Vouziers is a commune of the Ardennes department in northern France. Vouziers is the place of the pioneer First World War fighter pilot Roland Garros. Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk fought at Vouziers with the Czechoslovak Legion in France, there is a monument to the legion, the town was on the path of totality for the Solar eclipse of August 11,1999. It hosted a major observation event, because of its proximity to the Belgian border, it was gridlocked by visiting Belgian cars on the morning of the eclipse. The river Aisne flows through Vouziers, doubled by a branch of the canal des Ardennes, the town lies between the Forest of Argonne, the pre-Ardennes, and Champagne, and near the Ardennes Massif. It is not far from Charleville-Mézières, Rocroi, Reims, Châlons-en-Champagne, on 1 June 2016, the former communes Terron-sur-Aisne and Vrizy were merged into Vouziers. Vouziers is twinned with, Gräfenroda, Germany Ratíškovice, Czech Republic Agnam Civol, Senegal Communes of the Ardennes department INSEE Official site
Marcel Dassault born Marcel Bloch,22 January 1892 –17 April 1986, was a French aircraft industrialist. Bloch was born on 22 January 1892 in Paris, both of his parents were Jewish. He was educated at the Lycée Condorcet in Paris, after studies in Electrical Engineering he graduated from the Breguet School and Supaéro. At the latter school Bloch was classmates with a Russian student named Mikhail Gurevich who would be instrumental in the creating of the MiG aircraft series. Bloch worked at the French Aeronautics Research Laboratory during World War I, in 1928 Bloch founded the Société des Avions Marcel Bloch aircraft company which produced its first aircraft in 1930. In 1935 Bloch and Henry Potez entered into an agreement to buy Société Aérienne Bordelaise, in 1936 the company was nationalized as the Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Sud Ouest. Bloch agreed to become the administrator of the Minister for Air. During Nazi Germanys occupation of France, the aviation industry was virtually disbanded, other than the compulsory manufacturing, assembly.
In October 1940, Bloch refused to collaborate with the Germans occupiers at Bordeaux-Aéronautique and was imprisoned by the Vichy government, in 1944 the Nazis deported Bloch to the Buchenwald concentration camp, while his wife was interned near Paris. Bloch was detained at Buchenwald until it was liberated on 11 April 1945 and he changed his name from Bloch to Bloch-Dassault and, in 1949, to simply Dassault. Dassault was the used by his brother, General Darius Paul Bloch, when he served in the French resistance. In 1971 Dassault acquired Breguet, forming Avions Marcel Dassault-Breguet Aviation, in 1919, Bloch married Madeleine Minckes, the daughter of a wealthy Jewish family of furniture dealers. They had two sons and Serge, as Dassault, he converted to Roman Catholicism in 1950. Now, the building at no.7 has been occupied from 2002 by auction house Artcurial, while no.7 has been sold, no.9 continues to be occupied by the Groupe Industriel Marcel Dassault. Marcel Dassault died in Neuilly-sur-Seine, in 1986 and was buried in the Passy Cemetery in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, Serge Dassault, Marcels son, became CEO of Avions Marcel Dassault, which was restructured as Groupe Industriel Marcel Dassault, reflecting its broader interests.
In 1990, the division was renamed Dassault Aviation. In 1991, the rond-point des Champs-Elysées was renamed the rond-point des Champs-Elysées-Marcel Dassault in his honor, societé des Avions Marcel Bloch Dassault Group Dassault Aviation The Talisman, the Autobiography of Marcel Dassault, Creator of the Mirage jet, translated by Patricia High Painton. Arlington House,1971 ISBN 0-87000-149-3 Marcel Dassault - Dassault Aviation site
Legion of Honour
The Legion of Honour, full name National Order of the Legion of Honour, is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte. The order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction, Officier, Grand Officier and Grand-Croix. The orders motto is Honneur et Patrie and its seat is the Palais de la Légion dHonneur next to the Musée dOrsay, in the French Revolution, all French orders of chivalry were abolished, and replaced with Weapons of Honour. The Légion however did use the organization of old French orders of chivalry, the badges of the legion bear a resemblance to the Ordre de Saint-Louis, which used a red ribbon. Napoleon originally created this to ensure political loyalty, the organization would be used as a facade to give political favours and concessions. The Légion was loosely patterned after a Roman legion, with legionaries, commanders, regional cohorts, the highest rank was not a grand cross but a Grand Aigle, a rank that wore all the insignia common to grand crosses.
The members were paid, the highest of them extremely generously,5,000 francs to an officier,2,000 francs to a commandeur,1,000 francs to an officier,250 francs to a légionnaire. Napoleon famously declared, You call these baubles, well, it is with baubles that men are led, do you think that you would be able to make men fight by reasoning. That is good only for the scholar in his study, the soldier needs glory, rewards. This has been quoted as It is with such baubles that men are led. The order was the first modern order of merit, under the monarchy, such orders were often limited to Roman Catholics, and all knights had to be noblemen. The military decorations were the perks of the officers, the Légion, was open to men of all ranks and professions—only merit or bravery counted. The new legionnaire had to be sworn in the Légion and it is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion is a secular institution. The jewel of the Légion has five arms, in a decree issued on the 10 Pluviôse XIII, a grand decoration was instituted.
This decoration, a cross on a sash and a silver star with an eagle, symbol of the Napoleonic Empire, became known as the Grand Aigle. After Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804 and established the Napoleonic nobility in 1808, the title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees. Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the legion among his family and this collar was abolished in 1815. The Légion dhonneur was prominent and visible in the French Empire, the Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the time
Troyes is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube in north-central France. It is located on the Seine river about 150 km southeast of Paris and this area is known as the Champagne region of Northern France. Many half-timbered houses survive in the old town, Troyes has been in existence since the Roman era, as Augustobona Tricassium, which stood at the hub of numerous highways, primarily the Via Agrippa. It was the civitas of the Tricasses, who had separated by Augustus from the Senones. Of the Gallo-Roman city of the early Empire, some scattered remains have been found, by the Late Empire the settlement was reduced in extent, and referred to as Tricassium or Tricassae, the origin of French Troyes. In the early cathedral on the present site, Louis the Stammerer in 878 received at Troyes the imperial crown from the hands of Pope John VIII, the Abbey of Saint-Loup developed a renowned library and scriptorium. During the Middle Ages, it was an important trading town, the Champagne cloth fairs and the revival of long-distance trade and new extension of coinage and credit were the real engines that drove the medieval economy of Troyes.
In 1285, when Philip the Fair united Champagne to the royal domain, the high-water mark of Plantagenet hegemony in France was reversed when the Dauphin, afterwards Charles VII, and Joan of Arc recovered the town of Troyes in 1429. In medieval times Troyes was an important international centre, centring on the Troyes Fair. The name troy weight for gold derives from the standard of measurement evolving here, the great fire of 1524 destroyed much of the medieval city, in spite of the citys numerous canals. Many half-timbered houses survive in the old town Hôtels Particuliers of the old town The Hôtel de Ville and they include, Saint-Pierre-et-Saint-Paul Cathedral Saint-Nizier Church, in Gothic and Renaissance style, with remarkable sculptures. The Gothic Saint-Urbain Basilica, with a covered by polished tiles. Proclaimed basilica in 1964, it was built by Jacques Pantaléon, elected pope in 1261, under the name of Urbain IV, very early Gothic, with east end rebuilt around 1500. Remarkably elaborate stone screen of 1508-17 in Flamboyant Gothic style, sculpted by Jean Gailde.
The Saint-Jean Church, with a Renaissance chancel, tabernacle of the altar by Giraudon. On the portal, coat of arms of Charles IX, the Gothic Saint-Nicolas Church, dating to the beginning of the sixteenth century, with a calvary chapel shaped rostrum is reached by a monumental staircase. On the south portal, two sculptures by François Gentil and Isaiah, saint-Pantaléon Church, with numerous statuary from the sixteenth century. It includes a spire, from a height of 60 m, its external clock with only one hand
The Office National dEtudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales is the French national aerospace research centre. ONERA was created in 1946 as Office National d’Études et de Recherches Aéronautiques, since 1963, its official name has been Office National d’Études et de Recherches Aérospatiales. However, in January 2007, ONERA has been dubbed The French Aerospace Lab to improve its international visibility, ONERA’s historic roots are in the Paris suburb of Meudon, south of Paris. As early as 1877, this site hosted a research center for military aerostats. ONERA was created in May 1946 to relaunch aeronautics research, an activity that had gone into hibernation during the Second World War and the German occupation. Its creation reflected the decision to recover the large wind tunnel in Otztal, Austria, in the French administrative zone. Today, ONERA’s extensive array of tunnels is one of its main assets. ONERA operates a fleet of wind tunnels, the largest in Europe. The S1MA wind tunnel at Modane-Avrieux, developing 88 MW of total power, is the world’s largest sonic wind tunnel, the Chairman and CEO of ONERA is appointed by the French Council of Ministers, acting on a proposal by the Minister of Defense.
Since June 2014, the Chairman and CEO is Bruno Sainjon, ONERA is organized in eight geographic areas. It has about 2,000 employees, with 1,500 engineers and scientists, three other centers, northern France Salon-de-Provence, southern France, on the site of the Ecole de l’air flying school Modane-Avrieux, in the Savoy region of southeast France. ONERA is organized in four branches, Fluid Mechanics and Energetics and Structures, Physics. Wind tunnel testing is managed in the GMT department, Aerospace prospective depends on a specific department. Unlike NASA in the United States, ONERA is not an agency for space science, however, it carries out a wide range of research for space agencies, both CNES in France and the European Space Agency, as well as for the French defense agency, DGA. ONERA independently conducts its own research to anticipate future technology needs. It focuses on research, for example in aerodynamics for concrete applications on aircraft. ONERA uses its research and innovation capabilities to support both French and European industry, ONERA has contributed to a number of landmark aerospace and defense programs in recent decades, including Airbus, Rafale, Falcon and Concorde.
ONERA’s customer-partners include Airbus Group, Dassault Aviation, innovative small businesses are encouraged to call on the expertise of ONERA’s scientists and engineers, and to take advantage of technology transfer opportunities
Wilhelm Exner Medal
The Wilhelm Exner Medal has been awarded by the Austrian Industry Association, Österreichischer Gewerbeverein, for excellence in research and science since 1921. In 1921, ÖGV established the Wilhelm Exner Medal, an Austrian award presented each year, the award dedicated to Wilhelm Exner, who was honorary president of ÖGV and professor of engineering with an exceptional influence on the policies in education and industry. The Wilhelm Exner Medal is awarded to scientists and researchers that have had a impact on business and industry through their scientific achievements. The award was created to honor the 60th anniversary of Wilhelm Exners association with ÖGV, since the Wilhelm Exner Medal was established, over 230 inventors and scientists have been honored, including 21 Nobel Prize awardees. The medal has a diameter of 7.5 cm and is made of bronze, sir Gregory Winter,2015 Thomas J. R. Hughes,2014 Joseph M
French Academy of Sciences
The French Academy of Sciences is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. It was at the forefront of developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. Currently headed by Sébastien Candel, it is one of the five Academies of the Institut de France, the Academy of Sciences makes its origin to Colberts plan to create a general academy. He chose a group of scholars who met on 22 December 1666 in the Kings library. The first 30 years of the Academys existence were relatively informal, in contrast to its British counterpart, the Academy was founded as an organ of government. The Academy was expected to remain apolitical, and to avoid discussion of religious, on 20 January 1699, Louis XIV gave the Company its first rules. The Academy received the name of Royal Academy of Sciences and was installed in the Louvre in Paris, following this reform, the Academy began publishing a volume each year with information on all the work done by its members and obituaries for members who had died.
This reform codified the method by which members of the Academy could receive pensions for their work, on 8 August 1793, the National Convention abolished all the academies. Almost all the old members of the previously abolished Académie were formally re-elected, among the exceptions was Dominique, comte de Cassini, who refused to take his seat. In 1816, the again renamed Royal Academy of Sciences became autonomous, while forming part of the Institute of France, in the Second Republic, the name returned to Académie des sciences. During this period, the Academy was funded by and accountable to the Ministry of Public Instruction, the Academy came to control French patent laws in the course of the eighteenth century, acting as the liaison of artisans knowledge to the public domain. As a result, academicians dominated technological activities in France, the Academy proceedings were published under the name Comptes rendus de lAcadémie des sciences. The Comptes rendus is now a series with seven titles.
The publications can be found on site of the French National Library, in 1818 the French Academy of Sciences launched a competition to explain the properties of light. The civil engineer Augustin-Jean Fresnel entered this competition by submitting a new theory of light. Siméon Denis Poisson, one of the members of the judging committee, being a supporter of the particle-theory of light, he looked for a way to disprove it. The Poisson spot is not easily observed in every-day situations, so it was natural for Poisson to interpret it as an absurd result. However, the head of the committee, Dominique-François-Jean Arago, and he molded a 2-mm metallic disk to a glass plate with wax
The Ardennes is a region of extensive forests, rough terrain, rolling hills and ridges formed by the geological features of the Ardennes mountain range and the Moselle and Meuse River basins. Geologically, the range is a extension of the Eifel. The eastern part of the Ardennes forms the northernmost third of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, called Oesling, the greater region maintained an industrial eminence into the 20th century after coal replaced charcoal in metallurgy. The region is typified by steep-sided valleys carved by swift-flowing rivers and its most populous cities are Verviers in Belgium and Charleville-Mézières in France, both exceeding 50,000 inhabitants. The Ardennes is otherwise relatively sparsely populated, with few of the cities exceeding 10,000 inhabitants with a few exceptions like Eupen or Bastogne. The Eifel range in Germany adjoins the Ardennes and is part of the geological formation. N. B. the Belgian Province of Luxembourg in the above list is not to be confused with the known as the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
The Ardennes is an old mountain formed during the Hercynian orogeny, in France similar formations are the Armorican Massif, the Massif Central, the low interior of such old mountains often contain coal, plus iron and other metals in the sub-soil. This geologic fact explains the greatest part of the geography of Wallonia, the region was uplifted by a mantle plume during the last few hundred thousand years, as measured from the present elevation of old river terraces. This geological region is important in the history of Wallonia because this old mountain is at the origin of the economy, the history, Wallonia presents a wide range of rocks of various ages. Some geological stages internationally recognized were defined from rock sites located in Wallonia, except for the Tournaisian, all these rocks are within the Ardennes geological area. Before the 19th century industrialization, the first furnaces in the four Walloon provinces and in the French Ardennes used charcoal for fuel and this industry was in the extreme south of the present-day Belgian province of Luxembourg, in the region called Gaume.
Wallonia became the industrial power area of the world in proportion to its territory. The rugged terrain of the Ardennes limits the scope for agriculture, the region is rich in timber and minerals, and Liège and Namur are both major industrial centres. The extensive forests have an abundant population of wild game, the scenic beauty of the region and its wide variety of outdoor activities, including hunting, cycling and canoeing, make it a popular tourist destination. The region took its name from the ancient Silva, a vast forest in Roman times called Arduenna Silva, the modern Ardennes covers a much smaller area. The Song of Roland describes Charlemagne as having a nightmare the night before the Battle of Roncevaux Pass of 778 and this nightmare took place in the Ardennes forest, where his most important battles occurred. Another song about Charlemagne, the Old French 12th-century chanson de geste Quatre Fils Aymon, mentions many of Wallonias rivers and other places
National Museum of the United States Air Force
The National Museum of the United States Air Force is the official museum of the United States Air Force located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base,6 miles northeast of Dayton, Ohio. The NMUSAF has one of the worlds largest collections with more than 360 aircraft, the museum draws more than 1 million visitors each year, making it one of the most frequently visited tourist attractions in Ohio. The museum dates to 1923, when the Engineering Division at Daytons McCook Field first collected technical artifacts for preservation, in 1927, it moved to then-Wright Field in a laboratory building. In 1932, the collection was named the Army Aeronautical Museum, in 1948, the collection remained private as the Air Force Technical Museum. In 1954, the Air Force Museum became public and was housed in its first permanent facility, Building 89 of the former Patterson Field in Fairborn, many of its aircraft were parked outside and exposed to the weather. It remained there until 1971, when the current facility opened.
Not including its annex on Wright Field proper, the museum has more than tripled in square footage since 1971, with the addition of a hangar in 1988, a third in 2003. The museum announced a new name for the facility in October 2004, the former name, United States Air Force Museum, changed to National Museum of the United States Air Force. The museum is a component of the National Aviation Heritage Area. The museums collection contains many rare aircraft of historical or technological importance, in 2010, the museum launched its 360-degree Virtual Tour, allowing most aircraft and exhibits to be viewed online. The museum has several Presidential aircraft, including those used by Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower. The centerpiece of the aircraft collection is SAM26000, a modified Boeing 707 known as a VC-137C, used regularly by Presidents John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson. This aircraft took President and Mrs. Kennedy to Dallas on November 22, vice President Johnson was sworn in as president aboard it shortly after the assassination, and the aircraft carried Kennedys body back to Washington.
It became the presidential aircraft after Nixons first term. It was temporarily removed from display on December 5,2009, all presidential aircraft are now displayed in the Presidential Gallery, in the new fourth building. A large section of the museum is dedicated to pioneers of flight, especially the Wright Brothers, a replica of the Wrights 1909 Military Flyer is on display, as well as other Wright brothers artifacts. The building hosts the National Aviation Hall of Fame, which includes educational exhibits. The museum has many pieces of U. S. Army Air Forces and U. S. Air Force clothing, at any time, more than 50 World War II-vintage A-2 leather flying jackets are on display, many of which belonged to famous figures in Air Force history
A dry dock is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in, drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform. Dry docks are used for the construction and repair of ships, the use of dry docks in China goes at least as far back the 10th century A. D. The upper works included several decks with cabins and saloons. After many years, their hulls decayed and needed repairs, so in the Hsi-Ning reign period a palace official Huang Huai-Hsin suggested a plan. A large basin was excavated at the end of the Chin-ming Lake capable of containing the dragon ships. Then so that the quickly filled with water, after which the ships were towed in above the beams. The the water was pumped out by wheels so that the ships rested quite in the air, when the repairs were complete, the water was let in again, so that the ships were afloat once more. The first English and oldest surviving dry dock still in use was commissioned by Henry VII of England at HMNB Portsmouth in 1495 and this dry dock currently holds the worlds oldest commissioned warship, HMS Victory.
Possibly the earliest description of a floating dock comes from a small Italian book printed in Venice in 1560, called Descrittione dellartifitiosa machina. In the booklet, an unknown author asks for the privilege of using a new method for the salvaging of a ship and proceeds to describe. The included woodcut shows a ship flanked by two large floating trestles, forming a roof above the vessel, the ship is pulled in an upright position by a number of ropes attached to the superstructure. The Alfredo da Silva Dry Dock, of the Lisnave Dockyards in Almada, was the largest in the world until 2000, harland and Wolff Heavy Industries in Belfast, Northern Ireland, is the site of a large dry dock 556 by 93 metres. The massive cranes are named after the Biblical figures Samson and Goliath, Goliath stands 96 m tall, while Samson is taller at 106 m. The Saint-Nazaires Chantiers de lAtlantique owns one of the biggest in the world,1,200 by 60 metres, the largest graving dock of the Mediterranean as of 2009 is at the Hellenic Shipyards S. A.
The largest roofed dry dock is at the German Meyer Werft Shipyard in Papenburg, Germany, it is 504 m long,125 m wide, Dry Dock 12 at Newport News Shipbuilding is 662 by 76 metres the largest dry dock in the USA. The largest floating-dock in North America named The Vigorous and it is operated Vigor Industries in Portland, OR, in the Swan Island industrial area along the Willamette River. The keel blocks as well as the block are placed on the floor of the dock in accordance with the docking plan of the ship. Routine use of dry docks is for the graving i. e. the cleaning, removal of barnacles and rust, some fine-tuning of the ships position can be done by divers while there is still some water left to manoeuvre it about