Alavana or Alauna was a Roman fort in Britain, tentatively identified with the ruins at Watercrook about 2 mi south of Kendal in Cumbria. The fort at Watercrook was erected around AD 90 in timber but redone in stone around the year 130 during the reign of Hadrian; the fort was abandoned for about 20 years during the Antonine occupation of Scotland. It is noted as Alone or Alona as Alunna in the Ravenna Cosmography, it was refurbished under Marcus Aurelius and occupied until around 270, when its military units departed. Its remains are now buried beneath a local farm, while excavated artifacts are displayed at the Kendal Museum
The Hooded Spirits or Genii Cucullati are figures found in religious sculpture across the Romano-Celtic region from Britain to Pannonia, depicted as "cloaked scurrying figures carved in an abstract manner". They are found with a particular concentration in the Rhineland. In Britain they tend to be found in a triple deity form, which seems to be specific to the British representations; the hooded cape was associated with Gauls or Celts during the Roman period. The hooded health god was known as Telesphorus and may have originated as a Greco-Gallic syncretism with the Galatians in Anatolia in the 3rd century BC; the religious significance of these figures is still somewhat unclear, since no inscriptions have been found with them in this British context. There are, indications that they may be fertility spirits of some kind. Ronald Hutton argues that in some cases they are carrying shapes that can be seen as eggs, symbolizing life and rebirth, while Graham Webster has argued that the curved hoods are similar in many ways to contemporary Roman curved phallus stones.
However, several of these figures seem to carry swords or daggers, Henig discusses them in the context of warrior cults. Guy de la Bédoyère warns against reading too much in to size differences or natures in the figures, which have been used to promote theories of different roles for the three figures, arguing that at the skill level of most of the carvings, small differences in size are more to be hit-or-miss consequences, pointing out that experimental archaeology has shown hooded figures to be one of the easiest sets of figures to carve. de la Bedoyère, Guy. Gods with Thunderbolts: Religion in Roman Britain. Stroud, UK: Tempus. Pp. 166–168. ISBN 0-7524-2518-8. Henig, Martin. Religion in Roman Britain. London, UK: Batsford. P. 62. ISBN 0-7134-1220-8. Hutton, Ronald; the Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. Pp. 214–216. ISBN 0-631-18946-7. Webster, Graham; the British their Gods under Rome. London, UK: Batsford. Pp. 66–70. ISBN 0-7134-0648-8
Alauna was a castra or fort in the Roman province of Britannia. It occupied a coastal site near the town of Maryport in the English county of Cumbria. In 2015 "Maryport's Mystery Monuments" was Research Project of the Year in the British Archaeology Awards, it has been established "beyond reasonable doubt". Alauna is a river name and the Roman fort stands on a hill north of the River Ellen; the name Alauna appears securely just once—in the Ravenna Cosmography. The Antonine Itinerary mentions a fort called Alone on the road from Ravenglass to Whitchurch but this cannot be Maryport, but is either a fort at Watercrook or one at Low Borrow Bridge; the Notitia Dignitatum lists a fort called Alione, garrisoned by the Cohors III Nerviorum, equated with both Alauna and Alone by different scholars. The fort was established around AD 122 as a command and supply base for the coastal defences of Hadrian's Wall at its western extremity. There are substantial remains of the Roman fort, one of a series along the Cumbrian coast intended to prevent Hadrian's Wall being outflanked by crossing the Solway Firth.
Geo-magnetic surveys have revealed a large Roman town surrounding the fort. An archaeological dig discovered evidence of a second, larger fort next to, under the present remains. TimeScape Surveys, supported by a grant from the Maryport Heritage Trust, conducted a magnetometry geophysical survey of the fort and its vicus; some targeted areas of resistivity survey were completed. The survey was conducted between September 2003 on land at Camp Farm, Maryport. Covering 72.5 hectares, it is the largest geophysical survey carried out on the northern Roman frontier. The survey revealed multi-period activity, together with the possible location of a Roman port or causeway; the fort had been robbed of stone to construct other buildings in the locality. The vicus had a substantial road leading to the suspected Roman entrepôt; the field system surrounding the vicus was extensive and showed small'market garden' plots, some containing buildings. The survey detected a suspected Iron Age enclosure and elements of medieval buildings.
The Roman fort site was owned from the 16th century by generations of the Senhouse family. The main building on the site was constructed as a naval artillery drill hall in 1885; the Senhouse family's collections are now housed in the museum. The numerous Roman artefacts include altars; the site has yielded more altars than any other in Britain, the finds have been made over a long period of time, from Tudor times to the present century. The altars are made of local sandstone, they were erected for ceremonies. The inscriptions give information about its inhabitants. One of the best known, now in the British Museum, has an inscription dedicated by Gaius Cornelius Peregrinus, a decurion from Saldae, tribunus of the auxiliary garrison. Excavations beginning in 2011 have thrown more light on the altars; the archaeologists included Ian Haynes of Tony Wilmott. Where the altars stood is not known, but they were designed to stand in rows, they were aligned in relation to a temple, excavations have examined evidence for two temples.
The 2011 excavation season revisited a site where 17 altars were found in pits in 1870. The circumstances of the altars' deposition have been reinterpreted and it is accepted that they were re-used in the foundations of a late-Roman building; this suggests. Alavana or Alauna, the Roman fort at Watercrook near Kendal Biggins, J. A. and Taylor, D. J. A. 2004b, The Roman Fort and Vicus at Maryport: Geophysical Survey, 2000 - 2004, in R. J. A. Wilson and I, Romans on the Solway, CWAAS for the Trustees of the Senhouse Museum, Maryport, 102-133. Roman Maryport and its setting: essays in memory of Michael G. Jarrett, edited by R. J. A. Wilson. Extra series, 28. Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society on behalf of the Senhouse Roman Museum, Maryport. 1997. P. 168. ISBN 1873124228
Dīs Pater was a Roman god of the underworld. Dis was associated with fertile agricultural land and mineral wealth, since those minerals came from underground, he was equated with the chthonic deities Pluto and Orcus. Dīs Pater was shortened to Dīs and this name has since become an alternative name for the underworld or a part of the underworld, such as the City of Dis of Dante's The Divine Comedy, which comprises Lower Hell, it is thought that Dīs Pater was a Celtic god. This confusion arises from the second-hand citation of one of Julius Caesar's comments in his Commentaries on the Gallic Wars, where he says that the Gauls all claimed descent from Dīs Pater. However, Caesar's remark is a clear example of interpretatio Romana: what Caesar meant was that the Gauls all claimed descent from a Gaulish god that reminded him of the Roman Dīs Pater, a scholia on the Pharsalia equates Dis Pater with Taranis, the chief sky deity in the Gaulish religion. Different possible candidates exist for this role in Celtic religion, such as Gaulish Sucellus, Irish Donn and Welsh Beli Mawr, among others.
In De Natura Deorum, Cicero derives the name of Dīs Pater from the Latin dives, suggesting a meaning of "father of riches", directly corresponding to the name Pluto, Pluto being how Plouton is spelled is Latin.. According to some 19th century authors, many of Cicero's etymological derivations are not to be taken and may indeed have been intended ironically. Alternatively, he may be a secondary reflex of the same god as Jupiter. Dīs Pater became associated with death and the underworld because mineral wealth such as gems and precious metals came from underground, wherein lies the realm of the dead, i.e. Hades' domain. In being conflated with Pluto, Dīs Pater took on some of the latter's mythological attributes, being one of the three sons of Saturn and Ops, along with Jupiter and Neptune, he ruled the dead beside his wife, Proserpina. In literature, Dīs Pater's name was used as a symbolic and poetic way of referring to death itself. In 249 BC and 207 BC, the Roman Senate under senator Lucius Catellius ordained special festivals to appease Dīs Pater and Proserpina.
Every hundred years, a festival was celebrated in his name. According to legend, a round marble altar, Altar of Dīs Pater and Proserpina, was miraculously discovered by the servants of a Sabine called Valesius, the ancestor of the first consul; the servants were digging in the Tarentum on the edge of the Campus Martius to lay foundations following instructions given to Valesius's children in dreams, when they found the altar 20 feet underground. Valesius reburied the altar after three days of games. Sacrifices were offered to this altar during the Ludi Saeculares or Ludi Tarentini, it may have been uncovered for each occasion of the games, to be reburied afterwards, a chthonic tradition of worship. It was rediscovered in 1886–87 beneath the Corso Vittorio Emanuele in Rome. In addition to being considered the ancestor of the Gauls, Dīs Pater was sometimes identified with the Sabine god Soranus. In southern Germany and the Balkans, Dīs Pater had Aericura, as a consort. Dīs Pater was associated with foreign deities in the shortened form of his name, Dis.
Demeter Dievas Dyaus Pita Hades Tiwaz Zeus Crom Media related to Dīs Pater at Wikimedia Commons
Artio was a Celtic bear goddess. Evidence of her worship has notably been found at Bern, her name is derived from the Gaulish word for artos. A bronze sculpture from the Muri statuette group, found near Bern in Switzerland, shows a large bear facing a woman seated in a chair, with a small tree behind the bear; the woman seems to hold fruit in her lap feeding the bear.. The sculpture has a large rectangular bronze base, which bears the inscription "Deae Artioni / Licinia Sabinilla". If the name is Gaulish but the syntax is Latin, a dative Artioni would give an i-stem nominative *Artionis or an n-stem nominative *Artio; that would correspond to a Gaulish n-stem nominative *Artiu. Other inscription to the goddess have been discovered in Daun, Weilerbach and Stockstadt, her name is derived from the Gaulish word artos, from Proto-Celtic *arto-, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂ŕ̥tḱos, bear. A Celtic word may be the source for the name Arthur. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum vol XIII, Inscriptiones trium Galliarum et Germaniarum Delamarre, X..
Dictionnaire de la Langue Gauloise Paris: Editions Errance. ISBN 2-87772-237-6 Deyts, Simone Images des Dieux de la Gaule. Paris: Editions Errance. ISBN 2-87772-067-5. Green, Miranda Animals in Celtic Life and Myth. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18588-2 Wightman, E. M. Roman Trier and the Treveri London: Hart-Davis. ISBN 0-246-63980-6 The dictionary definition of Artio at Wiktionary Media related to Artio at Wikimedia Commons
Ardoch Roman Fort
Ardoch Roman Fort is an archaeological site just outside the village of Braco in Perthshire, about 7 miles south of Crieff. At Ardoch are the remains of a Roman fort and several marching camps which included a signal tower. Part of the Roman Gask Ridge, it is said to be one of the most complete Roman camps in Britain, is one of the best-preserved series of Roman military earthworks in the whole Empire, it is protected as a scheduled monument. The remains consist of grass-covered earthworks, are considered among the best preserved Roman earthworks in Britain; the site, which has a complex history, comprises two intersecting forts. The earliest fort is believed to be associated with the campaigns of Agricola; the fort was reconstructed within two outer ditches so that this fort was protected by five ditches on both the east and north sides. The field to the north is the remnant of a large annexe. Archaeology has demonstrated the existence of a watch-tower and at least six overlapping marching camps to the north and northeast.
Ardoch was one of a chain of camps separated by one-day marches in a north-south direction. Other Roman camps in this chain include Strageath, Battledykes, Stracathro and thence taking the Elsick Mounth to Normandykes; the fort has sometimes been identified with the "Alauna" mentioned in Ptolemy's Geography. Ptolemy placed Alauna in the area occupied by the Damnonii tribe, the name may be associated with the River Allan which flows about one mile to the south of the fort; however the identification of Ardoch with Alauna is considered tentative. The site was reused in the medieval period; the remains of the graveyard enclosure and the site of the chapel are the only archaeological remains which are visible within the fort. In 1726 Alexander Gordon claimed that at Ardoch Roman Fort a subterranean passage was said to run from the fort, under the River Tay to the fort or'Keir' on Grinnin Hill; this tunnel was said to contain a great deal of treasure. Ardoch was visited by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in 1842, although only Albert investigated the earthworks, Victoria preferred to remain in their carriage.
Ardoch Roman Fort is part of the Ardoch estate, is in private ownership, although access is allowed at reasonable times. To the north, the earthwork remains of two Roman marching camps, known as Blackhill Camp, are in the care of Historic Environment Scotland. Historic Environment Scotland. "Ardoch". Canmore. Aerial Photographs, West Lothian Archaeology "Signalling and the Design of the Gask Ridge System" at the Roman Gask Project
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona