Albert Adrien Clemenceau
23 February 1861
|Died||23 July 1955 (aged 94)|
Albert Adrien Clemenceau
23 February 1861
|Died||23 July 1955 (aged 94)|
The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906. The affair is seen as a modern and universal symbol of injustice, it remains one of the most notable examples of a complex miscarriage of justice and antisemitism; the major role played by the press and public opinion proved influential in the lasting social conflict. The scandal began in December 1894 with the treason conviction of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a young Alsatian French artillery officer of Jewish descent. Sentenced to life imprisonment for communicating French military secrets to the German Embassy in Paris, Dreyfus was imprisoned on Devil's Island in French Guiana, where he spent nearly five years. Evidence came to light in 1896—primarily through an investigation instigated by Georges Picquart, head of counter-espionage—identifying a French Army major named Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy as the real culprit. After high-ranking military officials suppressed the new evidence, a military court unanimously acquitted Esterhazy after a trial lasting only two days.
The Army accused Dreyfus with additional charges based on falsified documents. Word of the military court's framing of Dreyfus and of an attempted cover-up began to spread, chiefly owing to J'Accuse…!, a vehement open letter published in a Paris newspaper in January 1898 by writer Émile Zola. Activists put pressure on the government to reopen the case. In 1899, Dreyfus was returned to France for another trial; the intense political and judicial scandal that ensued divided French society between those who supported Dreyfus, such as Sarah Bernhardt, Anatole France, Henri Poincaré and Georges Clemenceau, those who condemned him, such as Édouard Drumont, the director and publisher of the antisemitic newspaper La Libre Parole. The new trial resulted in another conviction and a 10-year sentence, but Dreyfus was given a pardon and set free. All the accusations against Dreyfus were demonstrated to be baseless. In 1906, Dreyfus was reinstated as a major in the French Army, he served during the whole of World War I.
He died in 1935. The affair from 1894 to 1906 divided France and lastingly into two opposing camps: the pro-Army Catholic "anti-Dreyfusards" and the anticlerical, pro-republican Dreyfusards, it encouraged radicalization. At the end of 1894 a French army captain named Alfred Dreyfus, a graduate of the École Polytechnique and a Jew of Alsatian origin, was accused of handing secret documents to the Imperial German military. After a closed trial, he was sentenced to prison for life, he was deported to Devil's Island. At that time, the opinion of the French political class was unanimously unfavourable towards Dreyfus. Certain of the injustice of the sentence, the Dreyfus family, through his brother Mathieu, worked with the journalist Bernard Lazare to prove his innocence. Meanwhile Colonel Georges Picquart, head of counter-espionage, found evidence in March 1896 indicating that the real traitor was Major Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy; the General Staff, refused to reconsider its judgment and transferred Picquart to North Africa.
In July 1897 Dreyfus' family contacted the President of the Senate Auguste Scheurer-Kestner to draw attention to the tenuousness of the evidence against Dreyfus. Scheurer-Kestner reported three months that he was convinced of the innocence of Dreyfus and persuaded Georges Clemenceau, a former member of the Chamber of Deputies and a newspaper reporter. In the same month, Mathieu Dreyfus complained to the Ministry of War against Esterhazy. While the circle of Dreyfusards widened, in January 1898 two nearly simultaneous events gave a national dimension to the case: Esterhazy was acquitted of treason charges, Émile Zola published his "J'accuse...!" A Dreyfusard declaration that rallied many intellectuals to Dreyfus' cause. France became divided over the case, the issue continued to be hotly debated until the end of the century. Antisemitic riots erupted in more than twenty French cities. There were several deaths in Algiers; the Republic was shaken, which prompted a sense that the Dreyfus Affair had to be resolved to restore calm and protect the stability of the nation.
Despite the intrigues of the army to quash the case, the first judgment against Dreyfus was annulled by the Supreme Court after a thorough investigation and a new court-martial was held at Rennes in 1899. Despite robust evidence to the contrary, Dreyfus was convicted again and sentenced to ten years of hard labour, though the sentence was commuted due to extenuating circumstances. Exhausted by his deportation for four long years, Dreyfus accepted the presidential pardon granted by President Émile Loubet, it was only in 1906 that his innocence was recognized through a decision without recourse by the Supreme Court. Rehabilitated, Dreyfus was reinstated in the army with the rank of Major and participated in the First World War, he died in 1935. The implications of this case were affected all aspects of French public life. In politics, the affair established the triumph of the Third Republic. In religion, it slowed the reform of French republican integration of Catholics, it was during the affair.
The affair engendered numerous antisemitic demonstrations, which in turn affected emotions within the Jewish communities of
Nantes is a city in Loire-Atlantique on the Loire, 50 km from the Atlantic coast. The city is the sixth-largest in France, with a population of 303,382 in Nantes and a metropolitan area of nearly 950,000 inhabitants. With Saint-Nazaire, a seaport on the Loire estuary, Nantes forms the main north-western French metropolis, it is the administrative seat of the Loire-Atlantique department and the Pays de la Loire région, one of 18 regions of France. Nantes belongs and culturally to Brittany, a former duchy and province, its omission from the modern administrative region of Brittany is controversial. Nantes was identified during classical antiquity as a port on the Loire, it was the seat of a bishopric at the end of the Roman era before it was conquered by the Bretons in 851. Although Nantes was the primary residence of the 15th-century dukes of Brittany, Rennes became the provincial capital after the 1532 union of Brittany and France. During the 17th century, after the establishment of the French colonial empire, Nantes became the largest port in France and was responsible for nearly half of the 18th-century French Atlantic slave trade.
The French Revolution resulted in an economic decline, but Nantes developed robust industries after 1850. Deindustrialisation in the second half of the 20th century spurred the city to adopt a service economy. In 2012, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranked Nantes as a Gamma world city, it is the fourth-highest-ranking city in France, after Paris and Marseille. The Gamma category includes cities such as Algiers, Porto and Leipzig. Nantes has been praised for its quality of life, it received the European Green Capital Award in 2013; the European Commission noted the city's efforts to reduce air pollution and CO2 emissions, its high-quality and well-managed public transport system and its biodiversity, with 3,366 hectares of green space and several protected Natura 2000 areas. Nantes is named after a tribe of Gaul, the Namnetes, who established a settlement between the end of the second century and the beginning of the first century BC on the north bank of the Loire near its confluence with the Erdre.
The origin of the name "Namnetes" is uncertain, but is thought to come from the Gaulish root *nant- or from Amnites, another tribal name meaning "men of the river". Its first recorded name was by the Greek writer Ptolemy, who referred to the settlement as Κονδηούινκον and Κονδιούινκον —which might be read as Κονδηούικον —in his treatise, Geography; the name was latinised during the Gallo-Roman period as Condevincum, Condevicnum and Condivincum. Although its origins are unclear, "Condevincum" seems to be related to the Gaulish word condate "confluence"; the Namnete root of the city's name was introduced at the end of the Roman period, when it became known as Portus Namnetum "port of the Namnetes" and civitas Namnetum "city of the Namnetes". Like other cities in the region, its name was replaced during the fourth century with a Gaulish one. Nantes' name continued to evolve, becoming Nanetiæ and Namnetis during the fifth century and Nantes after the sixth via syncope. "Nantes" is pronounced, the city's inhabitants are known as Nantais.
In Gallo, the oïl language traditionally spoken in the region around Nantes, the city is spelled "Naunnt" or "Nantt". Gallo pronunciation is identical to French. In Breton, Nantes is known as Naoned or an Naoned, the latter of, less common and reflects the more-frequent use of articles in Breton toponyms than in French ones. Nantes' historical nickname was "Venice of the West", a reference to the many quays and river channels in the old town before they were filled in during the 1920s and 1930s; the city is known as la Cité des Ducs "city of the dukes " for its castle and former role as a ducal residence. The first inhabitants of what is now Nantes settled during the Bronze Age than in the surrounding regions, its first inhabitants were attracted by small iron and tin deposits in the region's subsoil. The area exported tin, mined in Piriac, as far as Ireland. After about 1,000 years of trading, local industry appeared around 900 BC. Nantes may have been the major Gaulish settlement of Corbilo, on the Loire estuary, mentioned by the Greek historians Strabo and Polybius.
Its history from the seventh century to the Roman conquest in the first century BC is poorly documented, there is no evidence of a city in the area before the reign of Tiberius in the first century AD. During the Gaulish period it was the capital of the Namnetes people, who were allied with the Veneti in a territory extending to the northern bank of the Loire. Rivals in the area included the Pictones, who controlled the area south of the Loire in the city of Ratiatum until the end of the second century AD. Ratiatum, founded under Augustus, developed more than Nantes and was a major port in the region. Nantes began to grow; because tradesmen favoured inland roads rather than Atlantic routes, Nantes never became a large city under Roman occupa
Fernand-Gustave-Gaston Labori was a French attorney. He was born in Reims. In his professional life, he defended the accused in some of the most prominent political cases of his day. Among his noted clients was Alfred Dreyfus, acquitted of treason. During the Dreyfus trial, Labori was the victim of an assassination attempt which hospitalized him for a week; the attacker was never identified. Labori was elected second secrétaire de Conférence du barreau de Paris Labori was the defence counsel for: anarchist Auguste Vaillant, who threw a bomb into the French Chamber of Deputies, injuring twenty people, he was sentenced to death. Émile Zola in 1898 in the Dreyfus trial. Captain Alfred Dreyfus, at his court martial in Rennes in 1899. Thérèse Humbert, in the case of the Crawford inheritance, it was sometimes described as'the swindle of the century'. Henriette Caillaux in 1914, she was the wife of former Prime Minister of Joseph Caillaux. His speeches were regarded as masterpieces of forensic eloquence, he is buried at the Montparnasse Cemetery.
Labori, sa vie. Editor V. Attinger. Author Marguerite Labori, 1947, Labori, pour Zola, pour Dreyfus, contre la terre entière, un avocat. Editor L. Audibert, Authors Thierry Lévy and Jean-Pierre Royer, Paris 2006, ISBN 2-84749-083-3 Works by or about Fernand Labori at Internet Archive Fernand Labori at Find a Grave Portrait du centre d'études du 19e siècle français - Université de Toronto Etat des Archives de Fernand Labori Liste biliographique des principales plaidoiries sur Criminocorpus - site du CNRS Portrait sur La vie rémoise
Georges Eugène Benjamin Clemenceau was a French politician, Prime Minister of France during the First World War. A leading independent Radical, he played a central role in the politics of the French Third Republic. Clemenceau was Prime Minister of France from 1906 to 1909 and from 1917 to 1920. Demanding a total victory over Germany, he wanted reparations, Alsace-Lorraine, strict rules to prevent Germany from rearming, he achieved these goals in the Treaty of Versailles imposed on Germany at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. Nicknamed "Père la Victoire" or "Le Tigre", in the 1920s he continued his harsh position against Germany, though not quite as much as the President Raymond Poincaré, he obtained mutual defense treaties with Britain and the United States, to unite against German aggression, but these never took effect. Clemenceau was a native of the Vendée, born at Mouilleron-en-Pareds. During the period of the French Revolution, the Vendée had been a hotbed of monarchist sympathies; the region was remote from Paris and poor.
His mother, Sophie Eucharie Gautreau, was of Huguenot descent. His father, Benjamin Clemenceau, came from a long line of physicians, but he lived off his lands and investments and did not practice medicine. Benjamin was a political activist, he instilled in his son a love of learning, devotion to radical politics, a hatred of Catholicism. The lawyer Albert Clemenceau was his brother, his mother was devoutly Protestant. Georges was interested in religious issues, he was a lifelong atheist with a sound knowledge of the Bible. He became a leader of anti-clerical or "Radical" forces that battled against the Catholic Church in France and the Catholics in politics, he stopped short of the more extreme attacks. His position was that if church and state were kept rigidly separated, he would not support oppressive measures designed to further weaken the Church. After his studies in the Lycée in Nantes, Georges received his French baccalaureate of letters in 1858, he went to Paris to study medicine graduating with the completion of his thesis "De la génération des éléments anatomiques" in 1865.
In Paris, the young Clemenceau became a writer. In December 1861, he co-founded Le Travail, along with some friends. On 23 February 1862, he was arrested by the police for having placed posters summoning a demonstration, he spent 77 days in the Mazas Prison. He graduated as a doctor of medicine on 13 May 1865, founded several literary magazines, wrote many articles, most of which attacked the imperial regime of Napoleon III. Clemenceau left France for the United States when the imperial agents began cracking down on dissidents, sending most of them to the bagne de Cayennes in French Guiana. Clemenceau worked in New York City in the years 1865-69, following the American Civil War, he maintained a medical practice, but spent much of his time on political journalism for a Parisian newspaper. He taught French at the home of Calvin Rood in Great Barrington and taught and rode horseback at a private girls' school in Stamford, Connecticut. On 23 June 1869, he married one of Mary Eliza Plummer, in New York City.
She was the daughter of wife Harriet A. Taylor; the Clemenceaus had three children together before the marriage ended in a contentious divorce. During this time, he joined French exile clubs in New York opposing the imperial regime. Clemenceau returned to Paris after the French defeat at the Battle of Sedan in 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War and the fall of the Second French Empire. After returning to medical practice as a physician in Vendée, he was appointed mayor of the 18th arrondissement of Paris, including Montmartre, was elected to the National Assembly for the 18th arrondissement; when the Paris Commune seized power in March 1871, he tried unsuccessfully to find a compromise between the more radical leaders of the commune and the more conservative French government. The Commune declared that he had no legal authority to be mayor and seized the city hall of the 18th arrondissement, he ran for election to the Paris Commune council, but received less than eight hundred votes and took no part in its governance.
He was in Bordeaux when the Commune was suppressed by the French Army in May 1871. After the fall of the Commune, he was elected to the Paris municipal council on 23 July 1871 for the Clignancourt quarter, retained his seat till 1876, he first held the offices of secretary and vice-president became president in 1875. In 1876, Clemenceau was elected for the 18th arrondissement, he joined the far left, his energy and mordant eloquence speedily made him the leader of the radical section. In 1877, after the Crisis of 16 May 1877, he was one of the republican majority who denounced the ministry of the Duc de Broglie, he led resistance to the anti-republican policy. In 1879 his demand for the indictment of the Broglie ministry brought. In 1880, Clemenceau started his newspaper La Justice, which became the principal organ of Parisian Radicalism. From this time, throughout the presidency of Jules Grévy, he became known as a political critic and destroyer of ministries who avoided taking office himself.
Leading the far left in the Chamber of Depu
Sceaux is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.7 km from the center of Paris. Sceaux is famous for the Château de Sceaux, set in its large park, designed by André Le Nôtre, measuring 2 km2; the original château was transformed into a School of Agriculture during the Revolution and lost much of its luster. It was demolished at the beginning of the 19th century following its sale by the French government. Sceaux castle was built by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the minister of finance to Louis XIV and purchased by Louis' illegitimate son, the duke of Maine in 1699, his duchesse held court in a glittering salon at Sceaux in the first decades of the eighteenth century. The present château, rebuilt between 1856 and 62 in a Louis XIII style, is now the museum of Île-de-France open for visits. Housing costs are high, higher than in many districts of Paris with streets facing the Parc de Sceaux. Sceaux is one of the richest cities of France, according to the INSEE. Sceaux is served by three stations on Paris RER line B: Sceaux and Parc de Sceaux.
The latter station is located at the border between the commune of Sceaux and the commune of Antony, on the Antony side of the border. It is close to Paris-Orly Airport. Sceaux is connected to the A86 motorway; the commune offers a developed network of buses which are used by the Scéens. The commune has the following primary schools: Public preschools/nurseries: des Blagis, du Centre, Clos-Saint-Marcel, du Petit-Chambord Public elementary schools: des Blagis, du Centre, Clos-Saint-Marcel One private preschool and elementary school: Écoles maternelle et élémentaire Sainte-Jeanne-d’ArcSceaux hosts two cités scolaires, combined junior high schools and public high schools/sixth-form colleges, the lycée Marie Curie and the lycée Lakanal; the lycée Marie Curie was named after the famous scientist, married in, lived in, was interred in Sceaux with her husband Pierre Curie. The lycée Lakanal was named after a French politician, an original member of the Institut de France, Joseph Lakanal and has remained one of the most prestigious and hardest schools of Île-de-France.
The school offers a middle school and ranked "classes préparatoires" undergraduate training. Famous French scientists and writers have graduated from lycée Lakanal, such as Nobel Prize winners Maurice Allais, Jean Giraudoux, Alain-Fournier and Frédéric Joliot-Curie. There is a public vocational senior high, Lycée des métiers Florian. There is Externat Sainte-Jeanne-d'Arc; the Faculté Jean Monnet, the college of Law and Management of University of Paris-XI, the Institut Universitaire de Technologie of this university are located in Sceaux. The Bibliothèque municipale de Sceaux is the communal library. Sceaux is home to one active national theater, the théâtre des Gémeaux, located in the quartier des Blagis, part of the "Scène Nationale" network of the major theaters in France; the théâtre des Gémeaux attracts viewers from all over Paris. Its main event is the Spring dance festival with an international program of the highest quality; the commune has a small movie theater, the Trianon, where international movies are released in their respective language and subtitled in French.
The theater is known for showing independent films and hosting special events. In 2006, a debate revolving around ecology was organized and Al Gore's An Inconvenient Truth was shown. Various music events take place at Sceaux; the classical Music Festival established by Alfred Loewenguth in 1969, takes place in the Orangery built by Jules Hardouin-Mansart for the Marquis de Seignelay in 1686, in the Park at Sceaux. The Park houses an open air opera every summer at the end of June; the Parc de Sceaux was the location of Madonna's Parisian first visit with her Who's That Girl World Tour 29 August 1987, breaking the record of 131.000 people. In the classic French O-Level textbook series for English-speaking pupils, Le Francais d'Aujourd-hui, the Bertillon family move out to Sceaux from inner-city Paris during the course of the book's main narrative; the Parc de Sceaux is home to a population of red squirrels estimated to number between 100 and 120. Royal Leamington Spa Brühl Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department Ligne de Sceaux The works of Maxime Real del Sarte INSEE Sceaux official website