The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
The Latin noun līmes had a number of different meanings: a path or balk delimiting fields, a boundary line or marker, any road or path, any channel, such as a stream channel, or any distinction or difference. The term was commonly used after the 3rd century AD to denote a military district under the command of a dux limitis. Limes has sometimes been adopted in modern times for a border defence or delimiting system of Ancient Rome marking the boundaries and provinces of the Roman Empire, but it was not used by the Romans for the imperial frontier, fortified or not; some experts suggested that the so-called limes may have been called Munimentum Traiani, Trajan's Bulwark, referring to a passage by Ammianus Marcellinus, according to which emperor Julian had reoccupied this fortification in 360 AD. The limites represented the border line of the Roman Empire at its greatest extent in the 2nd century AD, it stretched more than 5,000 km from the Atlantic coast of northern Britain, through Europe to the Black Sea, from there to the Red Sea and across North Africa to the Atlantic coast.
The remains of the limites today consist of vestiges of walls, forts and civilian settlements. Certain elements of the line have been excavated, some reconstructed, a few destroyed; the two sections of the limes in Germany cover a length of 550 km from the north-west of the country to the Danube in the south-east. The 118 km long Hadrian's Wall was built on the orders of the Emperor Hadrian c. AD 122 at the northernmost limits of the Roman province of Britannia, it is a striking example of the organization of a military zone and illustrates the defensive techniques and geopolitical strategies of ancient Rome. The Antonine Wall, a 60 km-long fortification in Scotland, was started by Emperor Antoninus Pius in AD 142 as a defense against the "Barbarians" of the north, it constitutes the northwestern-most portion of the Roman Limes. The most notable examples of Roman limites are: Hadrian's Wall – Limes Britannicus Antonine Wall – in Scotland Saxon Shore, late Roman limes in South-East England Limes Germanicus, with the Upper Germanic & Rhaetian Limes Limes Arabicus, the frontier of the Roman province of Arabia Petraea facing the desert Limes Tripolitanus, the frontier in modern Libya facing the Sahara Limes Alutanus, the eastern border of the Roman province of Dacia Limes Transalutanus, the frontier in the lower Danube Limes Moesiae, the frontier of the Roman province Moesia, from Singidunum Serbia along the Danube to Moldavia.
Limes Norici, the frontier of the Roman province Noricum, from the River Inn along the Danube to Cannabiaca in Austria. Limes Pannonicus, the frontier of the Roman province Pannonia, along the Danube from Klosterneuburg Austria to Taurunum in Serbia. Fossatum Africae, the southern frontier of the Roman Empire, extending south of the Roman province of Africa in North-Africa. A mediaeval limes is the Limes Saxoniae in Holstein; the stem of limes, limit-, which can be seen in the genitive case, marks it as the ancestor of an entire group of important words in many languages, for example, English limit. Modern languages have multiplied its abstract formulations. For example, from limit comes the abbreviation lim, used in mathematics to designate the limit of a sequence or a function: see limit. In metaphysics, material objects are limited by matter and therefore are delimited from each other. In ethics, men are wise if they do. An etymology was given in some detail by Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch.
According to him, it comes from Indo-European el-, elei-, lei-, "to bow", "to bend", "elbow". The Latin meaning was discussed in detail by W. Gebert; the sense is. The limes was a cross-path or a cross-wall, which the Romans meant to throw across the path of invaders to hinder them, it is a defensive strategy. The Romans never built limites; as the emperor had ordered the army to stay within the limites, except for punitive expeditions, these were as much a mental barrier as material. The groups of Germanic warriors harrying the limes during summer used the concept to full advantage, knowing that they could concentrate and supply themselves outside the limes without fear of preemptive strikes. In a few cases, they were wrong; the limit concept engendered a sentiment among the soldiers that they were being provoked by the Germanic raiders and were held back from just retaliation by a weak and incompetent administration: they were being sold out. So they mutinied; the best remedy for a mutiny was an expedition across the limes against the enemy.
Toward the empire, the soldiers assassinated emperors who preferred diplomacy and put their own most popular officers into the vacant office. Roman writers and subsequent authors who depended on them presented the limes as some sort of sacred border beyond which human beings did not transgress, if they did, it was evidence that they had passed the bounds of reason and civilization. To cross the border was the mark of a savage, they wrote of the Alemanni failing to respect the limes as if they had passed the final limitation of character and had committed themselves to perdition. The Alemanni, on the other hand, never regarded the border as legitimate in the first place, they viewed the Romans as foreigners, who changed native place names and intruded on native homes and families. They were only to be tolerated because they were willing to pay cash for the privilege and offered the blandishments of civilized life. According to Pokorny, Latin limen, "threshold"
Rottweil is a town in southwest Germany in the state of Baden-Württemberg. Rottweil was a Free Imperial City for nearly 600 years. Located between the Black Forest and the Swabian Alps, Rottweil has about 25,000 inhabitants; the old town is famous for its traditional carnival. It is the oldest town in Baden-Württemberg and its appearance has changed little since the 16th century. Rottweil was founded by the Romans in AD 73 as Arae Flaviae and became a municipium, but there are traces of human settlement going back to 2000 BC. Roman baths and an Orpheus mosaic of c. AD 180, date from the time of Roman settlement; the present town became a ducal and a royal court before 771 and in the Middle Ages it became a Free Imperial City in 1268. In 1463 Rottweil joined the Swiss Confederacy under the pretence of a temporary alliance. In 1476 the Rottweilers fought on the side against Karl the Bold in the Battle of Morat. In 1512, Pope Julius II gave the city a valuable "Julius banner" for their services in the 1508-1510 "Great Pavier Campaign" to expel the French.
In 1519, they left the old alliance. They joined a new one in which their membership was extended indefinitely - the so-called "Eternal Covenant." Rottweil thus became a centre of the Swiss confederation. The relations between the Swiss Confederation and Rottweil cooled during the Reformation; when Rottweil was troubled by wars, however, it still asked the Confederates for help. In the Rottweil Witch Hunts from 1546 to 1661, 266 so-called witches and magicians executed in the imperial city of Rottweil. On April 15, 2015, they were given a posthumous pardon. An official apology was given by the City Council about 400 years after their violent death. Both its status as free city and its alliance with the Swiss Confederacy were lost with the conquest of the region by Napoleon in 1803. 1820–1833: Max Joseph von Khuon, Schultheiß 1833–1845: Max Teufel 1845–1848: Karl Dinkelmann 1848–1851: Kaspar Rapp 1852–1887: Johann Baptist Marx 1887–1923: Edwin Glückher 1924–1943: Josef Abrell 1943–1944: Otto Mann 1944–1945: Paul Fritz 1945–1946: Franz Mederle 1946–1965: Arnulf Gutknecht 1965–1985: Ulrich Regelmann, from 1970 Lord mayor 1985–2001: Michael Arnold, Lord mayor 2001–2009: Thomas Engeser, Lord mayor 2009–present: Ralf Broß, Lord mayor The late-Romanesque and Gothic-era Münster Heiliges Kreuz, built over a pre-existing church from 1270.
It features a crucifix by noteworthy Gothic sculptures. Kapellenkirche, a Gothic church with a tower and with three statue-decorated portals. Lorenzkapelle, in late Gothic style, it houses some two hundred works by Swabian masters and Gothic altarpieces from the 14th and 15th centuries. The town's museum, including a notable Roman mosaic with the legend of Orpheus; the late-Gothic town hall. St. Pelagius, a Romanesque church from the 12th century. Excavations have brought to light Roman baths in the same site. Dominican museum Rottweil – local branch of the Landesmuseum Württemberg ThyssenKrupp is constructing a $45 million, 807-foot tower; the tower is a research facility for the company and will be used to test new elevator cars and technologies. At 807 feet, it will be the tallest structure in the district; the windowless building is going to have 12 elevator shafts. The Rottweiler dog is named after this town. Adam of Rottweil, the 15th-century scholar and printer, was born in Rottweil. Konrad Witz, painter "Das Mädchen aus Rottweil" is a song by the German band Die Toten Hosen Egon Rieble, art historian and dialect poet Hermann Schäfer and music scientist Kurt Bantle, former member of Landtag Ekkehard Lindner and professor Sigrid Peyerimhoff, chemist Peter Dussmann, chemist Franz Xavier Wernz, superior general of the Jesuits Erwin Teufel, former minister president of Baden-Württemberg Rüdiger Safranski and literary scholar Thomas Engeser, 2001–2009 Lord mayor of Rottweil Rita Haller-Haid, Member of Landtag 2001-2016 Anne Haigis and singer Bernd Marquart, jazz musician Ralf Broß, since 2 July 2009 Lord mayor of Rottweil Andreas Schwab and member of European Parliament Joshua Kimmich, football player Rottweil is twinned with: L'Aquila, Italy Brugg, Switzerland Hyères, France Imst, Austria Rottweil Synagoge Rottweil Official website Feast of Fools: Medieval Carnival Celebrations in Rottweil History and territory of the former Reichsstadt Rottweil Pictures and stories about Rottweil
Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes
The Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes, or ORL, is a 550-kilometre-long section of the former external frontier of the Roman Empire between the rivers Rhine and Danube. It runs from Rheinbrohl to Eining on the Danube; the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes is an archaeological site and, since 2005, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Together with the Lower Germanic Limes it forms part of the Limes Germanicus; the term limes meant "border path" or "swathe" in Latin. In Germany, "Limes" refers to the Rhaetian Limes and Upper Germanic Limes, collectively referred to as the Limes Germanicus. Both sections of limes are named after the adjacent Roman provinces of Germania Superior. In the Roman limites we have, for the first time in history defined territorial borders of a sovereign state that were visible on the ground to friend and foe alike. Most of the Upper German-Rhaetian Limes did not follow rivers or mountain ranges, which would have formed natural boundaries for the Roman Empire, it includes the longest land border in the European section of the limes, interrupted for only a few kilometres, by a section that follows the River Main between Großkrotzenburg and Miltenberg.
By contrast, elsewhere in Europe, the limes is defined by the rivers Rhine and Danube. The function of the Roman military frontiers has been discussed for some time; the latest research tends to view at least the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes not as a military demarcation line, but rather a monitored economic boundary for the non-Roman lands. The limes, it is argued, was not suitable for fending off systematic external attacks. Thanks to a skillful economic policy, the Roman Empire extended its influence far to the northeast, beyond the frontier. Evidence of this are the many border crossings which, although guarded by Roman soldiers, would have enabled a brisk trade, the numerous Roman finds in "Free Germania". Attempts were also made, to settle Roman legions beyond the limes or, more to recruit auxiliaries; as a result, the Romanization of the population extended beyond the limes. Interest in the limes as the remains of a site dating to the Roman period was rekindled in Germany at the time of the Renaissance and Renaissance humanism.
This was bolstered by the rediscovery of the Germania and Annales of Tacitus in monastic libraries in the 15th and early 16th centuries. Scholars like Simon Studion researched discovered forts. Studion led archaeological excavations of the Roman camp of Benningen on the Neckar section of the Neckar-Odenwald Limes. Local limes commissions were established but were confined to small areas, for example, in the Grand Duchy of Hesse or Grand Duchy of Baden, due to the political situation. Johann Alexander Döderlein was the first person to record the course of the limes in the Eichstätt region. In 1723, he was the first to interpret the meaning of the limes and published the first scholarly treatise about it in 1731. Only after the foundation of the German Empire could archaeologists begin to study more the route of the limes, about which there had only been a rudimentary knowledge; as a result, they were able to make the first systematic excavations in the second half of the 19th century. In 1892, the Imperial Limes Commission was established for this purpose in Berlin, under the direction of the ancient historian, Theodor Mommsen.
The work of this commission is considered pioneering for reworking of Roman provincial history. Productive were the first ten years of research, which worked out the course of the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes and named the camps along the border; the research reports on the excavations were published from 1894 to the dissolution of the Commission in 1937. The individual reports went under the title of The Upper Rhaetian Limes of the Roman Empire, published in fifteen volumes, of which seven cover the route of the limes and eight cover the various camps and forts; the documents of the Imperial Limes Commission are now in the custody of the Roman-Germanic Commission of the German Archaeological Institute. The RLK numbered the sections of the route, the forts and the watchtowers on the individual sections. In the course of this work the 550-kilometre-long route of the limes was surveyed, divided into sections and described; this division followed the administrative boundaries in 19th-century Germany and not that of ancient Rome: Section 1: Rheinbrohl – Bad Ems Section 2: Bad Ems – Adolfseck near Bad Schwalbach Section 3: Adolfseck near Bad Schwalbach – Taunus – Köpperner Tal Section 4: Köpperner Tal – Wetterau – Marköbel Section 5: Marköbel – Großkrotzenburg am Main Section 6a: Hainstadt – Wörth am Main Section 6b: Trennfurt – Miltenberg Section 7: Miltenberg – Walldürn – Buchen-Hettingen Section 8: Buchen-Hettingen – Osterburken – Jagsthausen Section 9: Jagsthausen – Öhringen – Mainhardt – Welzheim – Alfdorf-Pfahlbronn Section 10: Wörth am Main – Bad Wimpfen Section 11: Bad Wimpfen – Köngen Section 12: Alfdorf-Pfahlbronn – Lorch – Rotenbachtal near Schwäbisch Gmünd – Aalen – Stödtlen Section 13: Mönchsroth – Weiltingen-Ruffenhofen - Gunzenhausen Section 14: Gunzenhausen – Weißenburg – Kipfenberg Section 15: Kipfenberg – Eining Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes in general Dietwulf Baatz: Der römische Limes.
Archäologische Ausflüge zwischen Rhein und Donau. 4th edn. Gebrüder Mann, Berlin, 2000, ISBN 3-7861-1701-2. Thomas Becker
Heidenheim an der Brenz
Heidenheim an der Brenz is a town in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. It is located near the border with Bavaria 17 km south of Aalen and 33 km north of Ulm. Heidenheim is the largest town and the seat of the district of Heidenheim, ranks third behind Aalen and Schwäbisch Gmünd in size among the towns in the region of East Württemberg. Heidenheim is the economic center for all the communities in Heidenheim district and is the headquarters of the Voith industrial company; the town's population passed the 20,000 mark in 1925. Heidenheim collaborates with the town of Nattheim in administrative matters; the residents of Heidenheim and its surrounding area speak the distinct German dialect of Swabian. Heidenheim is situated between Albuch and the Härtsfeld region in the northeast corner of the Swabian Alb where the valley of the Brenz meets the Stubental at the foot of Hellenstein Mountain; the source of the Brenz enters Heidenheim from the northwest. It runs through the boroughs of Schnaitheim before it gets to Heidenheim.
From there it continues on to the south through the borough of Mergelstetten, before it leaves the city limits to head for Herbrechtingen. Heidenheim shares borders with the following cities and towns, listed clockwise starting from the North: Aalen and Neresheim, Syrgenstein, as well as Herbrechtingen, Steinheim am Albuch and Königsbronn. Heidenheim an der Brenz consists of Heidenheim and the subdivisions of Schnaitheim, Mergelstetten and Großkuchen; each of the four boroughs include their own neighbourhoods that either have a long history of their own or were created as new developments. But while these neighbourhoods received their names during construction, their boundaries have not been defined. Oggenhausen and Großkuchen became part of Heidenheim during the last district reform in the 1970s and are municipalities under state administrative law; this designation entitles them to a borough council, elected by registered voters in municipal elections. The Municipal Council is headed by a president.
Schnaitheim, to the north, was at one time a politically independent small town but is now Heidenheim's largest borough known as Heidenheim-Schnaitheim. Expansion of both towns has now eradicated any geographical separation between the two. Although residential, Schnaitheim is home to a number of Heidenheim's "Big Box"-style retailers, its commercial districts are an important part of the city's infrastructure, it has about 10,900 residents. Within Schnaitheim, neighbourhoods include Wehrenfeld on the east side, which consists of wealthier homes as well as a large recreational area featuring the town's largest sports club, TSG Schnaitheim. Other neighbourhoods include Hagen on the west side, located on the slope of a hill and Aufhausen, once a separate farming village to the north but now amalgamated. Mergelstetten is located to the south of Heidenheim center. With about 7900 residents, Mergelstetten retains a rural feel. Within Mergelstetten, the residential area of Reutenen sits elevated on a hill.
About 5 kilometers to the east of Heidenheim, separated by the major road European route E43 the village of Oggenhausen is home to about 1550 residents. The town voted to merge into Heidenheim by popular vote in 1970. About 8 kilometres north-east of Heidenheim, geographically separate Großkuchen is a popular recreational areas with hiking trails and cross-country skiing, it is home to a local small-scale charcoal industry. The town has about 1550 residents and merged politically into Heidenheim in 1974. There is evidence that human life existed within the city limits of Heidenheim as far back as 8,000 years ago. However, a permanent settlement was not established until 1300 BC. Extensive ruins remain of settlements dating, predominantly, to the period from 1200 to 800 BC. At the time of the Roman Empire from about 85 AD on, Heidenheim was the location of Castle Aquileia with attached cavalry of more than 1,000 mounted soldiers; the unit, called ala II flavia milliaria was around 159 AD, moved further North to Aalen.
At first, the Castle marked the Eastern end of the Alb Limes. But it did not take long until a civilian settlement was founded at this strategically important spot, marked by the intersection of five Roman roads; this settlement was the largest Roman city in, what is today, Baden-Württemberg and archeological finds suggest that it covered an area of 37 - 50 acres. More excavations have found the remains of a representative Roman administrative building, its exact function is not yet known. But because of Aquileia's size and other indicators, it is believed that it was the capital of a Roman administrative district. From 233 on, the Alamanni attacked the Roman limes fortifications; the Roman surrender of the limes in 260 spelled the end of the Roman city of Heidenheim. It is not clear to what extent Romans stayed on under the new, Alammanic rule but it is likely that some did. Nothing is known about Aquileia/Heidenheim during the period of the Great Migration; however in the 8th century Heidenheim was mentioned for the first time in official documents.
The creation of the city in the Middle Ages went hand in hand with the construction of Hellenstein Castle. The city wall was built in segments in 1190 and 1420 and Emperor Charles IV granted or confirmed the city as a market to