Province of Valencia
Valencia or València is a province of Spain, in the central part of the Valencian Community. Of the province's 2,547,986 people, one-third live in the capital, the capital of the autonomous community and the 3rd biggest city in Spain, with a metropolitan area of 2,522,383 it's one of the most populated cities of Southern Europe. There are 265 municipalities in the province. Although the Spanish Constitution of 1812 loosely created the province of València, a stable administrative entity does not arise until the territorial division of Spain in 1833, remaining today without major changes; the Provincial Council of Valencia dates from that period. After the Valencian Statute of Autonomy of 1982, the province became part of the Valencian Community. Together with Spanish, Valencian is the co-official language, it is bordered by the provinces of Alicante, Cuenca, Castellón, the Mediterranean Sea. The northwestern side of the province is in the mountainous Sistema Ibérico area. Part of its territory, the Rincón de Ademuz, is an exclave sandwiched between the provinces of Cuenca and Teruel.
The province is subdivided into the comarques of Camp de Túria, Camp de Morvedre, Canal de Navarrés, Hoya de Buñol, Horta de València, Horta Nord, Horta Oest, Horta Sud, Requena-Utiel, Rincón de Ademuz, Ribera Alta, Ribera Baixa, Los Serranos, Vall d'Albaida and Valle de Cofrentes. The province of Valencia, like the rest of the region, is mountainous in the interior in the north and west, with the Sistema Central running from north to south and the foothills of Andalusia from west to east; this mountainous interior features deep and steep valleys formed by the major rivers running through it. The plain of Valencia, is the second largest coastal plain of the country, located in the low region between the Júcar and Turia river valleys, it is twenty wide. In 1843 it was cited as "one of the most fertile and best cultivated spots in Europe"; the other main rivers include the Serpis. The Altiplano de Requena-Utiel range, in the interior of the Valencia region, has an average height of about 750 m.
The principal mountains in the province are Cerro Calderón, Sierra del Caroche, Sierra del Benicadell, Serra Calderona, Sierra Martés, Sierra de Utiel, Sierra de Enguera, the Sierra de Mondúver. The València plains are known for their olive, ilex, algaroba and palm trees, with the appearance of an "immense garden"; such is the fertility of the soil, that two and three crops in the year are obtained, the greater part of the land returns eight per cent. The rice crops are the most valuable, are chiefly produced in the tract, irrigated by the Albufera, a large lake in the neighbourhood of València. Rice being the principal food of the lower classes, the crop is consumed in the province, with the exception of a small quantity which finds its way into Castile and Andalusia; the other chief product is the white mulberry, once the source of great wealth: it was worked in the silk-factories of València. In 1828, the produce of silk from the vega of València amounted to one million of pounds yearly, the greater part of, exported in its raw state, but the produce has increased since, owing to demands from the manufacturers of Lyon and other towns in the south of France.
The province of València is a notable producer of satins, silk ribbons, velvets. The export of fruit from Valencia is considerable of raisins; the raisins are of two kinds, the muscatel, an inferior and smaller raisin, called pasa de legia. The export of figs and wine from the province and ports of València is considerable, with a wine known as Beni Carlo, which as of 1843 was shipped to Cette. Mercury, sulphur, argentiferous lead, coal, etc. are among the mineral products, but they are procured only in small quantities. Today, tourism is a major source of income, with the city of Valencia and the resort towns along the coast being the primary earners during the summer months; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, by C. Knight
Benicull de Xúquer
Benicull de Xúquer is a municipality in the comarca of Ribera Baixa in the Valencian Community, Spain. As of 2003 the population was less than one thousand. GEOGRAPHY The village is located on the right bank of the River Júcar, in its low basin, has only 3.56 km². HISTORY The first time the Benicull name is documented is in 1914. There have been vestiges of settlement that go from the Eneolithic to the Bronze Age in the area known as La Pedrera. At the end of the last century several families from Benigànim settled there; the history of Benicull, as a municipality, is short: it obtained the segregation of Polinyà de Xúquer in 1987 by Decree of November 23 and became a Local Entity. There were, at the time of the municipal constitution, 855 inhabitants. ECONOMY Agriculture prevails with the cultivation of citrus fruits. VILLAGE FESTIVALS During the first fortnight of July, the festivities in honor of the Filles de Maria take place and the patron saint festivities in honor of Blessed Ines de Beniganim are celebrated during the last fortnight of August.
El Cristo dels Afligits last half of October. On October 9, paella contest. HERITAGE On November 17, 1973, a group of schoolchildren from Benicull guided by their teachers Alberto Ripoll and Carmen Ezquer, found in a cave remains of Neolithic, among which features a Bell-beaker Beaker culture dated between 2200-1800 BC
Alboraya or Alboraia is a town and municipality of the province of Valencia, Spain. It is situated close to the city of Valencia. A farming community, Alboraya has grown in recent decades following the development of the metropolitan area of Valencia. Better transport connections, including two stations on the Valencia metro system: Alboraia-Palmaret and Alboraia-Peris Aragó), urban exodus from the Valencia, foreign immigration have increased the population from 11,267 in 1986, to an estimated 23,572 individuals in 2014. Of these, 58.84% declared themselves to be Valencian speakers. In 1994, 45.8% worked in the service sector, 33% in industry, 16.7% in agriculture, 3.60% in construction. In the May 2011 elections, the People's Party lost their absolute majority, as they fell from 11 to 8 council seats; the remaining seats were won by the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, Unión Popular de Alboraya, Coalició Compromís and Ciudadanos por Alboraya Subsequently a coalition of everyone but the PP was formed, with Miguel Chavarria becoming the first PSOE Mayor since 1999.
Traditional crops are based on intensive farming. Important are the tiger nuts, which are used to produce the world famous horchata, a popular refreshment; the town has many orxateries in which to relax and chill out while having an horchata in the hot Valencian summers. The town still contains large, irrigated fields which are farmed intensively but these areas are shrinking due to urban pressure; the designation of the city of Valencia as host city for the 2007 America's Cup sparked major land development. Seventy-five percent of the competing teams located their bases of operation in Alboraya; the municipality is divided into eight parts: Calvet, Mar, Masamardá, Miracle and Vera. Alboraya is connected to the rest of the Valencian metropolitan area by Line 3 of the Valencia Metro with two stations and Palmaret, Line 70 of the Municipal Transport Company of Valencia, EMT, Patacona provides buses on Line 31 of the EMT bus company; the future Line 10 of the Valencia Metro will connect the Port Saplaya area to port in Valencia.
The Council offers the people a local bus service, which runs through the villages of Alboraya, linking the village with Port Saplaya and Patacona seven days a week, with a frequency of one bus every hour. Alboraya is bordered by Almàssera to the northwest by Meliana to the north, by Tavernes Blanques to the west, Valencia city to the south and the Mediterranean Sea to the east. Alquería Muslim King James I of Aragon gave land to the bishop of Huesca, Canyelles Vidal. Teresa Gil de Vidaura, managed the property through a land swap with the bishop which strengthened the patrimony of James of Jericho, his son King James II of Aragon. In 1331, it passed into the hands of Gilberto Zanoguera. During the 15th century, it was held by the Crown. At the end, is the outback of Rafelterras. In its place is the deserted Rafelterras; the church was dedicated to Santa Maria. Along the Carraixet ravine a chapel was constructed dedicated to Our Lady of Desamparados, its first building dates from 1414 and was ordered built by the General Council of Valencia the year 1400.
It included a consecrated cemetery where the disadvantaged were buried. The current building is new; the main activity is agriculture, the most important crop is the plug, which has become popular in the Alboraya horchata. The year 1646 population census provides a calculation of 88 houses; the population has grown considerably: in 1986 there were 11,267 people, by 2002 the figure had risen to 18,656, of which, 58.84% reported in the 2001 census that they knew about Valencia. It has a population of 22,174 inhabitants according to. Economic activity in the population is distributed as follows: 45.80% work in the service sector, 33% in industry, 16.70% in agriculture, 3.60% in construction. Alboraya still retains the flavour typical of people in an important part of the town; the coastline is nearly four miles long, with two residential neighborhoods separated by the mouth of the Barranco del Carraixet: Port Saplaya and Patacona. The first has a marina, it is a residential complex and walk characterized by the warm ochres and pale pink, traditionally used in the painting of houses.
The second has housing in the space occupied by a former paper mill. Both areas have excellent beaches; some of its monuments include The Parish Church of Our Lady of the Assumption with the home abbey formed in a block. The people of Alboraya have other shrines such as the Chapel of the Holy Christ of Souls in Mas Vilanova, the shrine of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the house of the Rector, the Hermitage of Santa Barbara in the neighborhood of the same name, the Chapel of San Cristobal near the industrial estate, at the mouth of the Barranco del Carraixet the Chapel of the Peixets. All of them are part of an important historical and artistic heritage, rich in sculptures, paintings and pottery. Alboraya's foods include typical valencian dishes like a pot made with rice and turnips. Local desserts include the fartons and the so-called "Christian c
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Cullera is a municipality in Valencia in the Valencian Community, situated in the Ribera Baixa comarca. Cullera is situated at the mouth of 40 km from the capital of Valencia; the main neighbourhoods of Cullera are: El Brosquil. Cullera-Park. Cap-Blanc. El Dosel. El Estany. El Marenyet. Mareny de San Lorenzo. Mareny Blau. Bega de Mar, El Perelló, Corbera, Llaurí, Favara and Tavernes de Valldigna all neighbour Cullera, they are all in the province of Valencia. The mountain of Cullera, known as Munt de l'Or or Muntanya de l'Or, is the last mountain in the Iberian System before the Mediterranean Sea, it has an altitude of 233 meters. The historical parts of the city are to the south, the modern tourist district is to the east, looking to the sea; the San Lorenzo lagoon is a small lake situated north of the mountain. It once formed part of a much bigger lake; the lake now marks the southern limit of the Parque Natural de la Albufera. The economy in Cullera is traditionally based in agriculture, with rice and oranges as important crops.
Fishing a large part of the economy, has diminished in importance due to important tourism developments, both nationally and internationally, in the region. Castle: At the top of the mountain, dominating the city and the sea, there is a fortress built in the 13th century over the old Moorish fortress, it once was walled. Located there are the rest of the old towers, forming part of the old walled area on the mountain. Sanctuary of the Virgen del Castillo: Within the fortress, there is the sanctuary of the Virgen del Castillo, whose festival is celebrated the week after Passover. Church of the Saint Johns: A neoclassical temple from the 17th century built over an older Gothic temple. Inside, there is the interior of a bell tower; the temple has been restored. Torre del marenyet: An old watchtower built to watch the Júcar river, it was erected in the 15th century as a defense against barbary pirates. Cave of Dragut: This cave depicts the invasion of the Berbers in Cullera, it is said that the pirate Dragut was once there.
Air-raid shelter-Museum of the Mercat Municipal: A bomb shelter constructed under the Town's Market under the threat of air bombing during the Spanish Civil War. Hermitage of the stone saints: The building, situated on a hill surrounded by rice crops, was dedicated to these saints because they are related to the welfare of the crops. Nowadays, the Hermitage, built in the 18th century, has been reconverted into a museum dedicated to rice, from species to crops and tools, important for Valencian cuisine. Abric Lambert cave paintings: Named after its discoverer Lambert Oliver, the Abric Lambert is located in the north-west side of the mountain; the paintings are several figures painted in a dark red shade with cruciforms and comb-shaped figures that have been interpreted as animal and human figures. The typical food of the region is the so-called Mediterranean diet, characterized by a rich selection of vegetables. In Cullera's orchards, there are many citrus crops, as well as seafood of the nearby ocean.
Alongside the offerings of the orchards, not to mention the seafood, there are dozens of ways to prepare rice: arroz al horno, arroz a banda, etc. Le Bourget, France Ouroux-en-Morvan, France Jever, Germany Syktyvkar, Russia Mutiny at Sucro Instituto Valenciano de Estadística Castillo de Cullera https://web.archive.org/web/20060204235358/http://www.costamediterranea.com/dondeir/valencia/cullera.html http://www.valencians.com/valencia/rb/cullera This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Cullera". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Cambridge University Press. P. 617
Telephone numbers in Spain
The Spanish telephone numbering plan is the allocation of telephone numbers in Spain. It is regulated by Comisión del Mercado de las Telecomunicaciones. Spain changed to a closed telephone numbering plan in 1998; the trunk prefix was'9', but this was incorporated into the subscriber's number, so that a nine-digit number was used for all calls, e.g.: xx xx xx nxx xxx xxx +34 nxx xxx xxx Mobiles changed: they are now prefixed with the digit'6' or'7': 909 xxx xxx +34 09 xxx xxx +34 6xx xxx xxx +34 7yx xxx xxx New numbering ranges have since been introduced: 10xx Carrier selection codes 5xx xxx xxx Personal Numbering 8xx xxx xxx Geographic expansion 800 xxx xxx Freephone 900 xxx xxx Freephone 80x xxx xxx Shared-cost 90x xxx xxx Shared-cost Spain's international access code changed from 07 to 00, but this did not affect dialing arrangements for calls to Gibraltar, in which the domestic prefix 9567 was used instead of the international code 350, e.g.: 9567 xxxxx +350 xxxxx +34 9567 xxxxx This arrangement was discontinued on 10 February 2007 when Spain adopted the international 00350 prefix for all calls to Gibraltar, thereby bringing end to a dispute between Gibraltar and Spain.
Mobile phone numbers begin with 6 or 7, followed by 8 digits, where y can be 1 to 9, not 0. Note, numbers starting with 70 are personal numbers which can be re-directed to any other number by the personal owner. Since the blocks of mobile phone numbers are allocated according to demand from the service providers, there is not a unique service provider indicated by the three digit numbering group. In October 2009, new legislation was approved to grant the allocation of up to 80,000,000 new numbers beginning with number 7 to supplement the existing group beginning with number 6. Personal numbers are used as redirection IDs; the owner of a personal number may request, for example, any call to its personal number to be redirected to any other number it wants. Personal numbers begin followed by 8 digits. Numbers starting with 2, 3, 4, 5, 99 are reserved. Numbers starting with 0 and 1 are used for prefixes. Numbers starting with 80 and 90 are used for premium rates, toll free, internet access numbers.
803, 806, 807 prefixes are used for premium rate calls, where the caller pays a fixed amount of money per minute. 905 numbers are supposed to be used for voting systems. Calls have a limited duration, are charged a fixed rate per call, they are used in TV shows as a substitutive of 80 numbers, both for image reasons and because operators are not obliged to block them on a user request, as 80 numbers are. 800 and 900 numbers are freephone numbers in Spain. They are available from landlines but not from mobiles. 901 and 902 numbers are Non Geographic Numbers. These have been introduced by the call centres of large multinational European businesses. Unlike other normal Spanish phone numbers beginning 910 onwards, 901 and 902 numbers are always excluded from inclusive call bundles on Spanish landlines and mobiles. 902 numbers are extremely expensive to call from Spanish mobiles. 901 and 902 numbers are premium rated if calling Spain from overseas and low cost international call carriers to Spain refuse to connect calls to 901 and 902 numbers.
Spanish Numbering plan from CMT/Spanish Communications Regulator Operator codes assigned to each network - Due to portability it can change - Registration Needed Real Decreto 2296/2004, de 10 de diciembre Resolución de 30 de junio de 2005, de la Secretaría de Estado de Telecomunicaciones y para la Sociedad de la Información por la que se atribuyen recursos públicos de numeración al servicio telefónico fijo disponible al público y a los servicios vocales nómadas, y se adjudican determinados indicativos provinciales