Arthur Asher Miller was an American playwright, a controversial figure in the twentieth-century American theater. Among his most popular plays are All My Sons, Death of a Salesman, The Crucible and A View from the Bridge, he was most noted for his work on The Misfits. The drama Death of a Salesman has been numbered on the short list of finest American plays in the 20th century. Miller was in the public eye during the late 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s. During this time, he was awarded a Pulitzer Prize for Drama, testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee and was married to Marilyn Monroe. In 1980, Miller received the St. Louis Literary Award from the Saint Louis University Library Associates, he received the Prince of Asturias Award, the Praemium Imperiale prize in 2002 and the Jerusalem Prize in 2003, as well as the Dorothy and Lillian Gish Lifetime Achievement Award. Miller was born on October 17, 1915, in Harlem, in the New York City borough of Manhattan, the second of three children of Augusta and Isidore Miller.
Miller was Jewish, of Polish Jewish descent. His father was born in Radomyśl Wielki and his mother was a native of New York whose parents arrived from that town. Isidore owned a women's clothing manufacturing business employing 400 people, he became a respected man in the community. The family, including his younger sister Joan Copeland, lived on West 110th Street in Manhattan, owned a summer house in Far Rockaway and employed a chauffeur. In the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the family lost everything and moved to Gravesend, Brooklyn; as a teenager, Miller delivered bread every morning before school to help the family. After graduating in 1932 from Abraham Lincoln High School, he worked at several menial jobs to pay for his college tuition. After graduation, he began to work as a psychiatric aide and a copywriter before accepting faculty posts at New York University and New Hampshire University. On May 1, 1935, Miller joined the League of American Writers, whose members included Alexander Trachtenberg of International Publishers, Frank Folsom, Louis Untermeyer, I. F. Stone, Myra Page, Millen Brand, Lillian Hellman, Dashiell Hammett.
At the University of Michigan, Miller first majored in journalism and worked for the student paper, The Michigan Daily. It was during this time. Miller switched his major to English, subsequently won the Avery Hopwood Award for No Villain; the award brought him his first recognition and led him to begin to consider that he could have a career as a playwright. Miller enrolled in a playwriting seminar taught by the influential Professor Kenneth Rowe, who instructed him in his early forays into playwriting. Rowe provided realistic feedback along with much-needed encouragement, became a lifelong friend. Miller retained strong ties to his alma mater throughout the rest of his life, establishing the university's Arthur Miller Award in 1985 and Arthur Miller Award for Dramatic Writing in 1999, lending his name to the Arthur Miller Theatre in 2000. In 1937, Miller wrote Honors at Dawn, which received the Avery Hopwood Award. After his graduation in 1938, he joined the Federal Theatre Project, a New Deal agency established to provide jobs in the theater.
He chose the theater project despite the more lucrative offer to work as a scriptwriter for 20th Century Fox. However, worried about possible Communist infiltration, closed the project in 1939. Miller began working in the Brooklyn Navy Yard while continuing to write radio plays, some of which were broadcast on CBS. In 1940, Miller married Mary Grace Slattery; the couple had two children and Robert. Miller was exempted from military service during World War II because of a high school football injury to his left kneecap; that same year his first play was produced. The play closed after four performances with disastrous reviews. In 1947, Miller's play All My Sons, the writing of which had commenced in 1941, was a success on Broadway and his reputation as a playwright was established. Years in a 1994 interview with Ron Rifkin, Miller said that most contemporary critics regarded All My Sons as "a depressing play in a time of great optimism" and that positive reviews from Brooks Atkinson of The New York Times had saved it from failure.
In 1948, Miller built a small studio in Connecticut. There, in less than a day, he wrote Act I of Death of a Salesman. Within six weeks, he completed the rest of one of the classics of world theater. Death of a Salesman premiered on Broadway on February 10, 1949, at the Morosco Theatre, directed by Elia Kazan, starring Lee J. Cobb as Willy Loman, Mildred Dunnock as Linda, Arthur Kennedy as Biff, Cameron Mitchell as Happy; the play was commercially successful and critically acclaimed, winning a Tony Award for Best Author, the New York Drama Circle Critics' Award, the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. It was the first play to win all three of these major awards; the play was performed 742 times. In 1949, Miller exchanged letters with Eugene O'Neill regarding Miller's production of All My Sons. O'Neill had sent Miller a congratulatory telegram.
Benjamin Jonson was an English playwright, poet and literary critic, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy. He popularised the comedy of humours, he is best known for the satirical plays Every Man in His Humour, Volpone, or The Fox, The Alchemist and Bartholomew Fair and for his lyric and epigrammatic poetry. "He is regarded as the second most important English dramatist, after William Shakespeare, during the reign of James I."Jonson was a classically educated, well-read and cultured man of the English Renaissance with an appetite for controversy whose cultural influence was of unparalleled breadth upon the playwrights and the poets of the Jacobean era and of the Caroline era. In midlife, Jonson claimed that his paternal grandfather, who'served King Henry 8 and was a gentleman', was a member of the extended Johnston family of Annandale in the Dumfries and Galloway, a genealogy, attested by the three spindles in the Jonson family coat of arms: one spindle is a diamond-shaped heraldic device used by the Johnston family.
Jonson's father lost his property, was imprisoned, suffered forfeiture under Queen Mary. Jonson's mother married a master bricklayer two years later. Jonson attended school in St Martin's Lane. A family friend paid for his studies at Westminster School, where the antiquarian, historian and officer of arms, William Camden was one of his masters. In the event, the pupil and the master became friends, the intellectual influence of Camden's broad-ranging scholarship upon Jonson's art and literary style remained notable, until Camden's death in 1623. On leaving Westminster School, Jonson was to have attended the University of Cambridge, to continue his book learning but did not, because of his unwilled apprenticeship to his bricklayer stepfather. According to the churchman and historian Thomas Fuller, Jonson at this time built a garden wall in Lincoln's Inn. After having been an apprentice bricklayer, Ben Jonson went to the Netherlands and volunteered to soldier with the English regiments of Francis Vere in Flanders.
The Hawthornden Manuscripts, of the conversations between Ben Jonson and the poet William Drummond of Hawthornden, report that, when in Flanders, Jonson engaged and killed an enemy soldier in single combat, took for trophies the weapons of the vanquished soldier. After his military activity on the Continent, Jonson returned to England and worked as an actor and as a playwright; as an actor, Jonson was the protagonist “Hieronimo” in the play The Spanish Tragedy, by Thomas Kyd, the first revenge tragedy in English literature. Moreover, by 1597, he was a working playwright employed by Philip Henslowe, the leading producer for the English public theatre. Regarding his marriage Jonson described his wife to William Drummond as "a shrew, yet honest"; the identity of Jonson's wife has always been obscure, yet she sometimes is identified as "Ann Lewis", the woman who married a Benjamin Jonson in 1594, at the church of St Magnus-the-Martyr, near London Bridge. Concerning the family of Anne Lewis and Ben Jonson, the St. Martin's Church registers indicate that Mary Jonson, their eldest daughter, died in November 1593, at six months of age.
A decade in 1603, Benjamin Jonson, their eldest son, died of Bubonic plague when he was seven years old. Moreover, 32 years a second son named Benjamin Jonson, died in 1635. In that period, Ann Lewis and Ben Jonson lived separate lives for five years. By summer 1597, Jonson had a fixed engagement in the Admiral's Men performing under Philip Henslowe's management at The Rose. John Aubrey reports, on uncertain authority. By this time Jonson had begun to write original plays for the Admiral's Men. None of his early tragedies survive, however. An undated comedy, may be his earliest surviving play. In 1597 a play which he co-wrote with Thomas Nashe, The Isle of Dogs, was suppressed after causing great offence. Arrest warrants for Jonson and Nashe were issued by Queen Elizabeth I's so-called interrogator, Richard Topcliffe. Jonson was jailed in Marshalsea Prison and charged with "Leude and mutynous behaviour", while Nashe managed to escape to Great Yarmouth. Two of the actors, Gabriel Spenser and Robert Shaw, were imprisoned.
A year Jonson was again imprisoned, this time in Newgate Prison, for killing Gabriel Spenser in a duel on 22 September 1598 in Hogsden Fields. Tried on a charge of manslaughter, Jonson pleaded guilty but was released by benefit of clergy, a legal ploy through which he gained leniency by reciting a brief bible verse, forfeiting his'goods and chattels' and being branded on his left thumb. While in jail Jonson converted to Catholicism through the influence of fellow-prisoner Father Thomas Wright, a Jesuit priest. In 1598 Jons
Peer Gynt is a five-act play in verse by the Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen published in 1867. Written in Danish—the common written language of Denmark and Norway in Ibsen's lifetime—it is one of the most performed Norwegian plays. Ibsen believed Per Gynt, the Norwegian fairy tale on which the play is loosely based, to be rooted in fact, several of the characters are modelled after Ibsen's own family, notably his parents Knud Ibsen and Marichen Altenburg, he was generally inspired by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen's collection of Norwegian fairy tales, published in 1845. Peer Gynt chronicles the journey of its titular character from the Norwegian mountains to the North African desert. According to Klaus Van Den Berg, "its origins are romantic, but the play anticipates the fragmentations of emerging modernism" and the "cinematic script blends poetry with social satire and realistic scenes with surreal ones." Peer Gynt has been described as the story of a life based on procrastination and avoidance.
The play was written in Italy and a first edition of 1,250 copies was published on 14 November 1867 by the Danish publisher Gyldendal in Copenhagen. Although the first edition swiftly sold out, a reprint of two thousand copies, which followed after only fourteen days, didn't sell out until seven years later. While Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson admired the play's "satire on Norwegian egotism and self-sufficiency" and described it as "magnificent", Hans Christian Andersen, Georg Brandes and Clemens Petersen all joined the widespread hostility, Petersen writing that the play was not poetry. Enraged by Petersen's criticisms in particular, Ibsen defended his work by arguing that it "is poetry; the conception of poetry in our country, in Norway, shall shape itself according to this book." Despite this defense of his poetic achievement in Peer Gynt, the play was his last to employ verse. Ibsen wrote Peer Gynt in deliberate disregard of the limitations that the conventional stagecraft of the 19th century imposed on drama.
Its forty scenes move uninhibitedly in time and space and between consciousness and the unconscious, blending folkloric fantasy and unsentimental realism. Raymond Williams compares Peer Gynt with August Strindberg's early drama Lucky Peter's Journey and argues that both explore a new kind of dramatic action, beyond the capacities of the theatre of the day. Peer Gynt was first performed in Christiania on 24 February 1876, with original music composed by Edvard Grieg that includes some of today's most recognized classical pieces, "In the Hall of the Mountain King" and "Morning Mood", it was published in German translation in 1881, in English in 1892, in French in 1896. The contemporary influence of the play continues into the twenty-first century. Peer Gynt was written in Danish, the common written language of Denmark and Norway since the Dano-Norwegian union and throughout Ibsen's lifetime; the language was referred to as Danish in Denmark and as Norwegian in Norway, although it was the same written language, is therefore called Dano-Norwegian.
Due to its basis in Norwegian folktales, the play uses a few Norwegianisms in its vocabulary and idiom, but is otherwise written in a language identical to standard Danish. Peer Gynt was published by the Danish publisher Gyldendal in Copenhagen and targeted at both the Danish and the Norwegian market in its original language. Peer Gynt is the son of the once regarded Jon Gynt. Jon Gynt spent all his money on feasting and living lavishly, had to leave his farm to become a wandering salesman, leaving his wife and son behind in debt. Åse, the mother, wished to raise her son to restore the lost fortune of his father, but Peer is soon to be considered useless. He is a poet and a braggart, not like the youngest son from Norwegian fairy tales, the "Ash Lad", with whom he shares some characteristics; as the play opens, Peer gives an account of a reindeer hunt that went awry, a famous theatrical scene known as "the Buckride". His mother scorns him for his vivid imagination, taunts him because he spoiled his chances with Ingrid, the daughter of the richest farmer.
Peer leaves for Ingrid's wedding, scheduled for the following day, because he may still get a chance with the bride. His mother follows to stop him from shaming himself completely. At the wedding, the other guests taunt and laugh at Peer the local blacksmith, who holds a grudge after an earlier brawl. In the same wedding, Peer meets a family of Haugean newcomers from another valley, he notices the elder daughter and asks her to dance. She refuses because her father would disapprove, because Peer's reputation has preceded him, she leaves, Peer starts drinking. When he hears the bride has locked herself in, he seizes the opportunity, runs away with her, spends the night with her in the mountains. Peer is banished for kidnapping Ingrid; as he wanders the mountains, his mother, Åse, Solveig's father search for him. Peer meets three amorous dairymaids, he becomes intoxicated with them and spends the next day alone suffering from a hangover. He runs head-first into a rock and swoons, the rest of the second act takes place in Peer's dreams.
He comes across a woman clad in green. Together they ride into the mountain hall, the troll king gives Peer the opport
Fernando Arrabal Terán is a Spanish playwright, film director and poet. He was born in Melilla and settled in France in 1955. Regarding his nationality, Arrabal describes himself as "desterrado", or "half-expatriate, half-exiled". Arrabal has published over 100 plays, his complete plays have been published, in multiple languages, in a two-volume edition totaling over two thousand pages. The New York Times' theatre critic Mel Gussow has called Arrabal the last survivor among the "three avatars of modernism". In 1962, Arrabal co-founded the Panic Movement with Alejandro Jodorowsky and Roland Topor, inspired by the god Pan, he was elected Transcendent Satrap of the Collège de Pataphysique in 1990. Forty other Transcendent Satraps have been elected over the past half-century, including Marcel Duchamp, Eugène Ionesco, Man Ray, Boris Vian, Dario Fo, Umberto Eco, Jean Baudrillard. Arrabal spent three years as a member of André Breton's surrealist group and was a friend of Andy Warhol and Tristan Tzara.
Writer and critic Javier Villan wrote of Arrabal:Arrabal's theatre is a wild, brutal and joyously provocative world. It is a dramatic carnival in which the carcass of our'advanced' civilizations is barbecued over the spits of a permanent revolution, he is the artistic heir of Jarry's humor. Yet he is doubtless the only writer to have pushed derision as far. Political and merrily playful, both revolutionary and bohemian, his work is the syndrome of our century of barbed wire and Gulags, a manner of finding a reprieve. Arrabal was born to painter Fernando Arrabal Ruiz. On July 17, 1936, when insurrections within the military were staged against the constitutional government of the Second Spanish Republic, launching the Spanish Civil War, Arrabal's father remained faithful to the Republic and was sentenced to death for mutiny, his sentence was commuted to 30 years’ imprisonment. He was transferred between prisons, from Santi Espiritu in Melilla to Monte Hacho in Ceuta, where he attempted suicide, as well as Ciudad Rodrigo and Burgos.
On December 4, 1941, he was sent to the Burgos Hospital due to apparent mental disorder. Research has found that he feigned mental order in order to be transferred to a lower security prison. On December 29, 1941, he escaped from the hospital in his pajamas, despite three feet of snow covering the countryside. Despite extensive research, he was never seen again. About his father, Arrabal has written: “Without trying to compare what is incomparable, when I confront these twilight episodes, I think of that scapegoat, my father; the day on which the Uncivil War began, he was locked up by his'compassionate companions' in the flag room of the Melilla military barracks. He was meant to think since he risked a death sentence for mutiny if he did not join them in their insurrection. After an hour, Lieutenant Fernando Arrabal summoned his ex-comrades – already! – to inform them that he had pondered long enough. Today, because of this precedent, must I serve as witness, example, or symbol, as he did, of the most fundamental occurrences?
I, who am a mere exile. If I am taken away from my beloved numerics, everything around me leads to over-the-counter confusion and disorder. I have no wish to be a scapegoat like my father, I only ask to die while still living, whenever Pan so wishes.” In 1936, Arrabal’s mother returned to Ciudad Rodrigo with her young son and found a job at Burgos, then-capitol of the Nationalists and headquarters of General Franco's government. Fernando was enrolled in a local Catholic school from 1937 until 1940, when the Civil War ended and he moved with his mother to Madrid. Arrabal was awarded the national prize for gifted children in 1941, he continued his studies at Las Escuelas Pías de San Antón, a church school whose alumni have included Victor Hugo and Jacinto Benavente y Martínez. Arrabal studied at another distinguished Madrid school, Colegio Padres Escolapios De Getafe, he was eager to experience life. In 1947, when his mother ordered him to attend preparatory classes for entrance to the Academia General Militar, Arrabal protested by playing hooky.
She subsequently sent him to Tolosa, where he studied business at the Escuela Teórico-Práctica de la Industria y el Comercio del Papel, in 1949. By 1950, he had begun writing several plays. In 1951, Arrabal began working in the paper industry at La Papelera Española, he moved to Valencia and passed his bachillerato, the first non-compulsory educational option in Spain for admission to university. He moved to Madrid and began Legal Studies. During these years, he frequented the cultural institution Ateneo de Madrid and heard poets from the Postismo school, he was finishing his early play Picnic titled The Soldiers, writing El triciclo, at first titled Men with a Tricycle. In 1954, Arrabal hitchhiked to Paris to attend a performance of Bertolt Brecht’s Mother Courage and Her Children given by the touring Berliner Ensemble; that year, in Madrid, he met Luce Moreau, who became his wife. In 1955, he was awarded a three-month scholarship to study in Paris, during which time he lived at the Colegio de España at the Cité Universitaire.
While in Paris he suffered a serious relapse of tuberculosis. He considered this disease to be a "lucky mishap" that allowed him to move permanently to his
William Shakespeare was an English poet and actor regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon", his extant works, including collaborations, consist of 39 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare was raised in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna and twins Hamnet and Judith. Sometime between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor and part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men known as the King's Men. At age 49, he appears to have retired to Stratford. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive; such theories are criticised for failing to adequately note that few records survive of most commoners of the period.
Shakespeare produced most of his known works between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were comedies and histories and are regarded as some of the best work produced in these genres; until about 1608, he wrote tragedies, among them Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth, all considered to be among the finest works in the English language. In the last phase of his life, he collaborated with other playwrights. Many of Shakespeare's plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy in his lifetime. However, in 1623, two fellow actors and friends of Shakespeare's, John Heminges and Henry Condell, published a more definitive text known as the First Folio, a posthumous collected edition of Shakespeare's dramatic works that included all but two of his plays; the volume was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Jonson presciently hails Shakespeare in a now-famous quote as "not of an age, but for all time". Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, Shakespeare's works have been continually adapted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance.
His plays remain popular and are studied and reinterpreted through various cultural and political contexts around the world. William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover from Snitterfield, Mary Arden, the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer, he was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actual date of birth remains unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, Saint George's Day; this date, which can be traced to a mistake made by an 18th-century scholar, has proved appealing to biographers because Shakespeare died on the same date in 1616. He was the third of eight children, the eldest surviving son. Although no attendance records for the period survive, most biographers agree that Shakespeare was educated at the King's New School in Stratford, a free school chartered in 1553, about a quarter-mile from his home. Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but grammar school curricula were similar: the basic Latin text was standardised by royal decree, the school would have provided an intensive education in grammar based upon Latin classical authors.
At the age of 18, Shakespeare married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway. The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582; the next day, two of Hathaway's neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage. The ceremony may have been arranged in some haste since the Worcester chancellor allowed the marriage banns to be read once instead of the usual three times, six months after the marriage Anne gave birth to a daughter, baptised 26 May 1583. Twins, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed two years and were baptised 2 February 1585. Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596. After the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592; the exception is the appearance of his name in the "complaints bill" of a law case before the Queen's Bench court at Westminster dated Michaelmas Term 1588 and 9 October 1589. Scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as Shakespeare's "lost years".
Biographers attempting to account for this period have reported many apocryphal stories. Nicholas Rowe, Shakespeare's first biographer, recounted a Stratford legend that Shakespeare fled the town for London to escape prosecution for deer poaching in the estate of local squire Thomas Lucy. Shakespeare is supposed to have taken his revenge on Lucy by writing a scurrilous ballad about him. Another 18th-century story has Shakespeare starting his theatrical career minding the horses of theatre patrons in London. John Aubrey reported; some 20th-century scholars have suggested that Shakespeare may have been employed as a schoolmaster by Alexander Hoghton of Lancashire, a Catholic landowner who named a certain "William Shakeshafte" in his will. Little evidence substantiates such stories other than hearsay collected after his death, Shakeshafte was a common name in the Lancashire area, it is not known definitively when Shakespeare began writing, but contemporary allusions and records of performances show that several of
Jacques Doillon is a French film director. He has a habit of giving lead roles to inexperienced young actresses in his films on family life and women; some actresses to break through are Fanny Bastien, Sandrine Bonnaire, Judith Godrèche, Marianne Denicourt, Charlotte Gainsbourg and Juliette Binoche. Doillon was born in Paris, he has two daughters: Lola Doillon, whose mother is film editor Noëlle Boisson, Lou Doillon, from his relationship with actress Jane Birkin in the 1980s. His 1989 film The 15 Year Old Girl was entered into the 16th Moscow International Film Festival, his 1990 film La vengeance d'une femme was entered into the 40th Berlin International Film Festival. The following year, his film Le Petit Criminel won an Honourable Mention at the 41st Berlin International Film Festival. In 1993, his film Le Jeune Werther won the Blue Angel Award at the 43rd Berlin International Film Festival. In 1998, his film Trop d'amour was entered into the 48th Berlin International Film Festival. Jacques Doillon on IMDb
Jean Rouch was a French filmmaker and anthropologist. He is considered to be one of the founders of cinéma vérité in France. Rouch's practice as a filmmaker, for over sixty years in Africa, was characterized by the idea of shared anthropology. Influenced by his discovery of surrealism in his early twenties, many of his films blur the line between fiction and documentary, creating a new style: ethnofiction, he was hailed by the French New Wave filmmakers as one of their own. His seminal film Me. Commenting Rouch’s work, someone "in charge of research for the Musée de l'Homme" in Paris, Godard questioned: “Is there a better definition for a filmmaker?". Jean Rouch began his long association with African subjects in 1941, when he arrived in Niamey as a French colonial hydrology engineer to supervise a construction project in Niger. There he met Damouré Zika, the son of a Songhai traditional healer and fisherman, near the town of Ayorou, on the Niger River. After ten Sorko workers were killed by a lightning strike in a construction depot which Rouch supervised, Zika's grandmother, a famous possession medium and spiritual advisor, presided over a ritual for men, which Rouch claimed sparked his desire to make ethnographic film.
He became interested in Songhai ethnology. He filmed the ceremonies of the Songhai people. During his work in Niger, Jean Rouch documented such events and sent his work to Marcel Griaule, his teacher, who encouraged him to continue his work with the Songhai and go deeper into his studies. Shortly afterwards he returned to France to participate in the Resistance. After the war, he did a brief stint as a journalist with Agence France-Presse before returning to Africa where he became an influential anthropologist and sometimes controversial filmmaker. Damouré Zika and Rouch became friends. In 1950, Rouch started to use Zika as the central character of his films, registering the traditions and ecology of the people of the Niger River valley; the first film in which Zika appeared was Bataille sur le grand fleuve, portraying the life and hunting of Sorko fishermen. Rouch spent four months travelling with Sorko fishermen in a traditional pirogue, his early films-such as Hippopotamus Hunt, Cliff Cemetery, The Rain Makers - were traditional, narrated reports, but he became an innovative influence.
Rouch made his first films in Niger: Au pays des mages noirs, Initiation à la danse des possédés and Les magicians de Wanzarbé, all of which documented the spirit possession rituals of the Songhai and Sorko, peoples living along the Niger River. Jean Rouch is considered the father of Nigerien cinema. Despite arriving as a colonialist in 1941, Rouch remained in Niger after independence and mentored a generation of Nigerien filmmakers and actors, including Damouré Zika. During the 1950s, Rouch began to produce longer ethnographic films. In 1954 he filmed Damouré Zika in Jaguar, as a young Songhai man traveling for work to the Gold Coast. Three men dramatized their real-life roles in the film, went on to become one of the first three actors of Nigerien cinema. Filmed as a silent ethnographic piece, Zika helped re-edit the film into a feature-length movie which stood somewhere between documentary and fiction, provided dialogue and commentary for a 1969 release. In 1957 Rouch directed in Côte d'Ivoire Moi un noir with the young Nigerien filmmaker Oumarou Ganda, who had returned from French military service in Indochina.
Ganda went on to become actor. By the early 1970s, with cast, co-writing from his Nigerien collaborators, was producing full-length dramatic films in Niger, such as Petit à petit and Cocorico Monsieur Poulet. Still, many of the ethnographic films produced in the colonial era by Jean Rouch and others were rejected by African filmmakers because in their view they distorted African realities, he is considered as one of the pioneers of Nouvelle Vague, of visual anthropology and the father of ethnofiction. Rouch's films belonged to the cinéma vérité school – a term that Edgar Morin used in a 1960 France-Observateur article referring to the Kino-Pravda newsreels of Dziga Vertov, his best-known film, one of the central works of the Nouvelle Vague, is Chronique d'un été which he filmed with sociologist Edgar Morin and in which he portrays the social life of contemporary France. Throughout his career, he used his camera to report on life in Africa. Over the course of five decades, he made 120 films. With Jean-Michel Arnold he founded the international documentary film festival, the Cinéma du Réel, at the Pompidou Centre in Paris in 1978.
He died in a car accident in February 16 kilometres from the town of Birni-N ` Konni, Niger. In her 2017 essay "How the Art World, Art Schools, Are Ripe for Sexual Abuse," contemporary artist Coco Fusco details an early encounter with Rouch: "I was sexually accosted by the renowned ethnographic filmmaker Jean Rouch, credited with having invented a better way to look at Africans." 1947: Au pays des mages noirs 1949: Initiation à la danse des possédés 1949: La Circoncision 1950: Cimetière dans la falaise 1951: Bataille sur le grand fleuve 1953: Les Fils de l'eau 1954: Mammy Water 1954: Les maîtres fous 1957: Baby Ghana 1958: Moi, un noir 19