Darwin, Northern Territory
Darwin is the capital city of the Northern Territory of Australia, situated on the Timor Sea. It is the largest city in the sparsely populated Northern Territory, with a population of 145,916, it is the smallest and most northerly of the Australian capital cities, acts as the Top End's regional centre. Darwin's proximity to South East Asia makes it a link between Australia and countries such as Indonesia and East Timor; the Stuart Highway begins in Darwin, extends southerly across central Australia through Tennant Creek and Alice Springs, concluding in Port Augusta, South Australia. The city is built upon a low bluff overlooking the harbour, its suburbs begin at Lee Point in the stretch to Berrimah in the east. Past Berrimah, the Stuart Highway goes on to its suburbs; the Darwin region, like much of the Top End, experiences a tropical climate with a wet and dry season. A period known locally as "the build up" leading up to Darwin's wet season sees temperature and humidity increase. Darwin's wet season arrives in late November to early December and brings with it heavy monsoonal downpours, spectacular lightning displays, increased cyclone activity.
During the dry season, the city has clear skies and mild sea breezes from the harbour. The greater Darwin area is the ancestral home of the Larrakia people. On 9 September 1839, HMS Beagle sailed into Darwin harbour during its survey of the area. John Clements Wickham named the region "Port Darwin" in honour of their former shipmate Charles Darwin, who had sailed with them on the ship's previous voyage which ended in October 1836; the settlement there became the town of Palmerston in 1869, but it was renamed Darwin in 1911. The city has been entirely rebuilt four times, following devastation caused by the 1897 cyclone, the 1937 cyclone, Japanese air raids during World War II, Cyclone Tracy in 1974; the Aboriginal people of the Larrakia language group are the traditional custodians and the first inhabitants of the greater Darwin area. They had trading routes with Southeast Asia, imported goods from as far afield as South and Western Australia. Established songlines penetrated throughout the country, allowing stories and histories to be told and retold along the routes.
The extent of shared songlines and history of multiple clan groups within this area is still contestable. The Dutch visited Australia's northern coastline in the 1600s and landed on the Tiwi Islands only to be repelled by the Tiwi peoples; the Dutch created the first European maps of the area. This accounts for the Dutch names such as Arnhem Land and Groote Eylandt; the first British person to see Darwin harbour appears to have been Lieutenant John Lort Stokes of HMS Beagle on 9 September 1839. The ship's captain, Commander John Clements Wickham, named the port after Charles Darwin, the British naturalist who had sailed with them both on the earlier second expedition of the Beagle. In 1863, the Northern Territory was transferred from New South Wales to South Australia. In 1864 South Australia sent B. T. Finniss north as Government Resident to survey and found a capital for its new territory. Finniss chose a site at Escape Cliffs, near the entrance to Adelaide River, about 60 kilometres northeast of the modern city.
This attempt was short-lived and the settlement abandoned by 1865. On 5 February 1869, George Goyder, the Surveyor-General of South Australia, established a small settlement of 135 people at Port Darwin between Fort Hill and the escarpment. Goyder named the settlement Palmerston, after the British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston. In 1870, the first poles for the Overland Telegraph were erected in Darwin, connecting Australia to the rest of the world; the discovery of gold by employees of the Australian Overland Telegraph Line digging holes for telegraph poles at Pine Creek in the 1880s spawned a gold rush which further boosted the young colony's development. In February 1872 the brigatine Alexandra was the first private vessel to set sail from an English port directly to Darwin, carrying people many of whom were coming to recent gold finds. In early 1875 Darwin's white population had grown to 300 because of the gold rush. On 17 February 1875 the SS Gothenburg left Darwin en route for Adelaide.
The 88 passengers and 34 crew included government officials, circuit-court judges, Darwin residents taking their first furlough, miners. While travelling south along the north Queensland coast, the Gothenburg encountered a cyclone-strength storm and was wrecked on a section of the Great Barrier Reef. Only 22 men survived, while between 112 people perished. Many passengers who perished were Darwin residents and news of the tragedy affected the small community, which took several years to recover. In the 1870s large numbers of Chinese settled at least temporarily in the Northern Territory. By 1888 there were 6122 Chinese in the Northern Territory in or around Darwin; the early Chinese settlers were from the Kwantung Province in south China. However at the end of the nineteenth century anti-Chinese feelings grew in response to the 1890s economic depression and the White Australia policy meant many Chinese left the Territory. However, some families stayed and became Australian citizens, established a commercial base in Darwin.
Darwin became the city's official name in 1911. The period between 1911 and 1919 was filled with political turmoil with trade union unrest, which culminated on 17 December 1918. Led by Harold Nelson, some 1000 demonstrators marched to Government House at Liberty
Norman Barnett Tindale AO was an Australian anthropologist, archaeologist and ethnologist. Born in Perth, Western Australia, his family moved to Tokyo and lived there from 1907 to 1915, where his father worked as an accountant at the Salvation Army mission in Japan, Norman attended the American School in Japan where his closest friend was Gordon Bowles, a Quaker who, like him became an anthropologist; the family returned to Perth in August 1917, soon after moved to Adelaide where Tindale took up a position as a library cadet at the Adelaide Public Library, together with another cadet, the future physicist, Mark Oliphant. In 1919 he began work as an entomologist at the South Australian Museum. From his early years, he had absorbed the habit of taking notes on everything he observed, cross-indexing them before going to sleep, a practice which he continued throughout his life, which lay at the basis of the vast archive of notes he left to posterity: he was observed writing by lamplight far into the night long after others had gone to bed, during an expedition to the Pinacate.
Shortly after this, Tindale lost the sight in one eye in an acetylene gas explosion which occurred while assisting his father with photographic processing. In January 1919 he secured a position at the South Australian Museum as Entomologist's Assistant to the formidable Arthur Mills Lea, he had published thirty-one papers on entomological and anthropological subjects before receiving his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Adelaide in March 1933. Tindale's first ethnographic expedition took place over 1921-1922, his principal aim was to gather entomological specimens for the South Australian Museum, the ethnographic aspect being an accidental sideline which developed, as his curiosity was stimulated, into close observation of the indigenous people he encountered from the Cobourg Peninsula to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Tindale's family background had qualified him to be taken on by the Church Missionary Society of Australia and Tasmania, interested in proselytizing in the north, he spent half a year, accompanying the missionary Hubert E. Warren to sound out the area for an appropriate site for an Anglican mission, which as the Emerald River Mission, was subsequently established on west coast of Groote Eylandt.
He followed this up with a further 9 months nearby on the mainland around the Roper River. Tindale wrote up his observations for the South Australian Museum in two continuous reports which constitute the first detailed account we have of the Warnindhilyagwa people on that island. In 1938-39, Tindale teamed up with Joseph Birdsell of Harvard University to undertake an extensive anthropological survey of Aboriginal missions across Australia; the relationship forged between the two developed into a half century of collaboration between the two. On the outbreak of World War 2, Tindale tried to enlist, but was rejected because of his poor eyesight; when Japan precipitated war with the United States however, Tindale's knowledge of Japanese, rare in Australia at the time, made him an asset for military intelligence. In 1942 Tindale joined the Royal Australian Air Force and, assigned the rank of Wing Commander, he was transferred to The Pentagon, where he worked with the Strategic Bombing Survey as an analyst for estimating the impact of bombing on the military and civilian population of Japan.
In 1942 an Air Technical Intelligence Unit was established under Captain Frank T. McCoy at Hangar 7, Eagle Farm airfield just outside Brisbane, and, on Tindale's initiative it was tasked with examining parts recovered from the wreckage of Japanese airplanes, shot down, working out whatever intelligence could be gathered from the manufacturing markings, reassembling them where possible. Jones states that Tindale's unit's meticulous analysis of the metallurgical débris and serial numbers enabled them to arrive at the companies responsible for producing the components, deduce production figures and infer what crucial alloys the Japan military was beginning to suffer shortfalls in. Tindale played a major intelligence role in putting a halt to Japan's balloon bombing assault on the western coast of the United States, his team's forensic analysis of the debris enabled the U. S. airforce to bomb the production facilities in Japan. Jones adds two other key contributions by Tindale to the war effort: He was instrumental in cracking the Japanese aircraft production code system, which gave the Allies reliable information as to Japanese air power.
More he and his unit deciphered the Japanese master naval code. On retirement after 49 years service with the South Australian Museum, Tindale took up a teaching position at the University of Colorado and remained in the United States until his death, aged 93, in Palo Alto, California; the Adelaide Board for Anthropological Research began a programme for filming Aboriginal life in 1926, was the first to systematically do so. Over an 11-year period they produced over 10 hours of footage concerning many aspects of Aboriginal life, from material culture to hunting and gathering practices, love-making and ceremonies of circumcision observed during their field expeditions. Tindale produced the film while the actual camera-work was undertaken by E. O. Stocker. Tindale is best remembered for his work mapping the various tribal groupings of Indigenous Australians; this interest began with a research trip to Groote Eylandt where Tindale's helper and interpreter, a Ngandi impressed him with the importance of knowing with precision tribal boundaries.
This led Tindale to question the official orthodoxy of the time, that Aboriginal people were purely nomadic and had no connection to any specific region. While Tindal
Australian National University
The Australian National University is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. Its main campus in Acton encompasses seven teaching and research colleges, in addition to several national academies and institutes. Founded in 1946, it is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. A postgraduate research university, ANU commenced undergraduate teaching in 1960 when it integrated the Canberra University College, established in 1929 as a campus of the University of Melbourne. ANU employs 3,753 staff; the university's endowment stood at A$1.13 billion in 2012. ANU is regarded as one of the world's leading research universities, it is ranked 1st in Australia and the whole of Oceania, 24th in the world by the 2019 QS World University Rankings, 49th in the world by the 2019 Times Higher Education. ANU was named the world's 7th most international university in a 2017 study by Times Higher Education. In the 2017 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates' employability, ANU was ranked 21st in the world.
ANU is ranked 100th in the CWTS Leiden ranking. The university is well known for its programmes in the arts and social sciences, ranks among the best in the world for a number of disciplines including politics and international relations, social policy, geography. ANU counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni; the university has educated two prime ministers, 30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of government departments of Australia. The latest releases of ANU's scholarly publications are held through ANU Press online. Calls for the establishment of a national university in Australia began as early as 1900. After the location of the nation's capital, was determined in 1908, land was set aside for the university at the foot of Black Mountain in the city designs by Walter Burley Griffin. Planning for the university was disrupted by World War II but resumed with the creation of the Department of Post-War Reconstruction in 1942 leading to the passage of the Australian National University Act 1946 by the Chifley Government on 1 August 1946.
A group of eminent Australian scholars returned from overseas to join the university, including Sir Howard Florey, Sir Mark Oliphant, Sir Keith Hancock and Sir Raymond Firth. Economist Sir Douglas Copland was appointed as ANU's first Vice-Chancellor and former Prime Minister Stanley Bruce served as the first Chancellor. ANU was organised into four centres—the Research Schools of Physical Sciences, Social Sciences and Pacific Studies and the John Curtin School of Medical Research; the first residents' hall, University House, was opened in 1954 for faculty members and postgraduate students. Mount Stromlo Observatory, established by the federal government in 1924, became part of ANU in 1957; the first locations of the ANU Library, the Menzies and Chifley buildings, opened in 1963. The Australian Forestry School, located in Canberra since 1927, was amalgamated by ANU in 1965. Canberra University College was the first institution of higher education in the national capital, having been established in 1929 and enrolling its first undergraduate pupils in 1930.
Its founding was led by Sir Robert Garran, one of the drafters of the Australian Constitution and the first Solicitor-General of Australia. CUC was affiliated with the University of Melbourne and its degrees were granted by that university. Academic leaders at CUC included historian Manning Clark, political scientist Finlay Crisp, poet A. D. Hope and economist Heinz Arndt. In 1960, CUC was integrated into ANU as the School of General Studies with faculties in arts, economics and science. Faculties in Oriental studies and engineering were introduced later. Bruce Hall, the first residential college for undergraduates, opened in 1961; the Canberra School of Music and the Canberra School of Art combined in 1988 to form the Canberra Institute of the Arts, amalgamated with the university as the ANU Institute of the Arts in 1992. ANU established its Medical School in 2002, after obtaining federal government approval in 2000. On 18 January 2003, the Canberra bushfires destroyed the Mount Stromlo Observatory.
ANU astronomers now conduct research from the Siding Spring Observatory, which contains 10 telescopes including the Anglo-Australian Telescope. In February 2013, financial entrepreneur and ANU graduate Graham Tuckwell made the largest university donation in Australian history by giving $50 million to fund an undergraduate scholarship program at ANU. ANU is well known for its history of student activism and, in recent years, its fossil fuel divestment campaign, one of the longest-running and most successful in the country; the decision of the ANU Council to divest from two fossil fuel companies in 2014 was criticised by ministers in the Abbott government, but defended by Vice Chancellor Ian Young, who noted:On divestment, it is clear we were in the right and played a national and international leadership role. E seem to have played a major role in a movement; as of 2014 ANU still had investments in major fossil fuel companies. A survey conducted by the Australian Human Rights Commission in 2017 found that the ANU had the second highest incidence of sexual assault and sexual harassment.
3.5 per cent of respondents from the ANU re
The Northern Territory is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. It shares borders with Western Australia to the west, South Australia to the south, Queensland to the east. To the north, the territory looks out to the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria, including Western New Guinea and other Indonesian islands; the NT covers 1,349,129 square kilometres, making it the third-largest Australian federal division, the 11th-largest country subdivision in the world. It is sparsely populated, with a population of only 246,700, making it the least-populous of Australia's eight states and major territories, with fewer than half as many people as Tasmania; the archaeological history of the Northern Territory begins over 40,000 years ago when Indigenous Australians settled the region. Makassan traders began trading with the indigenous people of the Northern Territory for trepang from at least the 18th century onwards; the coast of the territory was first seen by Europeans in the 17th century.
The British were the first Europeans to attempt to settle the coastal regions. After three failed attempts to establish a settlement, success was achieved in 1869 with the establishment of a settlement at Port Darwin. Today the economy is based on tourism Kakadu National Park in the Top End and the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park in central Australia, mining; the capital and largest city is Darwin. The population is concentrated along the Stuart Highway; the other major settlements are Palmerston, Alice Springs, Katherine and Tennant Creek. Residents of the Northern Territory are known as "Territorians" and as "Northern Territorians", or more informally as "Top Enders" and "Centralians". Indigenous Australians have lived in the present area of the Northern Territory for an estimated 40,000 years, extensive seasonal trade links existed between them and the peoples of what is now Indonesia for at least five centuries. With the coming of the British, there were four early attempts to settle the harsh environment of the northern coast, of which three failed in starvation and despair.
The Northern Territory was part of colonial New South Wales from 1825 to 1863, except for a brief time from February to December 1846, when it was part of the short-lived colony of North Australia. It was part of South Australia from 1863 to 1911. Under the administration of colonial South Australia, the overland telegraph was constructed between 1870 and 1872. From its establishment in 1869 the Port of Darwin was the major Territory supply for many decades. A railway was built between Palmerston and Pine Creek between 1883 and 1889; the economic pattern of cattle raising and mining was established so that by 1911 there were 513,000 cattle. Victoria River Downs was at one time the largest cattle station in the world. Gold was found at Grove Hill in 1872 and at Pine Creek, Brocks Creek and copper was found at Daly River. On 1 January 1911, a decade after federation, the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and transferred to federal control. Alfred Deakin opined at this time "To me the question has been not so much commercial as national, second and last.
Either we must accomplish the peopling of the northern territory or submit to its transfer to some other nation." In late 1912 there was growing sentiment. The names "Kingsland", "Centralia" and "Territoria" were proposed with Kingsland becoming the preferred choice in 1913. However, the name change never went ahead. For a brief time between 1927 and 1931 the Northern Territory was divided into North Australia and Central Australia at the 20th parallel of South latitude. Soon after this time, parts of the Northern Territory were considered in the Kimberley Plan as a possible site for the establishment of a Jewish Homeland, understandably considered the "Unpromised Land". During World War II, most of the Top End was placed under military government; this is the only time since Federation that part of an Australian state or territory has been under military control. After the war, control for the entire area was handed back to the Commonwealth; the Bombing of Darwin occurred on 19 February 1942. It was the largest single attack mounted by a foreign power on Australia.
Evidence of Darwin's World War II history is found at a variety of preserved sites in and around the city, including ammunition bunkers, oil tunnels and museums. The port was damaged in the 1942 Japanese air raids, it was subsequently restored. In the late 1960s improved roads in adjoining States linking with the territory, port delays and rapid economic development led to uncertainty in port and regional infrastructure development; as a result of the Commission of Enquiry established by the Administrator, port working arrangements were changed, berth investment deferred and a port masterplan prepared. Extension of rail transport was not considered because of low freight volumes. Indigenous Australians had struggled for rights to fair wages and land. An important event in this struggle was the strike and walk off by the Gurindji people at Wave Hill Cattle Station in 1966; the federal government of Gough Whitlam set up the Woodward Royal Commission in February 1973, which set to enquire into how land rights might be achieved in the Northern Territory.
Justice Woodward's first report in July 1973 recommended that a Central Land Council and a Northern Land Council be established to present to him the views of
Aboriginal Australian is a collective term for all the indigenous peoples from the Australian mainland and Tasmania. This group contains many separate cultures that have developed in the various environments of Australia for more than 50,000 years; these peoples have a broadly shared, though complex, genetic history, but it is only in the last two hundred years that they have been defined and started to self identify as a single group. The exact definition of the term Aboriginal Australian has changed over time and place, with the importance of family lineage, self identification and community acceptance all being of varying importance. In the past Aboriginal Australians lived over large sections of the continental shelf and were isolated on many of the smaller offshore islands, once the land was inundated at the start of the inter-glacial. However, they are distinct from the Torres Strait Islander people, despite extensive cultural exchange. Today Aboriginal Australians comprise 3.1% of Australia's population.
They live throughout the world as part of the Australia diaspora. Before extensive European settlement, there were over 200 Aboriginal languages. However, today most Aboriginal people speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, they have a number of health and economic deprivations in comparison with the wider Australian community. A new definition was proposed in the Constitutional Section of the Department of Aboriginal Affairs' Report on a Review of the Administration of the Working Definition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders: An Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander is a person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent who identifies as an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander and is accepted as such by the community in which he lives. Justice Gerard Brennan in his leading judgment in Mabo v Queensland stated: Membership of the Indigenous people depends on biological descent from the Indigenous people and on mutual recognition of a particular person's membership by that person and by the elders or other persons enjoying traditional authority among those people.
The category "Aboriginal Australia" was coined by the British after they began colonising Australia in 1788, to refer collectively to all people they found inhabiting the continent, to the descendants of any of those people. Until the 1980s, the sole legal and administrative criterion for inclusion in this category was race, classified according to visible physical characteristics or known ancestors; as in the British slave colonies of North America and the Caribbean, where the principle of partus sequitur ventrem was adopted from 1662, children's status was determined by that of their mothers: if born to Aboriginal mothers, children were considered Aboriginal, regardless of their paternity. In the era of colonial and post-colonial government, access to basic human rights depended upon your race. If you were a "full-blooded Aboriginal native... any person having an admixture of Aboriginal blood", a half-caste being the "offspring of an Aboriginal mother and other than Aboriginal father", a "quadroon", or had a "strain" of Aboriginal blood you were forced to live on Reserves or Missions, work for rations, given minimal education, needed governmental approval to marry, visit relatives or use electrical appliances.
The Constitution of Australia, in its original form as of 1901, referred to Aboriginals twice, but without definition. Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament a power to legislate with respect to "the people of any race" throughout the Commonwealth, except for people of "the aboriginal race"; the purpose of this provision was to give the Commonwealth power to regulate non-white immigrant workers, who would follow work opportunities interstate. The only other reference, Section 127, provided that "aboriginal natives shall not be counted" in reckoning the size of the population of the Commonwealth or any part of it; the purpose of Section 127 was to prevent the inclusion of Aboriginal people in Section 24 determinations of the distribution of House of Representatives seats amongst the states and territories. After these references were removed by the 1967 referendum, the Australian Constitution had no references to Aboriginals. Since that time, there have been a number of proposals to amend the constitution to mention Indigenous Australians.
The change to Section 51 enabled the Commonwealth parliament to enact laws with respect to Aboriginal peoples as a "race". In the Tasmanian Dam Case of 1983, the High Court of Australia was asked to determine whether Commonwealth legislation, whose application could relate to Aboriginal people—parts of the World Heritage Properties Conservation Act 1983 as well as related legislation—was supported by Section 51 in its new form; the case concerned an application of legislation that would preserve the cultural heritage of Aboriginal Tasmanians. It was held that Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, together or separately, any part of either, could be regarded as a "race" for this purpose; as to the criteria for identifying a person as a member of such a "race", the definition by Justice Deane has become accepted as current law. Deane said: It is unnecessary, for the purposes of the present case, to consider the meaning to be given to the phrase "people of any race" in s. 51. Plainly, the words have a wide and non-technical meaning....
The phrase is, in my view, apposite to refer to all Australian Aboriginals collectively. Any doubt, which might otherwise exist in that regard, is removed
Alawa, Northern Territory
Alawa is a northern suburb of the city of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. It is bounded by Lakeside Drive and the Rapid Creek, it is in the local government area of City of Darwin. The suburb of Alawa was constructed in the late 1960s. Alawa is named after the Alawa Aboriginal tribe; the street names in Alawa commemorate the residents and workers, at the old Post Office, who were killed in the bombing of Darwin by the Japanese in 1942, the boats and people associated with the early settlement of Palmerston. Alawa's boundary borders the Casuarina Shopping centre; the largest shopping centre in the Territory. The suburb has a primary school and a smaller shopping centre. Https://web.archive.org/web/20070903185425/http://www.brmanagement.com.au/suburbsmap.html https://web.archive.org/web/20110629040718/http://www.nt.gov.au/lands/lis/placenames/origins/greaterdarwin.shtml#t#t
Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are citizens and nationals of the Commonwealth of Australia, although some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim Australian nationality. Home to people of many different ethnic origins and national origins, the Australian culture and law does not correspond nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and loyalty to the country. Despite the fact that over half of the citizens descend from the peoples of the British Isles, Australia is a multicultural society and has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Many early settlements were penal colonies and transported convicts made up a significant proportion of the population in most colonies. Large-scale immigration did not occur. Further waves of immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Europe, the Middle East, Pacific Islands, Latin America and Africa.
Prior to British settlement, Australia was inhabited by various indigenous peoples – Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal Tasmanians and Torres Strait Islanders, a Melanesian people. A small percentage of present-day Australians descend from these peoples; the development of a separate Australian identity and national character is most linked with the period surrounding the First World War, which gave rise to the concept of the Anzac spirit. The Eureka Rebellion of 1854 and various events of the Second World War, most notably the Kokoda Track campaign, are frequently mentioned in association with Australian identity. However, Australian culture predates the federation of the Australian colonies by several decades – Australian literature, most notably the work of the bush poets, dates from colonial times. Modern Australian identity draws on a multicultural and British cultural heritage; the majority of Australians or their ancestors immigrated within the past four centuries, with the exception of the Indigenous population and other outer lying islands who became Australian through expansion of the country.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of Australia held in common by most Australians can be referred to as mainstream Australian culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of British and Irish colonists and immigrants. The Colony of New South Wales was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1788, with the arrival of the First Fleet, five other colonies were established in the early 19th century, now forming the six present-day Australian states. Large-scale immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Southern and Eastern Europe introducing a variety of elements. Immigration from the Middle East and east Asia, Pacific Islands and Latin America has been having an impact; the predominance of the English language, the existence of a democratic system of government drawing upon the British traditions of Westminster Government, Parliamentarianism and constitutional monarchy, American constitutionalist and federalist traditions, Christianity as the dominant religion, the popularity of sports originating in the British Isles, are all evidence of a significant Anglo-Celtic heritage.
Australian culture has diverged since British settlement. Sporting teams representing the whole of Australia have been in existence since the 1870s. Australians are referred to as "Aussie" and "Antipodean". Australians were referred to as "Colonials", "British" and "British subjects"; as a result of many shared linguistic, historical and geographic characteristics, Australians have identified with New Zealanders in particular. Furthermore, elements of Indigenous, American and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the modern Australian culture. Today, Australians of English and other European descent are the majority in Australia, estimated at around 70% of the total population. European immigrants had great influence over Australian history and society, which resulted in the perception of Australia as a Western country. Since soon after the beginning of British settlement in 1788, people of European descent have formed the majority of the population in Australia; the majority of Australians are of British – English, Welsh, Cornish, or Manx – and Irish ancestral origin.
Although some observers stress Australia's convict history, the vast majority of early settlers came of their own free will. Far more Australians are descended from assisted immigrants than from convicts, the majority being British and Irish. About 20% of Australians are descendants of convicts. Most of the first Australian settlers came from London, the Midlands and the North of England, Ireland. Settlers that arrived throughout the 19th century were from all parts of the United Kingdom and Ireland, a significant proportion of settlers came from the Southwest and Southeast of England, from Ireland and from Scotland. Anglo-Celtic Australians have been influential in shaping the nation's character. By the mid-1840s, the numbers of freeborn settlers had overtaken the convict population. In 1888, 60 percent of the Australian population had been born in Australia, all had British ancestral origins. Out of the remaining 40 percent, 34 percent had been born in the British Isles, 6 percent were of European origin from Germany and Scandinavia.
In the 1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12 percent of