Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Crystal Catherine Eastman was an American lawyer, feminist and journalist. She is best remembered as a leader in the fight for women's suffrage, as a co-founder and co-editor with her brother Max Eastman of the radical arts and politics magazine The Liberator, co-founder of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, co-founder in 1920 of the American Civil Liberties Union. In 2000 she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in New York. Crystal Eastman was born in Marlborough, Massachusetts, on June 25, 1881, the third of four children, her oldest brother, was born in 1878 and died in 1884 at age seven. The second brother, Anstice Ford Eastman, who became a general surgeon, was born in 1878 and died in 1937. Max was the youngest, born in 1882. In 1883 their parents, Samuel Elijah Eastman and Annis Bertha Ford, moved the family to Canandaigua, New York. In 1889, their mother became one of the first women ordained as a Protestant minister in America when she became a minister of the Congregational Church.
Her father was a Congregational minister, the two served as pastors at the church of Thomas K. Beecher near Elmira, her parents were friendly with writer Mark Twain. From this association young Crystal became acquainted with him; this part of New York was in the so-called "Burnt Over District." During the Second Great Awakening earlier in the 19th century, its frontier had been a center of evangelizing and much religious excitement, which resulted in the founding of the Shakers and Mormonism. During the antebellum period, some were inspired by religious ideals to support such progressive social causes as abolitionism and the Underground Railroad. Crystal and her brother Max Eastman were influenced by this progressive tradition, he became a socialist activist in his early life, Crystal had several common causes with him. They were close throughout her life after he had become more conservative; the siblings lived together for several years on 11th Street in Greenwich Village among other radical activists.
The group, including Ida Rauh, Inez Milholland, Floyd Dell, Doris Stevens spent summers and weekends in Croton-on-Hudson. Eastman graduated from Vassar College in 1903 and received an M. A. in sociology from Columbia University in 1904. Gaining her law degree from New York University Law School, she graduated second in the class of 1907. Social work pioneer and journal editor Paul Kellogg offered Eastman her first job, investigating labor conditions for The Pittsburgh Survey sponsored by the Russell Sage Foundation, her report, Work Accidents and the Law, became a classic and resulted in the first workers' compensation law, which she drafted while serving on a New York state commission. She continued to campaign for occupational safety and health while working as an investigating attorney for the U. S. Commission on Industrial Relations during Woodrow Wilson's presidency, she was at one time called the "most dangerous woman in America," due to her free-love idealism and outspoken nature. During a brief marriage to Wallace J. Benedict, which ended in divorce, Eastman moved to Milwaukee with him.
There she managed the unsuccessful 1912 Wisconsin suffrage campaign. When she returned east in 1913, she joined Alice Paul, Lucy Burns, others in founding the militant Congressional Union, which became the National Woman's Party. After the passage of the 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote in 1920, Eastman and Paul wrote the Equal Rights Amendment, first introduced in 1923. One of the few socialists to endorse the ERA, Eastman warned that protective legislation for women would mean only discrimination against women. Eastman claimed that one could assess the importance of the ERA by the intensity of the opposition to it, but she felt that it was still a struggle worth fighting, she delivered the speech, "Now We Can Begin", following the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, outlining the work that needed to be done in the political and economic spheres to achieve gender equality. During World War I, Eastman was one of the founders of the Woman's Peace Party, soon joined by Jane Addams, Lillian D. Wald, others.
She served as president of the New York branch. Renamed the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom in 1921, it remains the oldest extant women's peace organization. Eastman became executive director of the American Union Against Militarism, which lobbied against America's entrance into the European war and more against war with Mexico in 1916, sought to remove profiteering from arms manufacturing, campaigned against conscription, imperial adventures and military intervention; when the United States entered World War I, Eastman organized with Roger Baldwin and Norman Thomas the National Civil Liberties Bureau to protect conscientious objectors, or in her words: "To maintain something over here that will be worth coming back to when the weary war is over." The NCLB grew into the American Civil Liberties Union, with Baldwin at the head and Eastman functioning as attorney-in-charge. Eastman is credited as a founding member of the ACLU, but her role as founder of the NCLB may have been ignored by posterity due to her personal differences with Baldwin.
In 1916 Eastman married the British editor and antiwar activist Walter Fuller, who had come to the United States to direct his sisters’ singing of folksongs. They had two children and Annis, they worked together as activists until the end of the war. He died in 1927, nine months before Crystal, ending his career editing Radio Times for the BBC. After Max Eastman's periodical The Masses was forced to close b
Freedom of speech
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or legal sanction. The term "freedom of expression" is sometimes used synonymously but includes any act of seeking and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used. Freedom of expression is recognized as a human right under article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and recognized in international human rights law in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Article 19 of the UDHR states that "everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference" and "everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; the version of Article 19 in the ICCPR amends this by stating that the exercise of these rights carries "special duties and responsibilities" and may "therefore be subject to certain restrictions" when necessary "or respect of the rights or reputation of others" or "or the protection of national security or of public order, or of public health or morals".
Freedom of speech and expression, may not be recognized as being absolute, common limitations or boundaries to freedom of speech relate to libel, obscenity, sedition, fighting words, classified information, copyright violation, trade secrets, food labeling, non-disclosure agreements, the right to privacy, the right to be forgotten, public security, perjury. Justifications for such include the harm principle, proposed by John Stuart Mill in On Liberty, which suggests that: "the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others."The idea of the "offense principle" is used in the justification of speech limitations, describing the restriction on forms of expression deemed offensive to society, considering factors such as extent, motives of the speaker, ease with which it could be avoided. With the evolution of the digital age, application of the freedom of speech becomes more controversial as new means of communication and restrictions arise, for example the Golden Shield Project, an initiative by Chinese government's Ministry of Public Security that filters unfavorable data from foreign countries.
Freedom of speech and expression has a long history that predates modern international human rights instruments. It is thought that ancient Athenian democratic principle of free speech may have emerged in the late 6th or early 5th century BC; the values of the Roman Republic included freedom of freedom of religion. Concepts of freedom of speech can be found in early human rights documents; the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, adopted during the French Revolution in 1789 affirmed freedom of speech as an inalienable right. The Declaration provides for freedom of expression in Article 11, which states that: The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man; every citizen may, speak and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law. Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948, states that: Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression.
Today, freedom of speech, or the freedom of expression, is recognized in international and regional human rights law. The right is enshrined in Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, Article 13 of the American Convention on Human Rights and Article 9 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights. Based on John Milton's arguments, freedom of speech is understood as a multi-faceted right that includes not only the right to express, or disseminate and ideas, but three further distinct aspects: the right to seek information and ideas; this means that the protection of freedom of speech as a right includes not only the content, but the means of expression. The right to freedom of speech and expression is related to other rights, may be limited when conflicting with other rights; the right to freedom of expression is related to the right to a fair trial and court proceeding which may limit access to the search for information, or determine the opportunity and means in which freedom of expression is manifested within court proceedings.
As a general principle freedom of expression may not limit the right to privacy, as well as the honor and reputation of others. However greater latitude is given; the right to freedom of expression is important for media, which plays a special role as the bearer of the general right to freedom of expression for all. However, freedom of the press does not enable freedom of speech. Judith Lichtenberg has outlined conditions in which freedom of the press may constrain freedom of speech, for example where the med
Harry F. Ward
Harry Frederick Ward Jr. was an English-born American Methodist minister and political activist who identified himself with the movement for Christian socialism, best remembered as first national chairman of the American Civil Liberties Union from its creation in 1920 until his resignation in protest of the organization's decision to bar communists in 1940. Harry Frederick Ward, Jr. was born on October 15, 1873, in Chiswick, England. His parents were Harry F. Ward, Sr. a successful businessman and Methodist lay minister, Fanny Jeffrey. Ward's upbringing was steeped both in commercial and religious values and he began working in his father's business as a wagon-driver during his teenage years. In 1878 Ward was sent away to a boarding school, a rather harsh and inferior environment to the more illustrious public schools occupied by the sires of the upper class. In the estimation of Ward's biographer, Eugene P. Link, this experience quite contributed to Ward's distaste for differentiation of society into social classes.
During this interval Ward developed rheumatic heart problems which forced his removal from school to live with aunts in the rural environs of Lyndhurst, Hampshire. Ward remembered the experience favorably naming his son, the illustrator Lynd Ward, after the English south coastal town. In 1891, Ward emigrated to the United States at the age of 17 in pursuit of a higher education. In May 1891 Ward arrived in Salt Lake City, Utah, at the home of an uncle living there to take up work for him as a horse driver, he worked for a time as a farmhand for another uncle living in the neighboring Western state of Idaho. In addition to these and other jobs, Ward dedicated part of his time to Methodist evangelism as a lay minister preaching to passersby on street corners. In 1893 Ward was able to accomplish his goal of entering a university, enrolling at the University of Southern California, located in the still modest-sized town of Los Angeles. Ward became an admirer of a young political science instructor named George Albert Coe and, when Coe left USC for Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, at the end of Ward's freshman year, Ward followed his mentor there.
Ward majored in philosophy and minored in political science at Northwestern, with his background in populist Christian evangelism and social gospel-driven concern for the poor taking on a more politicized flavor, influenced at least to some extent by the anti-capitalist critique of Karl Marx. During his Northwestern University years Ward was active in intercollegiate debate, in which he was regarded as a skillful participant. Ward received a bachelor's degree from Northwestern in 1897 and, upon the recommendation of the Northwestern President Henry Wade Rogers, was granted a one-year scholarship to Harvard University, from which he graduated with a master's degree in philosophy in 1898. In 1898, he became an ordained Methodist minister. Following graduation, Ward took a position as head resident of Northwestern University Settlement, a settlement house located in Chicago, which sought to educate and improve the lives of impoverished immigrant workers of the city's meatpacking district; this settlement house was first launched in 1891, inspired by Hull House, established by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr two years previously.
Ward would remain in this position as a resident amongst the urban poor until being forced out by the settlement's governing council due to personal conflicts in the summer of 1900. The English-born Ward gained American citizenship on October 10, 1898, at Cook County Courthouse in Chicago, shortly after beginning his life at Northwestern University Settlement. In 1898, Ward received his first posting to a Methodist pastorate as co-pastor of the Wabash Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church, he became involved in the wider Chicago Protestant movement, gaining election as Secretary of the Open and Institutional Church League. Ward first became an outspoken advocate of participation in "Christian politics" in this interval, declaring the necessity to put pressure for social reform upon the Chicago political structure without compromise, so as to help establish the "divine ideal, working out the dreams of the prophets, bringing in the Kingdom of God, establishing a true theocracy, a democracy led by God in the shape of the teachings of His Son."In October 1900, Ward was moved to the 47th Street Methodist Episcopal Church, another pastorate in the Chicago stockyards district with a congregation composed of working-class immigrants from Eastern Europe.
Ward was radicalized by contact with the impoverished workers who attended his church. Ward himself joined the fledgling Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America in a show of solidarity with his parishioners, he joined the Civic Club of Chicago, where he became the chairman of its Committee on Labor Conditions. Ward evangelized the social gospel, sermonizing on matters of economics and poverty and the potential role of the church in the rectification of the structural failings of society. Following the birth of his second son in 1905, Ward took a one-year sabbatical leave during which time he seems to have read the works of Karl Marx for the first time. In the estimation of Ward biographer David Nelson Duke, the introduction to Marxism was not transformative for Ward, but rather "offered labels for and an interpretation of what he knew firsthand" from his life amongst Chicago's working poor. Ward returned to the pulpit in the fall of 1906 reenergized. Over the course of the next year he began to formulate plans with a trio of like-minded Methodist ministers from Ohio and others to establish a new organization within the Methodist community dedicated to advance religious princip
Arthur Garfield Hays
Arthur Garfield Hays was an American lawyer and champion of civil liberties issues, best known as a co-founder and general counsel of the American Civil Liberties Union and for participating in notable cases including the Sacco and Vanzetti trial. He was a member of a contributor to The New Republic. In 1937, he headed an independent investigation of an incident in which 18 people were killed and more than 200 wounded in Ponce, Puerto Rico when police fired at them. Arthur Garfield Hays was born on December 1881, in Rochester, New York, his father and mother, both of German Jewish descent, belonged to prosperous families in the clothing manufacturing industry. In 1902, he graduated from Columbia College, where he was one of the early members of the Pi Lambda Phi fraternity. In 1905, he was admitted to the New York bar. In 1905, Hays formed a law firm with two of his former classmates, he and his partners gained prominence during World War I representing interests of ethnic Germans in the United States, who were discriminated against because Germany was an enemy of the Allies during the war.
In 1914-1915, he practiced law in London. Hays was active in civil liberties issues. In 1920, was hired as general counsel for the American Civil Liberties Union. From this point, his career had two tracks: he vigorously defended the individual liberty of victims of discriminatory laws, but he kept private work, he became a wealthy lawyer who represented the interests of power and fame Hays took part in numerous notable cases, including the Sweet segregation case in Detroit as well as the Scopes trial in 1925, in which a school teacher in Tennessee was tried for teaching evolution. Hays attended the Reichstag trial in Berlin on behalf of Georgi Dimitrov, a Bulgarian Communist accused by the Nazis in 1933 of burning the Reichstag. Hays defended labor, he defended coal miners in disputes in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, including the Anthracite Coal Strike of 1922. He defended right-to-strike cases against Jersey City mayor Frank “Boss” Hague, he defended British writer John Strachey against deportatio.
He led the plaintiff in Emerson Jennings vs. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania conspiracy case, he represented the Jehovah's Witnesses. He argued for the right not to salute the American flag. In 1937, Hays was appointed to lead an independent investigation with a group to study an incident in which 18 people were killed and more than 200 wounded in Ponce, Puerto Rico when police opened fire on them, they had gathered for a parade. His commission concluded the police had committed a massacre. From 1939 to 1943, he represented sociologist Jerome Davis in a libel suit filed against Curtis Publishing, publishers of the Saturday Evening Post magazine and its reporter Benjamin Stolberg. From the IMDB entry for Remous directed by Edmond T. Greville: Albany, New York - Monday, January 23, 1939: "The French film Remous was shown Friday to five judges of the New York State Appellate Division in proceedings in the attempt by Arthur Mayer and Joseph Burstyn to get a license to screen it in New York State; the picture has twice been denied a license, first in August 1936, when it was rejected as being "indecent", "immoral", tending to "corrupt morals".
It was again rejected in November 1937. In March 1938, it was screened for the New York Board of Regents who, on April 14, disapproved application for a license. Arthur Garfield Hays, counsel for Mayer and Burstyn at yesterday's proceedings, ridiculed the objections of Irwin Esmond and the Regents to certain scenes, pointing out that the film was French and would appeal only to an educated audience. Counsel for the Regents-based his plea on the film's theme of sex-frustration, arguing that it would be unwise public policy to show it to all classes of people."In November 1939, Mayer and Burstyn released the film in the U. S. as Whirlpool of Desire. Film censorship in the United States was not overturned until the U. S. Supreme Court case, the Joseph Burstyn, Inc. v. Wilson in 1952. In 1924, Hays served as New York State chairman of the second Progressive Party. In 1951, Hays appeared on Longines Chronoscope to provide comments on the political activities of U. S. Senator Joseph McCarthy. Hays stated: I think he is the most dangerous man in the United States.
I think he Senator McCarthy is more dangerous to freedom in the United States than all the Communists we have in this country... I think he's dangerous, because without evidence, he is smearing a lot of respected and decent people, his greatest criticism regarded McCarthy's methods. He defended Philip Jessup, he did cite Alger Hiss. Hays married Blanche Marks in 1908, he filed a libel suite Stanley E. Faithful vs. the Daily Mirror and other newspapers over the circumstances surrounding his daughter's death. He married Aline Davis Fleisher in 19
Edward Alsworth Ross
Edward Alsworth Ross was a progressive American sociologist and major figure of early criminology. He was born in Illinois, his father was a farmer. He attended Coe College and graduated in 1887. After two years as an instructor at a business school, the Fort Dodge Commercial Institute, he went to Germany for graduate study at the University of Berlin, he returned to the U. S. and in 1891 he received his Ph. D. from Johns Hopkins University in political economy under Richard T. Ely, with minors in philosophy and ethics. Ross was a professor at Indiana University, secretary of the American Economic Association, professor at Cornell University, professor at Stanford University. In Stanford's "first academic freedom controversy", Ross was fired from Stanford because of his political views on eugenics, he objected to Chinese immigrant labor and Japanese immigration altogether. In the speech, the catalyst for his potential firing and ultimate resignation, he was quoted as declaring: And should the worst come to the worst it would be better for us if we were to turn our guns upon every vessel bringing Japanese to our shores rather than to permit them to land In response, Jane Stanford called for his resignation.
In Ross' public statement as to his resignation, he wrote about how his good friend, Dr. Jordan, was the one who asked him to make the unfortunate speech in the first place, which ended up being surrounded with so much controversy. Jordan managed to keep Ross from being fired; the position was at odds with the university's founding family, the Stanfords, who had made their fortune in Western rail construction, a major employer of coolie laborers. Ross had made critical remarks about the railroad industry in his classes: "A railroad deal is a railroad steal." This was too much for Jane Stanford, Leland Stanford's widow, on the board of trustees of the university. Numerous professors at Stanford resigned after protests of his dismissal, sparking "a national debate... concerning the freedom of expression and control of universities by private interests." The American Association of University Professors was founded in response to this incident. Ross left for the University of Nebraska, where he taught until 1905.
In 1906, he moved to the University of Wisconsin–Madison, where he became Professor of Sociology, chairman of the department. He retired in 1937, his understanding of Americanization and assimilation bore a striking resemblance to that of another Wisconsin professor, Frederick Jackson Turner. Like Turner, Ross believed; the 1890 census's proclamation that the frontier had disappeared posed a significant threat to America's ability to assimilate the mass of immigrants who were arriving from southern and eastern Europe. In 1897, just four years after Turner had presented his frontier thesis to the American Historical Association, Ross at Stanford, argued that the loss of the frontier destroyed the machinery of the melting pot process. In 1913, the State of Wisconsin passed its first sterilization law. Ross, who lived in Wisconsin at the time, was a reserved proponent of sterilization and indicated his support for the measure, he qualified his support by contrasting it with the greater harm of hanging a man.and advocated its initial use "only to extreme cases, where the commitments and the record pile up an overwhelming case."
Involuntary sterilization remained legal in Wisconsin until July 1978. Ross visited Russia after the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, he endorsed the revolution as he acknowledged its bloody origins. He was subsequently a leading advocate of US recognition of the Soviet Union. However, he served on the Dewey Commission, which cleared Leon Trotsky of the charges made against him by the Soviet government during the Moscow Trials. From 1900 to the 1920s, Ross supported the alcohol Prohibition movement as well as continuing to support eugenics and immigration restriction. By 1930, he had moved away from those views, however. In the 1930s, he was a supporter of the New Deal programs of President Franklin Roosevelt. In 1940, he became chairman of the national committee of the American Civil Liberties Union, serving until 1950, he died in 1951. Honest Dollars. Chicago: C. H. Kerr & Co. 1896. Social Control: A Survey of the Foundations of Order, The Macmillan Company, 1901. Foundations of Sociology, The Macmillan Company, 1905.
Sin and Society: An Analysis of Latter-Day Iniquity, Mifflin & Company, 1907. Social Psychology: An Outline and Source Book, The Macmillan Company, 1908. Latter Day Sinners and Saints, B. W. Huebsch, 1910; the Changing Chinese: The Conflict of Oriental and Western Cultures in China, The Century Co. 1911. Changing America: Studies in Contemporary Society, The Century Co. 1912. The Old World in the New: The Significance of Past and Present Immigration to the American People, The Century Co. 1914. South of Panama, The Century Co. 1915. Russia in Upheaval, The Century Co. 1918. What is America?, The Century Co. 1919. The Principles of Sociology, The Century Co. 1920. The Russian Bolshevik Revolution, The Century Co. 1921. The Social Trend, The Century Co. 1922. The Outlines of Sociology, The Century Co. 1923. The Russian Soviet Republic, The Century Co. 1923. The Social Revolution in Mexico, The Century Co. 1923. Changes in the Size of Americ
Susan N. Herman
Susan N. Herman is an American constitutional law scholar and, since October 2008, the president of the American Civil Liberties Union. Herman has taught at Brooklyn Law School since 1980. Herman studied philosophy at Barnard College where she received a BA degree in 1968, she earned a JD degree from the New York University School of Law, where she served as note and comment editor for the New York University Law Review. Herman served as pro se law clerk for the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, she was a staff attorney and associate director for Prisoners' Legal Services of New York. She teaches courses in constitutional law and criminal procedure, seminars on law and literature, terrorism and civil liberties, she began working for the ACLU as an intern in law school. When she was elected president, Herman was the organization's general counsel and had served on its board for 20 years. Herman's book Taking Liberties: the War on Terror and the Erosion of American Democracy was published by Oxford University Press in October 2011.
Herman's profile at the ACLU website Susan Herman blog posts, ACLU Blog Appearances on C-SPAN Appearance on "Office Hours" https://soundcloud.com/user-36623013/office-hours-aclu-uncensored