Pelham, Baroness Pelham of Laughton, the daughter of Gilbert Holles, 3rd Earl of Clare and Grace Pierrepont, he was educated at Hart Hall, Oxford. Hertford College, the present-day incarnation of Hart Hall, still honours him in the title of its drinking club, the Sir Henry Pelham Gentlemen's Sporting Society.
As a volunteer he served in Dormer's regiment at the Battle of Preston in 1715 and spent some time on the Continent. He was returned as Member of Parliament for Seaford in Sussex by his brother, the Duke of Newcastle, at a by-election on 28 February 1717 and represented it until 1722. Through strong family influence, the recommendation of Robert Walpole, he was chosen in 1721 as Lord of the Treasury. At the 1722 general election he was returned as MP for Sussex county. In 1724 he entered the ministry as Secretary at War, but this office he exchanged in 1730 for the more lucrative one of Paymaster of the Forces, he made. He, the Prime Minister would meet at Houghton Hall in Norfolk, where they would draw up much of the country's policy; these meetings became known as the Norfolk Congress. With Walpole, he served as a founding governor of the popular charity the Foundling Hospital when it opened its doors in 1739. In 1742 a union of parties resulted in the formation of an administration in which Pelham became Prime Minister the following year, succeeding the Earl of Wilmington after his death.
The first year of Pelham's premiership is regarded as a continuation of the Carteret ministry, with Lord Carteret continuing as Secretary of State for the Northern Department with responsibility for foreign affairs. Pelham served as First Lord of the Treasury, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons. In November 1744, the Pelhams forced Lord Carteret out of the ministry: Pelham bluntly told the king that either Carteret step down, or the Pelhamites would, leaving His Majesty without a government. Thereafter Pelham shared power with the Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne. Pelham was regarded as the leading figure, but rank and influence made his brother powerful in the Cabinet. In spite of a genuine attachment, there were occasional disputes between them, which sometimes led to further difficulties. Being in favour of peace, Pelham carried on the War of the Austrian Succession with languor and indifferent success, but the country, wearied of the interminable struggle, was disposed to acquiesce in his foreign policy without a murmur.
King George II, thwarted in his own favourite schemes, made overtures in February 1746 to Lord Bath, but his purpose was upset by the resignation of the two Pelhams, after a two-day hiatus in which Bath and Carteret proved unable to form a ministry, resumed office at the king's request. One of their terms was to insist; the Augustan era was essential to the development of prime ministerial power as being dependant on a Commons majority, rather than royal prerogative interventions. While the king struggled with his headstrong son, Prince of Wales, his son's uncertain constitutional position was high in the Leicester House party set. In 1748 Frederick, a Tory, planned to bring down the Pelhamites at a general election due the following year; the Prime Minister called an early poll in 1748 by asking the king to dissolve parliament in 1747. The prince and his father, the king grew to hate one another with unspeakable animosity, but one consequence was a closer relationship between the Sovereign. When he died in 1754, the King remarked "Now I shall have no more peace."
The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle had been signed in 1748 leading inexorably to a number of cost-cutting budgetary measures. The Army and Navy spending shrunk from £12 m to £7 million per annum. Pelham promised to reduce interest rates through introduction of a balancing act measure from 4% to 3% by 1757, he assisted a fund to reduce the National Debt. In 1749, the Consolidation Act was passed. On 20 March 1751, the British calendar was reorganised as well. In 1752 he was able to reduce the land tax from 4 s. to 2 s in the pound. One social consequence of the press gangs going to sea in an expansive navy fleet was to the growth of industrial processes necessary for warfare. In the ports the distillation of gin demonstrated by engravers such as Hogarth in "Gin Lane" the depravity issuing forth from the demon drink. Preachers "fire and brimsone" in favour of temperance, drunken soldiers and sailors persuaded the administration to intr
Battle of Culloden
The Battle of Culloden was the final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745. On 16 April 1746, the Jacobite forces of Charles Edward Stuart were decisively defeated by Hanoverian forces commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, near Inverness in the Scottish Highlands. Queen Anne, the last monarch of the House of Stuart, died with no living children. Under the terms of the Act of Settlement 1701, she was succeeded by her second cousin George I of the House of Hanover, a descendant of the Stuarts through his maternal grandmother, Elizabeth, a daughter of James VI and I. Raising an army consisting of Scottish clansmen along with smaller units of Irish and Englishmen from the Manchester Regiment, Charles' efforts met with success and at one point began to threaten London. However, a series of events forced the army's return to Scotland, where they were soon pursued by an army raised by the Duke of Cumberland; the two forces met at Culloden, on terrain that made the highland charge difficult and gave the larger and well-armed British forces the advantage.
The battle lasted only an hour, with the Jacobites suffering a bloody defeat. Between 1,500 and 2,000 Jacobites were wounded in the brief battle. In contrast, only about 300 government soldiers were wounded; the Hanoverian victory at Culloden halted the Jacobite intent to overthrow the House of Hanover and restore the House of Stuart to the British throne. The conflict was the last pitched battle fought on British soil; the battle and its aftermath continue to arouse strong feelings: the University of Glasgow awarded the Duke of Cumberland an honorary doctorate, but many modern commentators allege that the aftermath of the battle and subsequent crackdown on Jacobitism were brutal, earned Cumberland the sobriquet "Butcher". Efforts were subsequently made to further integrate the comparatively wild Scottish Highlands into the Kingdom of Great Britain. On 23 July, 1745 Charles Edward Stuart landed on Eriskay in the Western Islands in an attempt to reclaim the throne for Great Britain for his exiled father James, accompanied only by the "Seven Men of Moidart".
Most of his Scottish supporters advised he return to France, but enough were persuaded and the rebellion was launched at Glenfinnan on 19 August. The Jacobite army entered Edinburgh on 17 September and James was proclaimed King of Scotland the next day. On 21 September, a government force was defeated at the Battle of Prestonpans; the Prince's Council, a committee formed of 15-20 senior leaders, met on 30 and 31 October to discuss plans to invade England. The Scots wanted to consolidate their position and although willing to assist an English rising or French landing, they would not do it on their own. For Charles, the main prize was England. Despite their doubts, the Council agreed to the invasion on condition the promised English and French support was forthcoming and the Jacobite army entered England on 8 November, they captured Carlisle on 15 November continued south through Preston and Manchester, reaching Derby on 4 December. There had been no sign of a French landing or any significant number of English recruits, while they risked being caught between two armies, each one twice their size.
Apart from a minor skirmish at Clifton Moor, the Jacobite army evaded pursuit and crossed back into Scotland on 20 December. Entering England and returning was a considerable military achievement and morale was high. French-supplied artillery was used to besiege the strategic key to the Highlands. On 17 January, the Jacobites dispersed a relief force under Henry Hawley at the Battle of Falkirk Muir, although the siege made little progress. On 1 February, the siege of Stirling was abandoned and the Jacobites retreated to Inverness. Cumberland's army entered Aberdeen on 27 February. Several French shipments were received during the winter but the Royal Navy's blockade led to shortages of both money and food; the Jacobite Army is assumed to have been composed of Gaelic-speaking Catholic Highlanders whereas in reality some of its most effective units were recruited from the Lowlands. By 1745, Catholicism was confined to remote areas of the Highlands and Islands and large numbers of those who joined the Rebellion were Non-juring Episcopalians.
While predominantly Scottish, it contained English recruits plus significant numbers of French and Irish professionals in French service. Regardless of nationality, regulars were treated as Prisoners of War and exchanged, rather than being tried for treason. One problem for the Jacobites was the difference between clan warfare, short-term and based o
Invergarry Castle in the Scottish Highlands was the seat of the Chiefs of the Clan MacDonnell of Glengarry, a powerful branch of the Clan Donald. The castle's position overlooking Loch Oich on Creagan an Fhithich – the Raven's Rock – in the Great Glen, was a strategic one in the days of clan warfare, it is not certain when the first structure was erected on Creagan an Fhithich but there are at least two sites prior to the present castle. After raids by the Clan Mackenzie in 1602 which included the burning of Strome Castle, the MacDonalds of Glengarry fortified the Rock of the Raven; the result was an imposing six storey L-plan tower house. According to clan tradition, the castle was built with stones passed hand to hand by a chain of clansmen from the mountain Ben Tee; the present structure was designed with a round tower at the north-east angle. The main building rose to the tower to six stories in height; the main building measured 55 by 32 ft. The hall, on the first floor, measured 44 by 20 feet.
The main entrance was in the north wall of the wing of the castle. There are shot holes used to guard the main door and there are shot holes under the staircases and in the walls of the tower. During the Civil War Oliver Cromwell's troops under General Monck burned the castle down in 1654. Repaired, it was held for King James VII of Scotland from 1688 until its surrender to the Government forces of William and Mary in 1692, it was held by the Jacobites during the 1715 uprising, but taken for the government in 1716. During the 1745 uprising it was again visited twice by Bonnie Prince Charlie. During the Jacobite risings of 1745 to 1746, Prince Charles Edward Stuart – "Bonnie Prince Charlie" – visited the Castle shortly after the raising of the Royal Standard at Glenfinnan and is said to have rested there after his defeat at the Battle of Culloden, in 1746. In the aftermath of Culloden it was sacked and blown up by troops under Duke of Cumberland as part of his systematic suppression of the Highlands.
However the stout walls refused to yield and have survived the centuries to serve as a reminder to their history. The Glengarry estates were sold by Aeneas Ranaldson MacDonell of Glengarry, the son of Alexander Ranaldson MacDonell of Glengarry, when he came of age, but he retained Invergarry Castle, Invergarry House, the "Well of Heads" and the ancient clan burial ground, which instead passed through Aeneas's daughter to the Erskine Cuninghames of Balgownie and Corrie, transferred in 1960 to the National Trust for Scotland; the ruined castle is a scheduled monument In 1960 Invergarry House was reborn as the Glengarry Castle Hotel. It enjoys an enviable position overlooking Loch Oich, with the added attraction of the ruins of Invergarry Castle in the grounds. Clan MacDonell of Glengarry List of castles in Scotland Scheduled monuments in Highland http://www.invergarrycastle.co.uk/ http://www.glengarry.net/hotel.php
Jacobite rising of 1745
The Jacobite rising of 1745 known as the Forty-five Rebellion or the'45, was an attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for his father, James Francis Edward Stuart. It took place during the War of the Austrian Succession, when the bulk of the British Army was fighting in mainland Europe, proved to be the last in a series of revolts that began in 1689, with major outbreaks in 1708, 1715 and 1719. Charles launched the rebellion on 19 August 1745 at Glenfinnan in the Scottish Highlands, capturing Edinburgh and winning the Battle of Prestonpans in September. At a council in October, the Scots agreed to invade England after Charles assured them of substantial support from English Jacobites and a simultaneous French landing in Southern England. On that basis, the Jacobite army entered England in early November, reaching Derby on 4 December, where they decided to turn back. Similar discussions had taken place at Carlisle and Manchester and many felt they had gone too far already.
The invasion route had been selected to cross areas considered Jacobite but the promised English support failed to materialise. The decision was supported by the vast majority but caused an irretrievable split between Charles and his Scots supporters. Despite victory at Falkirk Muir in January 1746, the Battle of Culloden in April ended the Rebellion and significant backing for the Stuart cause. Charles escaped to France, but was unable to win support for another attempt, died in Rome in 1788; the 1688 Glorious Revolution replaced James II and VII with his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband William, who ruled as joint monarchs of England and Scotland. Neither Mary, who died in 1694, nor her sister Anne, had surviving children, which left their Catholic half-brother James Francis Edward as the closest natural heir. To ensure a Protestant monarch, the 1701 Act of Settlement excluded Catholics from the succession and when Anne became queen in 1702, her heir was the distantly related but Protestant Sophia of Hanover.
Sophia died in June 1714 and when Anne followed two months in August, her son succeeded as George I. Louis XIV of France, the Stuarts' main backer, died in 1715 and his successors needed peace with Britain in order to rebuild their economy; the 1716 Anglo-French alliance forced James to leave France. Rebellions in 1715 and 1719 failed, the latter so badly its planners concluded that it might "ruin the King's Interest and faithful subjects in these parts." Senior exiles like Bolingbroke now accepted pardons and returned home or took employment elsewhere and while many remained sympathetic, the Stuart cause seemed at an end. The birth of his sons Charles and Henry helped maintain public interest but by 1737, James was "living tranquilly in Rome, having abandoned all hope of a restoration."In the 1730s, French statesmen began to see the post-1713 expansion of British commercial strength as a threat to the European balance of power and looked for ways to reduce it. A Stuart restoration would be expensive, risky and of little value, since they were unlikely to be any more pro-French than the Hanoverians.
A low level, ongoing insurgency was far more cost-effective and the Scottish Highlands an ideal location, due to the feudal nature of clan society, their remoteness and terrain. An opportunity was provided due to unhappiness with the London government, resulting in the 1725 malt tax riots and 1737 Porteous riots. In March 1743, the Highland-recruited 42nd Regiment or Black Watch was posted to Flanders, contrary to an understanding their service was restricted to Scotland and led to a short-lived mutiny. However, mutinies over pay and conditions were not unusual and the worst riots in 1725 took place in Glasgow, a town Charles noted in 1746 as one'where I have no friends and who are not at pains to hide it.' Trade disputes between Spain and Britain led to the 1739 War of Jenkins' Ear, followed in 1740–41 by the War of the Austrian Succession. The long-serving British prime minister Robert Walpole was forced to resign in February 1742 by an alliance of Tories and anti-Walpole Patriot Whigs, who did a deal that excluded the majority of their Tory partners from government.
Furious Tories such as the Duke of Beaufort now asked for French help in restoring James to the British throne. While war with Britain was only a matter of time, Cardinal Fleury, chief minister since 1723, viewed the Jacobites as unreliable fantasists, an opinion shared by most French ministers. One exception was the Marquis D'Argenson. In 1745, supporters of the exiled Stuarts, or Jacobites, remained a significant element in British and Irish politics but with different and competing goals; these divisions between the Scots and Irish, became apparent during the 1745 Rising, which demonstrated estimates of English support confused indifference to the Hanoverians with enthusiasm for the Stuarts. Charles' senior advisors included Irish exiles such as John O'Sullivan, who wanted an autonomous, Catholic Ireland and the return of lands confiscated after the Irish Confederate Wars. James II promised these concessions in return for Irish support in the 1689–91 Williamite War, only a Stuart on the throne of Great Britain could ensure their fulfilment.
A prominent factor in Tory opposition to th
Charles Edward Stuart
Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart was the elder son of James Francis Edward Stuart, grandson of James II and VII and after 1766 the Stuart claimant to the throne of Great Britain. During his lifetime, he was known as "The Young Pretender" or "The Young Chevalier" and in popular memory as "Bonnie Prince Charlie", he is best remembered for his role in the 1745 rising. His escape from Scotland after the uprising led him to be portrayed as a romantic figure of heroic failure in representations. Charles was born in the Palazzo Muti, Italy, on 31 December 1720, where his father had been given a residence by Pope Clement XI, he spent all his childhood in Rome and Bologna. He was the son of the Old Pretender, son of the exiled Stuart King James II and VII, Maria Clementina Sobieska, the granddaughter of John III Sobieski, most famous for the victory over the Ottoman Turks in the 1683 Battle of Vienna, he had a privileged childhood in Rome, where he was brought up Catholic in a loving but argumentative family.
As the legitimate heirs to the thrones of England and Ireland—according to the Jacobite succession—his family lived with a sense of pride, staunchly believed in the divine right of kings. His grandfather, James II of England, Ireland and VII of Scotland, ruled the countries from 1685 to 1688, he was deposed when Parliament invited the Dutch Protestant William III and his wife Princess Mary, King James' eldest daughter, to replace him in the Revolution of 1688. Many Protestants, including a number of prominent parliamentarians, had been worried that King James aimed to return England to the Catholic fold. Since the exile of James, the "Jacobite Cause" had striven to return the Stuarts to the thrones of England and Scotland, which were united in 1603 under James VI and I, with the parliaments joined by the Acts of Union in 1707 as the United Kingdom of Great Britain. Charles Edward played a major part in the pursuit of this goal. In 1734, Charles Edward observed the Spanish siege of Gaeta, his first exposure to war.
His father managed to obtain the renewed support of the French government in 1744, whereupon Charles Edward travelled to France with the sole purpose of commanding a French army that he would lead in an invasion of England. The invasion never materialised. By the time the fleet regrouped, the British fleet realised the diversion that had deceived them and resumed their position in the Channel. Undeterred, Charles Edward was determined to continue his quest for the restoration of the Stuarts. In December 1743, Charles's father named giving him authority to act in his name. Eighteen months he led a French-backed rebellion intended to place his father on the thrones of England and Scotland. Charles raised funds to fit out two ships: the Elisabeth, an old man-of-war of 66 guns, the Du Teillay, a 16-gun privateer, which landed him and seven companions at Eriskay on 23 July 1745. Charles had hoped for support from a French fleet, but it was badly damaged by storms, he was left to raise an army in Scotland.
The Jacobite cause was still supported by both Catholic and Protestant. Charles hoped for a warm welcome from these clans to start an insurgency by Jacobites throughout Britain, he raised his father's standard at Glenfinnan and gathered a force large enough to enable him to march on Edinburgh. The city, under the control of the Lord Provost Archibald Stewart surrendered. While he was in Edinburgh a portrait of Charles was painted by the artist Allan Ramsay, which survives in the collection of the Earl of Wemyss at Gosford House. On 21 September 1745, he defeated the only government army in Scotland at the Battle of Prestonpans; the government army was led by General Sir John Cope, their disastrous defence against the Jacobites is immortalised in the song "Johnnie Cope". By November, Charles was marching south at the head of 6,000 men. Having taken Carlisle, his army progressed as far as Swarkestone Bridge in Derbyshire. Here, despite Charles' objections, his council decided to return to Scotland, given the lack of English and French support and rumours that large government forces were being amassed.
The Jacobites marched north once more, winning the Battle of Falkirk Muir, but were pursued by King George II's son, the Duke of Cumberland, who caught up with them at the Battle of Culloden on 16 April 1746. Ignoring the advice of one of his generals, Lord George Murray, Charles chose to fight on flat, marshy ground where his forces would be exposed to superior government firepower. Charles commanded his army from a position behind his lines, where he could not see what was happening. Hoping Cumberland's army would attack first, he had his men stand exposed to the British Royal artillery. Seeing the error in this, he ordered an attack, but his messenger was killed before the order could be delivered; the Jacobite attack, charging into withering musket fire, grapeshot fired from the cannons, was uncoordinated and met with little success. The Jacobites broke through the bayonets of the redcoats in one place, but they were shot down by a second line of soldiers, the survivors fled. Cumberland's troops were claimed to have committed a number of atrocities as they hunted for the defeated Jacobite soldiers, earning him the title "the Butcher" from the Highlanders.
Murray managed intending to continue the fight. Believing himself betrayed, Charles had decided to
Battle of Falkirk Muir
During the Jacobite rising of 1745, the Battle of Falkirk Muir on 17 January 1746 was the last noteworthy Jacobite success. The battlefield has been inventoried and protected by Historic Scotland under the Historic Environment Act 2011. After turning back from Derby, for want of either any significant support from English Jacobites or a French invasion, the Jacobite Army returned to Scotland and besieged Major General Blakeney in Stirling Castle. Lieutenant General Henry Hawley led his troops from Edinburgh to relieve Blakeney; the Jacobite army was 8,000 strong, the largest assembled throughout the Rising. They were pitched against a regular Hanoverian army; the battle itself was a hectic and scrambling affair, fought in a storm of wind and torrential rain, so confusing that neither side was aware of the outcome. The Jacobite army left Glasgow on 3 January in two columns. One column of six Highland battalions, led by Lord George Murray marched towards Falkirk, via Cumbernauld, to make it appear as if they were heading towards Edinburgh.
Instead he moved just outside Stirling in Bannockburn. Murray stationed Lord Elcho at Linlithgow with a detachment of cavalry to patrol the road to Edinburgh. Charles Edward Stuart moved another column to Bannockburn via Kilsyth. There he set his headquarters and resided at Bannockburn House as the guest of Sir Hugh Paterson, a Jacobite supporter. Lord John Drummond set forth from Perth with heavy artillery. Now boasting a force of 8,000 men the Jacobites sent a drummer to Stirling on 5 January demanding the surrender of the town. A garrison of 500 militiamen responded by shooting at the drummer who ran for his life. Three days the town council agreed to surrender. Yet, Stirling Castle itself was held by a small garrison of trained militiamen and troops under the command of Major General William Blakeney, who politely declined to surrender. Thereupon Charles Stuart ordered the castle to be besieged, he entrusted this task to a French artillery'expert' of Scottish descent, Monsieur Mirabel de Gordon.
Gordon chose a poor location in digging trenches for the Jacobite cannons, lower and in range of the castle's own guns. Following the victory at Falkirk the cannon would be destroyed after firing a single shot; because of the man's demonstrated incapacity, the Scots afterward referred to Mirabel as "Mr. Admirable."At the same time, dissension arose as the Highland chiefs resented Charles Stuart's decision to not hold councils, relying only on the advice of his Irish "Men of Moidart." Causing concern was Charles's continued drinking. As this went on, General Hawley brought an army of 13,000 from Newcastle upon Tyne to Edinburgh, sending an advance unit to Linlithgow on 13 January. Lord Elcho fell back to Falkirk. Hawley advanced with his main army of 6,000 on 15 January, intending to relieve Stirling Castle, whereupon Murray and Elcho withdrew to Bannockburn; the Jacobites planned for battle on 15 January at just southeast of Bannockburn. They were expecting an attack from Hawley's forces. Hawley was encamped at Falkirk, showed no signs of moving.
Thus, on the morning of 17 January, the Jacobites planned an offensive. The army moved cautiously towards Falkirk, avoiding the main road and heading for the Hill of Falkirk which overlooked Hawley's encampment below. With General Hawley established at nearby Callendar House, the government army was taken by surprise. At 1:00 pm an officer informed Hawley of the Jacobite approach. Hawley did not verify the information for himself. Instead, he remained at Callendar House, 2000 yards behind his camp, only sent instructions for his troops to put on their equipment as a precaution. By 2:00 pm the Jacobite attack was imminent and a second messenger from Major General John Huske was sent to Callendar House. Aware of the seriousness of the situation, Hawley arrived at his camp hatless and at the gallop. Led by the dragoons, the Hanoverian army filed south on Maggie Wood's Loan past the Bantaskin House and up the slope of the Falkirk ridge; as the leading elements reached the summit, they could see the Jacobite army bearing down on them from the northwest.
Marching across the front of the Highlanders, the dragoon regiments reached a bog on the far side of the rise and faced to their right. The infantry began facing west. About this time a storm struck the area with heavy rain, hindering deployment and wetting the black powder cartridges. In the subsequent action one out of four muskets missed fire. From left to right, the Hanoverian front line consisted of Ligonier's, Cobham's and Hamilton's Dragoon Regiments. Continuing the first line were Edward Wolfe's, Cholmondeley's, Pulteney's, The Royal, Price's and Ligonier's Regiments of Foot. In the second line stood Blakeney's, Munro's, Fleming's, Barrel's and Battereau's foot regiments. Last to arrive, Howard's regiment took position in a third line. A few hundred yards behind the dragoons, the Glasgow militia were drawn up; the Argyll militia took position on the far right of Hawley's line. Two cannon became stuck in a bog; when the battle began, the English gun crews were still trying to free them. The Jacobite army deployed in three lines, facing east.
In the front line, from right to left were the MacDonalds, Frasers, MacPhersons, Mackenzies and Stewarts of Appin. Posted in the second line were the regiments of Lord Lewis Gordon, Lord Ogilvy and the Atholl Brigade. In the third line were small