Orte is a town, former Catholic bishopric and Latin titular see in the province of Viterbo, in the central Italian region Latium Lazio, located about 60 kilometres north of Rome and about 24 kilometres east of Viterbo. Orte is situated in the Tiber valley on a high tuff cliff, encircled to North and East from a handle of the Tevere river, it is an important rail hub. The Etruscans inhabited the area from the 6th century BC and called it Hurta, as testified by the findings in a necropolis nearby, now preserved in the Vatican Museums. Two major battles between Etruscans and Romans were fought nearby on the shores of the Vadimone lake; the Romans were victorious both times. The Romans domination made it the municipality of Horta. Under the rule of Augustus it received numerous public works; because of its strategic position, Orte was occupied in succession by the Ostrogoths, the Byzantines and the Lombards. During the late 9th to early 10th century, along with much of central Italy, Orte was held or threatened by the Saracens.
In the Middle Ages the city was never seat of a fief, becoming a free comune under a podestà. It became part of the Papal States. 700: Established as Diocese of Orte / Hortanum / Hortan Basilica concattedrale di Santa Maria Assunta: Suppressed a sole cathedral of a diocese on 1437.10.05, its territory and title being merged into the accordingly renamed Diocese of Civita Castellana e Orte, where its former cathedral became co-cathedral, a Minor Basilica, dedicated to the Assumption of Mary Church of San Biagio San Lanno? Giovanni Montano? San Cassiano? Leone Martiniano? Ubaldo Prosenio? Blando? Calunnioso? Giuliano Maurizio Adone or Adamo Stefano I Arsenio Zaccaria Stefano II Pietro I Giorgio Lamberto Giovanni I Landovino Gregorio Rodolfo Paolo I Paolo II Giovanni II Guido Trasimondo Giovanni III Pietro II, O. F. M. Corrado Bartolomeo Lorenzo da Velletri, O. F. M. Nicolò Zabereschi Giovanni IV Pietro III Giovanni Cappucci, O. P. Paolo Alberti, O. F. M. next Bishop of Ajaccio ) Sante, next Bishop of Civita Castellana ) =?
Sancho, next Bishop of Ciudad Rodrigo Valentino, next first Bishop of successor see Civita Castellana and Orte). In 1991 the diocese was nominally restored as Latin Titular bishopric of Orte / Hortanum / Hortan, it has had the following incumbents, so far of the fitting Episcopal rank: José de Jesús Madera Uribe, Missionaries of the Holy Spirit as Auxiliary Bishop of the Military Ordinariate of United States of America and as emeritate. Saint'Egidio Abate's Day and Ottava of Saint'Egidio: from 31 August to the second Sunday in September. A Medieval festival with shows, conventions, seminaries of study, art exhibitions of art and archery competitions. Religious procession of Dead Christ: every Friday before Easter. A torchlight procession representing early religions orders. Orte railway station, opened in 1865, forms part of the Florence–Rome railway and the Ancona–Orte railway, it is situated in Piazza Giovanni XXIII, in the locality of Orte Scalo two kilometres southeast of the town centre. List of Catholic dioceses in Italy Media related to Orte at Wikimedia Commons Orte municipal website Ottovamedievale.it GCatholic - former & titular bishopricBibliography - ecclesiastical historyFerdinando Ughelli, Italia sacra, vol.
I, second edition, Venice 1717, coll. 733-743 Tommaso M. Mamachi, De episcopatus hortani antiquitate ad hortanos cives liber singularis, Rome 1759 Giuseppe Cappelletti, Le Chiese d'Italia della loro origine sino ai nostri giorni, vol. VI, Venice 1847, pp. 23–49 Louis Duchesne, Le sedi episcopali nell'antico ducato di Roma, in Archivio della romana società di storia patria, Volume XV, Rome 1892, p. 491 Paul Fridolin Kehr, Italia Pontificia, vol. II, Berlin 1907, pp. 192–194 Gerhard Schwartz, Die Besetzung der Bistümer Reichsitaliens unter den Sächsischen und Salischen Kaisern: mit den Listen der Bischöfe, 951-1122, Leipzig-Berlin 1913, p. 259 Francesco Lanzoni, Le diocesi d'Italia dalle origini al principio del secolo VII, vol. I, Faenza 1927, pp. 546–547 Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, pp. 685–686 Konrad Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, vol. 1, pp. 278–279. 2, pp. XXVI e 166
Louis the Blind
Louis the Blind was the king of Provence from 11 January 887, King of Italy from 12 October 900, Holy Roman Emperor, as Louis III, between 901 and 905. He was the son of Boso, the usurper king of Provence, Ermengard, a daughter of the Emperor Louis II. Through his father, he was a Bosonid, but through a Carolingian, he was blinded after a failed invasion of Italy in 905. As a boy of seven, Louis succeeded to the throne of his father Boso as King of Provence upon Boso’s death on 11 January 887; the kingdom Louis inherited was much smaller than his father’s, as it did not include Upper Burgundy, nor any of French Burgundy, absorbed by Richard the Justiciar, Duke of Burgundy. This meant; the Provençal barons elected Ermengard to act as his regent, with the support of Louis's uncle, Richard the Justiciar. In May, Ermengard traveled with Louis to the court of her relative, the emperor Charles the Fat, received his recognition of the young Louis as king. Charles put both mother and son under his protection.
In May 889, she traveled to the court of Charles' successor, Arnulf, to make a new submission, while at the same time seeking the blessing of Pope Stephen V. The short work, Visio Karoli Grossi, may have been written shortly after Charles' death to support Louis's claim. If so, Louis must have had the support of Fulk the Venerable, Archbishop of Reims. On the other hand, the Visio may have been written circa 901, to celebrate Louis's imperial coronation. In August 890, at the Diet of Valence, a council of bishops and feudatories of the realm, after hearing the recommendation of the pope, receiving notification of Charles the Fat’s previous agreement to the proposition, proclaimed Louis as King of Arles and Cisjurane Burgundy. In 894, Louis himself did homage to Arnulf. In 896, Louis waged war on the Saracens. Throughout his reign he fought with these Saracen pirates, who had established a base at Fraxinet in 889 and had been raiding the coast of Provence, alarming the local nobility. In 900, Louis, as the grandson and heir of the Emperor Louis II, was invited into Italy by various lords, including Adalbert II, Margrave of Tuscany, who were suffering under the ravages of the Magyars and the incompetent rule of Berengar I. Louis thus marched his army across the Alps and defeated Berengar, chasing him from Pavia, the old Lombard capital, where, in the church of San Michele, he was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy on 12 October, 900.
He travelled onwards to Rome, where, in 901, he was crowned Emperor by Pope Benedict IV. However, his inability to stem the Magyar incursions and impose any meaningful control over northern Italy saw the Italian nobles abandon his cause and once again align themselves with Berengar. In 902, Berengar defeated Louis's armies and forced him to flee to Provence and promise never to return. In 905, after again listening to the Italian nobles who were tired of Berengar’s rule, this time led by Adalbert I of Ivrea, launched another attempt to invade Italy. Once again throwing Berengar out of Pavia, he marched and succeeded in taking Verona with only a small following, after receiving the promise of support from the bishop, Adalard. Partisans of Berengar in the town soon got word to Berengar of Louis’s exposed position at Verona, his limited support. Berengar returned, accompanied by Bavarian troops, entered Verona in the dead of night. Louis sought sanctuary at the church of St Peter, but he was captured, on 21 July 905, he had his eyes put out and was forced to relinquish his royal Italian and imperial crowns.
Berengar became Emperor. After this last attempt to restore Carolingian power over Italy, Louis continued to rule Provence for over twenty years, though his cousin Hugh, Count of Arles, was the dominant figure in the territory. Louis returned to Vienne, his capital, by 911, he had put most of the royal powers in the hands of Hugh. Hugh moved the capital to Arles; as regent, Hugh married Louis's sister Willa. Louis lived out his days until his death in obscurity, through his life he continued to style himself as Roman Emperor, he was succeeded by his brother-in-law in 928. In 899, Louis III was betrothed to Anna, the daughter of Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise and his second wife, Zoe Zaoutzaina; the evidence for this is a letter by Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos in which he testifies that Leo VI had united his daughter to a Frank prince, a cousin of Bertha, to whom came a great misfortune. That unfortunate Prince could only be Louis III, whose mother Irmingardis was a first cousin of Berta de Tuscia and, blinded on 21 July 905.
This betrothal occurred shortly before the fall of Taormina to the Arabs, was part of extended diplomatic activities meant to strengthen Byzantine alliances with the western powers to preserve Byzantine territory in southern Italy. The question of whether the betrothal was followed up by an actual marriage is still a matter of some controversy. Louis fathered. Charles' mother is not named in any sources. There has been modern speculation, proposed by Previté-Orton and championed by Christian Settipani, that she was Anna, the daughter of Leo VI and Zoe Zaoutzaina, based both upon the documented betrothal, as well on the onomastic evidence, stating that Charles-Constantine's name points to a Byzantine mother. Though Shaun Tougher doubts they were married. Detractors of the theory point out that when Anna was born, she was the daughter of a concubine who became Empr
Fermo listen is a town and comune of the Marche, Italy, in the Province of Fermo. Fermo is on a hill, the Sabulo, elevation 319 metres, on a branch from Porto San Giorgio on the Adriatic coast railway; the oldest human remains from the area are funerary remains from the 9th–8th centuries BC, belonging to the Villanovan culture or the proto-Etruscan civilization. The ancient Firmum Picenum was founded as a Latin colony, consisting of 6000 men, in 264 BC, after the conquest of the Picentes, as the local headquarters of the Roman power, to which it remained faithful, it was governed by five quaestors. It was made a colony with full rights after the battle of Philippi, the 4th Legion being settled there, it lay at the junction of roads to Pausulae, Urbs Salvia, Asculum, connected to the coast road by a short branch road from Castellum Firmanum. According to Plutarch's Parallel Lives, Cato the Elder thought of Firman soldiers for their faith and readiness. With the Pentapolis, in the 8th century it passed under the authority of the Holy See was thenceforth subject to the vicissitudes of the March of Ancona.
In the 10th century it became the capital of the Marchia Firmana. Under the predecessors of Honorius III the bishops of city became prince-bishops, first with the secular rights of counts, as princes of Fermo. In 1199 it became a free city, remained independent until 1550, when it was annexed to the Papal States. In the contest between the Hohenstaufen and the papacy, Fermo was besieged and captured several times. After this it was governed by different lords, who ruled as more or less legitimate vassals of the Holy See, e.g. the Monteverdi, Giovanni Visconti and Francesco Sforza, Oliverotto Euffreducci, succeeded by his son Ludovico, killed at the battle of Montegiorgio in 1520, when Fermo became again directly subjected to the Holy See. Fermo has been the capital city of the new province of Fermo since 2009; the municipality borders with Altidona, Belmonte Piceno, Francavilla d'Ete, Lapedona, Magliano di Tenna, Massa Fermana, Monte Urano, Monterubbiano, Ponzano di Fermo, Porto San Giorgio, Porto Sant'Elpidio, Sant'Elpidio a Mare and Torre San Patrizio.
It counts the hamlets of Camera, Cantagallo, Capodarco, Cartiera di Tenna, Contrada Boara, Ete Palazzina, Gabbiano, Lido di Fermo, Madonnetta d'Ete, Marina Palmense, Molini Tenna, Montone, Pompeiana, Ponte Ete Vivo, Sacri Cuori, Salvano, San Biagio, San Girolamo, San Lorenzo, San Marco, San Michele, Lido San Tommaso, Torre di Palme and Villa San Claudio. The Roman theater. Remains of the city wall, of rectangular blocks of hard limestone, may be seen just outside the Porta S. Francesco; the medieval embattled walls superposed on it are picturesque. The cisterns of Fermo are an archaeological site situated on top of the hill, at 310 metres above sea level. Fermo boasts one of the most well-preserved example of Roman cisterns in Italy, they were built around 1st century a. C; the structure is a rectangular construction of about 30 by 70 metres consisting of 30 underground rooms: they provided water for the city through public fountains. The underground pipe network above the cisterns was connected to a canal around the external walls.
From the canal, small pipes brought water into the cisterns: water inlets are still visible inside the rooms. The cisterns are made of Opus caementicium, the waterproofing old Roman concrete; the level of the water inside the rooms was about 70 centimetres and the total amount of water inside was about 3000 mq. Palazzo dei Priori, built between 1296 and 1525, the building is notable for the large metal statue of Pope Sixtus V atop the entrance portal; the palace houses archeologic collections. The Biblioteca Comunale contains a collection of antiquities. Fermo Cathedral: Excavations undertaken in 1934–35 under the church's pavement brought to light remains from the age of Antoninus Pius and of a Palaeo-Christian basilica dating to the 6th century AD; this had three naves divided into four bays, with a raised presbytery. Of its mosaic decorations today only those in the apse are visible, depicting two peacocks near a kantharos surmounted by the chrismon, two typical examples of art in Ravenna at the time.
After the destruction of this church by Christian of Mainz in 1176 by order of Frederick Barbarossa, the church reconstructed in 1227 by Giorgio da Como. It has a Gothic facade made of Istrian stone, divided by light pillars and with a central rose window, a bell tower from the same age, a side portal. In the vestibule are several tombs, including one from 1366 by Tura da Imola, the modern monument to Giuseppe Colucci, a famous writer on the antiquities of Picenum; the interior reflects the late 18th century reconstruction. The building is now surrounded by a garden; the cathedral own a chasuble. Becket was killed in 1170 and the chasuble presented to Fermo Cathderal by Bishop Presbitero. San Francesco: church's choir dates to 1240, the rest having been restored in the 17th century. San Martino San Domenico San Michele Arcangelo San Rocco Chiesa della Pietà Santa Maria del Carmine San Filippo San Zenone San Agostino Be
A page or page boy is traditionally a young male attendant or servant, but may have been used for a messenger at the service of a nobleman. During wedding ceremonies, a page boy is used as a symbolic attendant to carry the rings, a role comparable to the scattering of flower petals by flower girls; the origin of the term is uncertain, but it may come either from the Latin pagus linked to peasant, or an earlier Greek word παῖς. In medieval times, a page was an attendant to a knight, a Governor or a Castellan; until the age of about seven, sons of noble families would receive training in manners and basic literacy from their mothers or other female relatives. Upon reaching seven years of age, a boy would be sent to the castle, great house or other estate of another noble family; this would match the age at which apprenticeships or servants' employment would be entered into by young males from lower social classes. A young boy served as a page for about seven years, running messages, cleaning clothing and weapons, learning the basics of combat.
He might be required to dress the lord to whom he had been sent by his own family. Personal service of this nature was not considered as demeaning, in the context of shared noble status by page and lord, it was seen rather as a form of education in return for labour. While a page did not receive reimbursement other than clothing and food, he could be rewarded for an exceptional act of service. In return for his work, the page would receive training in horse-riding, hunting and combat – the essential skills required of adult men of his rank in medieval society. Less physical training included schooling in the playing of musical instruments, the composition and singing of songs, the learning of board games such as chess; the initial education received as a child in reading and writing would be continued to a level of modest competence under the tuition of a chaplain or other cleric, from a grammar master. They learned courtly manners and, in attending to the needs of their master, a degree of temporary humility.
Medieval pages might accompany their lords to war. While their roles in battle were limited to secondary assistance and minor support functions, pages might expect to participate directly in siege situations; this could occur when a castle was under attack and crossbows were available for use by pages among the defenders. The mechanical and long-range nature of these devices made them the only medieval weapon which could be employed by a youth. At age fourteen, the young noble could graduate to become a squire, by age 21 a knight himself; these boys were the scions of other great families who were sent to learn the ways of the manorial system by observation. Their residence in the house served as a goodwill gesture between the two families involved and helped them gain social and political contacts for their adult lives. A reference to this kind of page is found in the Christmas carol Good King Wenceslaus: "Hither and stand by me, if thou know'st it, telling..." This type of page is unheard of today outside of royal residences, although the functions and status of legislative pages are a clear continuation of the earlier role.
Until the early 20th century, boys of humble background might gain a similar place in a great house. According to the International Butler Academy, these pages were apprentice footmen. Unlike the hall boys, who did heavy work, these pages performed light odd-jobs and stood in attendance wearing livery when guests were being received. During and following the Renaissance, it became fashionable for black boys and young men to be decorative pages, placed into fancy costumes and attending fashionable ladies and lords; this custom lasted for several centuries and the "African page" became a staple accoutrement of baroque and rococo style. The character is illustrated in literature and film periodwork: In the Grace Kelly film, To Catch a Thief, an undercover detective wears the costume of her "African page" to a costume ball. Valentine Nwanze played an "African page" attending James Graham, Marquess of Montrose in the film Rob Roy. "Koko", the fictional manservant of an opera diva, is cast as her African page in A Nut at the Opera by Maurice Vellekoop.
Decorative pages feature in a drawing room scene in Persuasion. In the 2012 historical drama film A Royal Affair, Christian VII has an African page boy named Moranti. Oriental pages were periodically in fashion, e.g. in Napoleonic France since Bonaparte's conquest of Ottoman Egypt. While the traditional pages are rare in the modern private workforce, US television network NBC's page program is a notable example of contemporary workplace pages. Page of Honour Page Slave collar
Counts of Tusculum
The counts of Tusculum were the most powerful secular noblemen in Latium, near Rome, in the present-day Italy between the 10th and 12th centuries. Several popes and an antipope during the 11th century came from their ranks, they created and perfected the political formula of noble-papacy, wherein the Pope was arranged to be elected only from the ranks of the Roman nobles. The Pornocracy, the period of influence by powerful female members of the family influenced papal history; the counts of Tusculum remained arbiters of Roman politics and religion for more than a century. In addition to the papal influence, they held lay power through consulships and senatorial membership. Traditionally they were anti-German in their political affiliation. After 1049, the Tusculan Papacy came to an end with the appointment of Pope Leo IX. In fact, the Tusculan papacy was responsible for the reaction known as the Gregorian reform. Subsequent events confirmed a shift in regional politics as the counts came to side with the Holy Roman Emperors against the Rome of the reformers.
In 1059 the papal-decree of Pope Nicholas II established new rules for the Papal election, therefore putting an end to the noble-papacy formula. This list is incomplete in the tenth century and the chronology and dates of the various countships are uncertain, they were only counts from about 1013, lords before. Before 924 Theophylact I until 924 Alberic I, consul son-in-law 924 – 954 Alberic II, son before 1013 Gregory I, son until 1012 Theophylact II, son of Gregory I 1012 – 1024 Romanus, brother of Theophylact II and son of Gregory I 1024 – 1032 Alberic III, brother of Theophylact II and Romanus. John XI, son of Alberic I, pope from 931 to 935 John XII son of Alberic II, pope from 955 to 964 Benedict VII, nephew of Alberic II, pope from 974 to 983 Benedict VIII, son of Gregory I, pope from 1012 to 1024 John XIX, son of Gregory I, pope from 1024 to 1032 Benedict IX, son of Alberic III, pope from 1032 to 1048 Benedict X, antipope from 1058 to 1059 According to tradition, the successors of the Tusculum counts were the Colonna family, founded by Peter, son of Gregory II and called Peter "de Columna" from his fief of Colonna, east of Rome.
Thietmar of Merseburg – Chronicle Ferdinand Gregorovius Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter "Tusculum". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27. 1911
Pope John XI
Pope John XI was Pope from March 931 to his death in December 935. His mother was Marozia, the most powerful woman in Rome, yet the paternity of John XI became a matter of dispute. According to Liutprand of Cremona and the "Liber Pontificalis," his father was Pope Sergius III. Ferdinand Gregorovius, Ernst Dümmler, Thomas Greenwood, Philip Schaff, Rudolf Baxmann agree with Liutprand that Pope Sergius III fathered Pope John XI. If, true, John XI would be the only known illegitimate son of a Pope to have become Pope himself.. On the other hand, Horace Kinder Mann states: "Sergius at once declared the ordinations conferred by Formosus null; these assertions are only made by bitter or ill-informed adversaries, are inconsistent with what is said of him by respectable contemporaries." Reginald L. Poole, Peter Llewelyn, Karl Josef von Hefele, August Friedrich Gfrörer, Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Francis Patrick Kenrick maintain that Pope John XI was sired by Alberic I of Spoleto, Count of Tusculum, his mother Marozia was the de facto Roman ruler at the time, resulting in his appointment to the Papacy.
Marozia was thus able to exert complete control over the Pope. At the overthrow of Marozia around 932, John XI became subject to the control of Alberic II, his younger half brother; the only control left to the Pope was the exercise of his purely spiritual duties. All other jurisdiction was exercised through Alberic II; this was not only the case in secular, but in ecclesiastical affairs. It was at the insistence of Alberic II that the pallium was given to Theophylactus, Patriarch of Constantinople, to Artold, Archbishop of Reims, it was John XI who sat in the Chair of Peter during what some traditional Catholic sources consider its deepest humiliation, but it was he who granted many privileges to the Congregation of Cluny, on a powerful agent of Church reform. Saeculum obscurum Marozia Pope John XI at Find a Grave Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Latina with analytical indexes
Farfa Abbey is a territorial abbey in northern Lazio, central Italy. It is one of the most famous abbeys of Europe, it belongs to the Benedictine Order and is located about 60 km from Rome, in the commune of Fara Sabina, of which it is a hamlet. A legend in the 12th-century Chronicon Farfense dates the founding of a monastery at Farfa to the time of the Emperors Julian, or Gratian, attributes the founding to Laurence of Syria, who had come to Rome with his sister, together with other monks, had been made Bishop of Spoleto. According to the tradition, after being named bishop, he became enamoured of the monastic life, chose a forested hill near the Farfa stream, a tributary of the Tiber, to build a church and a monastery. Archaeological discoveries in 1888 find strong evidence that the first monastic establishment was built on the ruins of a pagan temple; this first monastery was devastated by the Vandals in the fifth century. Only a handful of sixth-century finds document the early presence of the monastic community.
In the seventh century, a wave of Irish monasticism spread over Italy. The foundation the Abbey of Saint Columbanus in Bobbio. and of Farfa by monks from Gaul, about 681, heralded a revival of the great Benedictine tradition in Italy. The Constructio Monasterii Farfensis, which dates from 857, relates at length the story of its principal founder Thomas of Maurienne. While in prayer before the Holy Sepulchre, the Virgin Mary in a vision warned him to return to Italy, restore Farfa. Faroald II, who had had a vision, was commanded to aid in this work. At a early date we find traces of this legend in connexion with the foundation by three nobles from Benevento of the monastery of St Vincent on the Volturno, over which Farfa claimed jurisdiction. Thomas died in 720; the Lombard chiefs, the Carolingians, succeeded in withdrawing Farfa from obedience to the Bishops of Rieti, in securing many immunities and privileges for the monastery. If we may credit the Chronicon Farfense, with the exception of the Abbey of Nonatola, Farfa was at this period the most important monastery in Italy both from the point of view of worldly riches and ecclesiastical dignity.
In 898, the abbey was sacked by Saracens who burned it. Between 930 and 936, Farfa was rebuilt by Abbot Ratfredus, afterwards poisoned by two wicked monks and Hildebrand, who divided the wealth of the abbey between them, ruled over it until Alberic I of Spoleto, Prince of the Romans, called in Odo of Cluny to reform Farfa and other monasteries in the Duchy of Rome. Campo was exiled, a holy monk with the Merovingian name of Dagibert took his place. At the end of five years, he died by poison — and the moral condition of Farfa was once more deplorable; the monks robbed the altars of their ornaments, led lives of unbridled vice. Owing to the protection of the Emperor Otho, the abbot John III, consecrated circa 967 by the pope, succeeded in re-establishing a semblance of order, but the great reformer of Farfa was Hugues. His nomination as abbot was not secured without simony — but the success of his government palliates the vice of his election. At this instance, abbots Odilo of Cluny and William of Dijon, visited Farfa, re-established there the love of piety and of study.
The Consuetudines Farfenses drawn up about 1010 under the supervision of Guido, successor to Hugues of Farfa, bear witness to the care with which Hugues organized the monastic life at Farfa. Under the title Destructio Monasterii, Hugues himself wrote a history of the sad period previous to his rule; these works are important for the historian of the period. One of Hugue's successors, Berard I, abbot from 1049 to 1089, made the abbey a great seat of intellectual activity; the monk Gregory of Catino arranged the archives. To substantiate Farfa's claims and the rights of its monks, he edited the Regesto di Farfa, or Liber Gemniagraphus sive Cleronomialis ecclesiæ Farfensis composed of 1324 documents, all important for the history of Italian society in the 11th century. In 1103, Gregory wrote the Largitorium, or Liber Notarius sive emphiteuticus, a lengthy list of all the concessions, or grants, made by the monastery to its tenants. Having collected all this detailed information, he set to work on a history of the monastery, the Chronicon Farfense.
Gregory was a man of real learning, remarkable in that, as early as the eleventh century, he wrote history with accuracy of view-point, a great wealth of information. The monks of Farfa owned 683 convents. All this wealth was a hindrance to the religious life once more. Between 1119 and 1125, Farfa was troubled by the rivalries between Abbot Guido, the monk Berard who aimed at being abbot. During the Investiture conflict, Farfa was, less, on the side of the Ghibellines; the monks issued. The collection of canonical texts contained in the Regesto seems to omit purposely any mention of the canonical texts of the reforming popes of the eleventh century.s But when, in 1262, the victory of the popes over