People's Party (Spain)
The People's Party is a conservative, liberal-conservative and Christian-democratic political party in Spain. The People's Party was a re-foundation in 1989 of the People's Alliance, a party led and founded by Manuel Fraga Iribarne, a former Minister of the Interior and Minister of Tourism during Francisco Franco's dictatorship; the new party combined the conservative AP with several small Christian democratic and liberal parties. In 2002, Manuel Fraga received the honorary title of "Founding Chairman"; the party's youth organization is New Generations of the People's Party of Spain. The PP is a member of the center-right European People's Party, in the European Parliament its 16 MEPs sit in the EPP Group; the PP is a member of the Centrist Democrat International and the International Democrat Union. The PP was one of the founding organizations of the Budapest-based Robert Schuman Institute for Developing Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. On 24 May 2018, the National Court found that the PP profited from the illegal kickbacks-for-contracts scheme of the Gürtel case, confirming the existence of an illegal accounting and financing structure that ran in parallel with the party's official one since the party's foundation in 1989 and ruling that the PP helped establish "a genuine and effective system of institutional corruption through the manipulation of central and local public procurement".
This prompted a no confidence vote on Mariano Rajoy's government, brought down on 1 June 2018 in the first successful motion since the Spanish transition to democracy. On 5 June 2018, Rajoy announced his resignation as PP leader; the party has its roots in the People's Alliance founded on 9 October 1976 by former Francoist minister Manuel Fraga. Although Fraga was a member of the reformist faction of the Franco regime, he supported an gradual transition to democracy. However, he badly underestimated the public's distaste for Francoism. Additionally, while he attempted to convey a reformist image, the large number of former Francoists in the party led the public to perceive it as both reactionary and authoritarian. In the June 1977 general election, the AP garnered only 8.3 percent of the vote, putting it in fourth place. In the months following the 1977 elections, dissent erupted within the AP over constitutional issues that arose as the draft document was being formulated. Fraga had wanted from the beginning to brand the party as a traditional European conservative party, wanted to move the AP toward the political centre in order to form a larger centre-right party.
Fraga's wing won the struggle. The AP joined with other moderate conservatives to form the Democratic Coalition, it was hoped that this new coalition would capture the support of those who had voted for the Union of the Democratic Centre in 1977, but who had become disenchanted with the Adolfo Suárez government. In the March 1979 general election, the CD received 6.1 percent of the vote, again finishing a distant fourth. At the AP's Second Party Congress in December 1979, party leaders re-assessed their involvement in the CD. Many felt that the creation of the coalition had confused the voters, they sought to emphasise the AP's independent identity. Fraga resumed control of the party, the political resolutions adopted by the party congress reaffirmed the conservative orientation of the AP. In the early 1980s, Fraga succeeded in rallying the various components of the right around his leadership, he was aided in his efforts to revive the AP by the increasing disintegration of the UCD. In the general elections held in October 1982, the AP gained votes both from previous UCD supporters and from the far right.
It became the major opposition party to the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, securing 25.4 percent of the popular vote. Whereas the AP's parliamentary representation had dropped to 9 seats in 1979, the party allied itself with the small Christian democratic People's Democratic Party and won 106 seats in 1982; the increased strength of the AP was further evidenced in the municipal and regional elections held in May 1983, when the party drew 26 percent of the vote. A significant portion of the electorate appeared to support the AP's emphasis on law and order as well as its pro-business policies. Subsequent political developments belied the party's aspirations to continue increasing its base of support. Prior to the June 1986 elections, the AP joined forces with the PDP and the Liberal Party to form the People's Coalition, in another attempt to expand its constituency to include the centre of the political spectrum; the coalition called for stronger measures against terrorism, for more privatisation, for a reduction in public spending and in taxes.
The CP failed to increase its share of the vote in the 1986 elections, it soon began to disintegrate. When regional elections in late 1986 resulted in further losses for the coalition, Fraga resigned as AP chairman, although he retained his parliamentary seat. At the party congress in February 1987, Antonio Hernández Mancha was chosen to head the AP, declaring that under his leadership the AP would become a "modern right-wing European party", but Hernández Mancha lacked political experience at the national level, the party continued to decline. When support for the AP plummeted in the municipal and regional elections held in June 1987, it was clear that it would be overtaken as major opposition party by Suarez's Democratic and Social Centre. After the resignation of Manuel Fraga and the success
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Algemesí is a municipality in the comarca of Ribera Alta in the Valencian Community, Spain. The town of Algemesí is one of the major centres for the production of citruses in Spain, several cooperatives are based there; this is due to the mild climate and good irrigation coming from the Xuquer river, which passes through the city. Every September is celebrated the Festivity of “la Mare de Déu de la Salut”, declared as Intangible Cultural Heritage by UNESCO in 2011; the traditional Valencian dance called Muixeranga is a part of the festivity. The Museum os the Parties of Algemesí, venue of the network of museums of the Valencian Council looks for the consolidation of a major research center about the party. There some files are stored for the public consultation by photographic media with the most relevant aspects of the popular festivity. Among the expositive elements are “los misterios y martirios”, la “muixeranga”, “els bastonets”, “el ball de la carxofa i arquets”, “les pastoretes”, “el bolero”, “els tornejants”,“els volants”,“la Mare de Deu de la Salut” y la música.
La Mare de Déu de la Salut Festival” The Festivity of “la Mare de Déu de la Salut” presents a series of traditions which from 1247 through to 1905, were transmitted from generation to generation until they came to form what can now be considered a homage to cultural tradition. This event takes place in the historical parts of the city of Algemesí on the 7th and 8 September each year. Of special note is the great participation and involvement of the townsfolk of all ages in the event, through the many associations formed to meet the needs of the traditions and ritual acts that make up the festivity; the guilds, from which the age-old dances were born, underwent many changes with the industrial revolution in the late 19th Century, providing their members with a window onto other social and professional environments. These days, the ritual acts and traditions which call for a specific number of participants all have waiting lists. Positions on these lists are hereditary; the number of people joining in the dances which are open to any number of participants is growing constantly.
RECOGNITIONS UNESCO has recognized the ritual and community participation dimension of the Valencian celebration Our Lady of Health as part of the "intangible heritage of humanity". Event of Intangible Cultural Interest. Generalitat Valenciana, it is recorded in the Register of Assets of Cultural Interest of the Spanish Ministry of Culture, under code R-I-54-0000151-00000. Festivity of Touristic Interest. Spanish Ministry of Industry and Commerce. Spanish treasure of intangible cultural heritage. In 2009 the festivity received accreditation from the IBOCC as one of the 10 Treasures of Spain’s Intangible Cultural Heritage. Accredited as one of the 7 Valencian marvels. In 2008, the festivity received accreditation as one of the 7 Valencian marvels, in the section “Cultural events and intangible heritage”. Taurine week: Every year in late September in the town is built a wood rectangular bullring where the Fair of calves (the oldest and most important bullfighting and bullfighting on horse; the bullfighting ring is divided into 4 “cadafals” that come to auction and its cost is the basis of the budget of the Party and evening performances.
The bullring is a unique construction: each 9 September the “peñas” as are known the associations built the bullring just as it was done in 1943, with wood and strings as raw materials. Each “peña” built its own “cadafal>” parallel to the façade of the Major Square, so all the 29 “cadafals” form the rectangular square. The exhibition consists on eight runs and afternoon bullfightings on horseback; the schedule is as follows: during the morning they have the “correbous” from the pens to the square. After lunch, at the square of Salvador Castell, where the “peñas” have their booths. In the afternoon, more runs and they have dinner and nightly entertainment in the bullfightring Algemesí is twinned with: Riom, France Gangneung, South Korea
Alzira is a town and municipality of 45,000 inhabitants in Valencia, eastern Spain. It is the capital of the comarca of Ribera Alta in the province of Valencia. Alzira is located in the province of Valencia, on the left bank of the Júcar river, on the Valencia–Alicante railway. Alzira's climate is Mediterranean: warm with no extremes of temperature either in summer or winter. Rainfall is irregular. Torrential rains follow periods of relative drought; the town contains the Murta and Casella valleys. Alzira's borough extends over 111 square kilometres. Alzira was founded by the Muslim Moors under the name Jazirat Shukr which became known as Júcar Island, it was a prosperous trading station during the reign of the Muslim Moors which lasted over five hundred years. During that time the city had a local administrative government and was considered as a cultural hub for writers and law experts; the city was conquered by James I of Aragon on 30 December 1242. Alzira, located right on the bank of the Júcar, has suffered devastating floods throughout its history - in particular in 1472, 1590, 1864, 1916, 1982 and 1987.
Alzira has been a walled town, surrounded by palm and mulberry groves, by low-lying rice-swamps, which rendered its neighborhood somewhat unhealthy. It is sometimes identified with the pre-Roman Sucro. According to one source, the mutiny at Sucro of 206 BC, squelched by Scipio Africanus, was at or near present-day Alzira, a few kilometers east of the mouth of the Sucro/Jucar River. Agriculture was the prime economic driving force in Alzira up to the mid-20th century; the most important produce are oranges and they are distributed by important local co-operatives. During the 20th century, Alzira changed from an agricultural based economy to a diversified industry-orientated city with an important commercial infrastructure and associated services. Many outstanding companies have their head-office in the city: building and publishing companies, diverse manufacturers and ice cream factories, etc. Alzira has become a important commercial city due to its influence area, estimated about 300,000 inhabitants.
Alzira has a 250-bed Community Hospital, the Hospital de la Ribera, built in 1999 by UTE-Ribera, under a Private Finance Initiative scheme. Under the contract the Valencia Health Department pays an annual capitation-fee per inhabitant of 420 euros to Ribera Salud. There are about 250000 inhabitants in the area; the hospital has to pay for any treatment provided elsewhere for those inhabitants, they are at liberty to go elsewhere. After 10 years the building revertss to the Valencia Health Department. During 2001, there were 19205 inpatient episodes, 19098 surgical acts, 115428 A&E visits, 462733 outpatient visits. 90% of the patients seen were satisfied with the care they got. This capitation based system with integration between primary and secondary care providers and a unified IT system across all services has become known as the Alzira model and received a great deal of attention; the quality of services appears to be higher than other health care systems. Monastery of la Murta: It is constituted of buildings rising in the following three periods: SXIX_XV, XVI y XVII.
In the 19th century, after the expropriation, his new owner raised a manor over the hospice of the monastery. The Monastery has a partition battlemented wall. Nowadays, In the garden. There are still remainders gathering in the walls. In that way, it has prepared to increase the defensive function; the elements of the group are: Monastery: The new church and the Tower of the Bells._ Fortified tower of la Porteria. Ruins of the monastery and adjacent elements. Foster chapel of' La Virgen de la Murta'. Alzira walled circuit: The walls of Alzira were built around a possible river island, from which derives its name in Arabic had a dual purpose, first the defense, second the flood protection of Júcar river; the walls were buried by the river. The walled circuit was formed by a double wall which today contains the historical center of “la Vila”, dated in the Islamic period where some of the mosques and baths were settled. Nowadays, the remains are located in two areas of the city, “el parque de las murallas” and “las murallas del Antiguo Mercado” Town council hall of Alzira: This building has a civil Gothic style of the Crown of Aragon.
Its oldest part dates from the 16th century and, although we can say that the construction of its plant obeys to medieval patterns alternating the Ghotic style and the Baroque. It is a building with a quadrangular plant and a three water covered with Arabic tiles in whose construction the following local unions have collaborated: stonecutters and mull wall, its interior rooms are arranged around a rectangular gallery. In 1930 it was declared an Artistic National Monument Santa Catalina church of Alzira: The building was rebuilt in the 17th century on an earlier mosque, with a Gothic basilica and a Gothic factory, it is inserted into the so-called “reconquista” churches with a single ground covered with a cannon vault open with lunettes and open chapels between buttresses, covered with a mid-cannon vault. Over the transept, a drum covered by a dome over scallops sets up; this was replaced by a new double-sloped roof that covers the entire temple Mare de Déu del Lluch Sanctuary of Alzira: Construction built in a neo-Romanesque style.
The temple of three naves is covered with groin vault, while the major chapel is fixed with another kind of vault. The access is thro
Gavarda is a municipality in the comarca of Ribera Alta in the Valencian Community, Spain. Napoleonic battery: The remains of the 18th century fortress are situated in a small promontory on the east side of the new village of Gavarda; the Battery was built in a strategic point since from its position took control over the Júcar River and the road connecting Castilla and Valencia being used during the Independence War. The latest archeological studies show its use as a Fort
Ribera Alta (comarca)
Ribera Alta is a comarca in the province of Valencia, Valencian Community, Spain. The Júcar, the great river of the Valencian community, is most characteristic of the Ribera Alta, bringing water from the Cuenca to fertilize this plain, situated to the south of the Valencia; the economy of this predominantly agricultural regionis based upon the orange harvest, a crop, cultivated since the 18th century. From its rich historical and artistic heritage, the most noteworthy of all of the region’s treasures are the towns of La Pobla Llarga and Alzira. These, alongside a rich and varied gastronomy and an extensive festival calendar, make this region, still untouched by tourists, a attractive area in which to spend time. Alberic Alcàntera de Xúquer L'Alcúdia Alfarp Algemesí Alginet Alzira Antella Beneixida Benifaió Benimodo Benimuslem Carcaixent Càrcer Carlet Castelló de la Ribera Catadau Cotes L'Ènova Gavarda Guadassuar Llombai Manuel Massalavés Montroy Montserrat La Pobla Llarga Rafelguaraf Real Sallent de Xàtiva Sant Joanet Senyera Sumacàrcer Tous Turís The gastronomy of the Ribera Alta is, like the rest of Valencia, rich in rice dishes.
Here the specialties include the well-known food of the fens such as dry rice dishes and stews cooked on an open fire or in the heat of clay ovens. Dishes such as all ipebre, espardenyà, as well as the universally known Valencian paella, provide a diverse culinary offering which can be tasted in the many bars and restaurants of the region; the desserts consist of a rich and varied range of sweetbreads and cakes, the most noteworthy of which include arnadí de carabassa, pastissets de moniato, panquemados from Alberic or fogasses, made of sugar and flour, not to mention honey from Montroy, all to be taken with the excellent Moscatel and Malvazia wines from Montserrat and Turis. The Ribera Alta is an excellent festive region, with annual fiestas taking place in each and every one of the villages and towns, most notably the popular religious festivities and celebrationsheld in the summer months; some of the most outstanding fiestas are the Fallas of Saint Joseph, where statues are erected and burnt in many villages in the middle of March, les Danses de Guadassuar, held in the last week of August, the festivals of Mare de déu delLluch in the village of Alzira and Mare de Déu d’Aigües Vives in the village of Carcaixent, or the festival of Mare de Déu de la Salut in the village of Algemesi on September, which has taken place for over 800 years.
La Mare de Déu de la Salut Festival takes place in the historical parts of the city of Algemesí on 7 and 8 September each year. Here the music of the dolçaina i tabalet, a type of flute, accompanies the traditional dances of la carxofa, les pastoretes and the popular la Muixeranga; these festivals have been declared of tourist interest and precede the Semana de Bous, which takes place in the interesting bullring, which unusually, is rectangular-shaped. The orange is the fruit of the citrus sinensis or aurantium, a tree that first appeared in China and other southern areas of the Asian continent; the fruit made its way from the Far East to the European continent, reaching Spain, through Valencia, spreading throughout the rest of the world. In Greek mythology the Garden of the Hesperides is a mythological grove where apples grew tended to by nymphs and a dragon. Hercules, the hero of classical literature, killed the guardian, entered the garden and plucked those golden apples –In years it was thought that the "golden apples" might have been oranges, a fruit unknown to Europe before the Middle Ages.
Several scholars defend that the etymology of the word comes from the Sanskrit term narang and the Persian word narensh. When Arabs brought orange farming to the Iberian Peninsula, they called the fruits naranjah; the Region of Valencia maintained the orange-farming tradition after the Arabic period, with references to orange trees in the city of Valencia dating back to the 14th century. In fact, there is an Orange Courtyard inside Valencia’s 15th century Silk Exchange market, a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the first references to commercial orange plantations date back to the 18th century. At present, there are 150,000 hectares of orange groves in the Region of Valencia producing orange and mandarin varieties including satsumas, navel oranges, common oranges, blood oranges, hybrids, as the most important specimens Ribera Alta has a long orange farming tradition; the economy and population boomed in the area in the 18th century, Ribera Alta profited from an expansion that affected a sector as important as agriculture.
Orange farming was introduced in this context. According to the historical records, in 1781 priest Vicente Monzó, notary Maseres and pharmacist Bodí, planted the first fields of orange trees in Carcaixent; the trees thrived in the land, favoured by the benign Mediterranean climate, adapted to Valencian soil both on rain-fed farmland and irrigated land fed by river Júcar, whose extensive irrigation channel distributed fertile water around the whole of the Ribera Altaarea. In the early 19th century, orange trees started to replace other crops, such as rice and mulberries, taking over as the main local crop. Wholesale exports of oranges commenced in this century, fuelled by the arrival of the railway
Benimuslem is a municipality in the comarca of Ribera Alta in the Valencian Community, Spain