Sir Johannes Bjelke-Petersen, was an Australian politician. He was the longest-serving and longest-lived Premier of Queensland, holding office from 1968 to 1987, during which time the state underwent considerable economic development, his uncompromising conservatism, his political longevity, his leadership of a government that, in its years, was revealed to be institutionally corrupt, made him one of the best-known and most controversial political figures of 20th century Australia. Bjelke-Petersen's Country Party controlled Queensland despite receiving the smallest number of votes out of the state's leading three parties, achieving the result through a notorious system of electoral malapportionment that resulted in rural votes having a greater value than those cast in city electorates; the effect earned Bjelke-Petersen the nickname of "the Hillbilly Dictator". Yet he was a popular figure among conservative voters and over the course of his 19 years as premier he tripled the number of people who voted for his party and doubled the party's percentage vote.
After the Liberals pulled out of the government in 1983, Bjelke-Petersen reduced his former coalition partners to a mere six seats in an election held that year. In 1985 Bjelke-Petersen launched a campaign to move into federal politics to become prime minister, though the campaign was aborted. Bjelke-Petersen was a divisive premier and earned himself a reputation as a "law and order" politician with his repeated use of police force against street demonstrators and strongarm tactics with trade unions, leading to frequent descriptions of Queensland under his leadership as a police state. From 1987 his administration came under the scrutiny of a royal commission into police corruption and its links with state government ministers. Bjelke-Petersen was unable to recover from the series of damaging findings and after resisting a party vote that replaced him as leader, resigned from politics on 1 December 1987. Two of his state ministers, as well as the police commissioner Bjelke-Petersen had appointed and knighted, were jailed for corruption offences and in 1991 Bjelke-Petersen, was tried for perjury over his evidence to the royal commission.
Bjelke-Petersen was born in Dannevirke in the southern Hawke's Bay region of New Zealand, lived in Waipukurau, a small town in Hawke's Bay. The Australian Bjelke-Petersen family are of Swedish descent. Bjelke-Petersen's parents were both Danish immigrants, his father, was a Lutheran pastor. In 1913 the family moved to Australia, establishing a farm, "Bethany", near Kingaroy in south-eastern Queensland; the young Bjelke-Petersen suffered from polio. The family was poor, Carl Bjelke-Petersen was in poor health. Bjelke-Petersen finished formal schooling at age 14 to work with his mother on the farm, though he enrolled in correspondence school and undertook a University of Queensland extension course on the "Art of Writing", he taught Sunday school, delivered sermons in nearby towns and joined the Kingaroy debating society. In 1933, Bjelke-Petersen began work land-clearing and peanut farming on the family's newly acquired second property, his efforts allowed him to begin work as a contract land-clearer and to acquire further capital which he invested in farm equipment and natural resource exploration.
He developed a technique for clearing scrub by connecting a heavy anchor chain between two bulldozers. By the time he was 30, he was businessman. Obtaining a pilot's licence early in his adult life, Bjelke-Petersen started aerial spraying and grass seeding to further speed up pasture development in Queensland. After failing in a 1944 plebiscite against the sitting member to gain Country Party endorsement in the state seat of Nanango, based on Kingaroy, Bjelke-Petersen was elected in 1946 to the Kingaroy Shire Council, where he developed a profile in the Country Party. With the support of local federal member and shire council chairman Sir Charles Adermann and Sir Frank Nicklin, he gained Country Party endorsement for Nanango and was elected a year at age 36, going on to give regular radio talks and becoming secretary of the local Nationals branch, he would hold this seat, renamed Barambah in 1950, for the next 40 years. The Labor Party had held power in Queensland since 1932 and Bjelke-Petersen spent eleven years as an opposition member.
On 31 May 1952, Bjelke-Petersen married typist Florence Gilmour, who would become a significant political figure in her own right. In 1957, following a split in the Labor Party, the Country Party under Nicklin came to power, with the Liberal Party as a junior coalition partner; this was a reversal of the situation at the national level. Queensland is Australia's least centralised state. In these areas, the Country Party was stronger than the Liberal Party; as a result, the Country Party had been the larger of the two non-Labor parties, had been senior partner in the Coalition since 1925. In 1963 Nicklin appointed Bjelke-Petersen as minister for works and housing, a portfolio that gave him the opportunity to bestow favours and earn the loyalty of backbenchers by approving construction of schools, police stations and public housing in their electorates. At various times, he served as acting minister for education, police and Island Affairs, local government and conservation and labour and industry.
He would serv
Hanging is the suspension of a person by a noose or ligature around the neck. The Oxford English Dictionary states that hanging in this sense is "specifically to put to death by suspension by the neck", though it also referred to crucifixion and death by impalement in which the body would remain "hanging". Hanging has been a common method of capital punishment since medieval times, is the primary execution method in numerous countries and regions; the first known account of execution by hanging was in Homer's Odyssey. In this specialised meaning of the common word hang, the past and past participle is hanged instead of hung. Hanging is a common method of suicide in which a person applies a ligature to the neck and brings about unconsciousness and death by suspension. Partial suspension or partial weight-bearing on the ligature is sometimes used in prisons, mental hospitals or other institutions, where full suspension support is difficult to devise, because high ligature points have been removed.
There are numerous methods of hanging in execution which instigate death either by the fracturing of the spine or by strangulation. The short drop is a method of hanging performed by placing the condemned prisoner on a stool, the top of a ladder, the back of a cart, horse, or other vehicle, with the noose around the neck; the object is moved away, leaving the person dangling from the rope. Suspended by the neck, the weight of the body is used to tighten the noose around the trachea and neck structure causing strangulation and subsequently death; this takes between ten and twenty minutes, with unconsciousness occurring within 6–15 seconds. Before 1850, the short drop was the standard method for hanging, is still common in suicides and extrajudicial hangings which do not benefit from the specialised equipment and drop-length calculation tables used by the newer methods. A short drop variant is the Austro-Hungarian "pole" method, called Würgegalgen, in which the following steps take place: The condemned is made to stand before a specialized vertical pole or pillar 10 feet in height.
A rope is routed through a pulley at the base of the pole. The condemned is hoisted to the top of pole by means of a sling running across the chest and under the armpits. A narrow diameter noose is looped around the prisoner's neck secured to a hook mounted at the top of the pole; the chest sling is released, the prisoner is jerked downward by the assistant executioners via the foot rope. The executioner stands on a stepped platform 4 feet high beside the condemned, guides the head downward with his hand simultaneous to the efforts of his assistants; this method was also adopted by the successor states, most notably by Czechoslovakia. Nazi war criminal Karl Hermann Frank, executed in 1946 in Prague, was among 1,000 condemned people executed in this manner in Czechoslovakia; the standard drop involves a drop of between 4 and 6 feet and came into use from 1866, when the scientific details were published by an Irish doctor, Samuel Haughton. Its use spread to English-speaking countries and those where judicial systems had an English origin.
It was considered a humane improvement on the short drop because it was intended to be enough to break the person's neck, causing immediate unconsciousness and rapid brain death. This method was used to execute condemned Nazis under United States jurisdiction after the Nuremberg Trials including Joachim von Ribbentrop and Ernst Kaltenbrunner. In the execution of Ribbentrop, historian Giles MacDonogh records that: "The hangman botched the execution and the rope throttled the former foreign minister for twenty minutes before he expired." A Life magazine report on the execution says: "The trap fell open and with a sound midway between a rumble and a crash, Ribbentrop disappeared. The rope quivered for a time stood tautly straight." This process known as the measured drop, was introduced to Britain in 1872 by William Marwood as a scientific advance on the standard drop. Instead of everyone falling the same standard distance, the person's height and weight were used to determine how much slack would be provided in the rope so that the distance dropped would be enough to ensure that the neck was broken, but not so much that the person was decapitated.
The careful placement of the eye or knot of the noose contributed to breaking the neck. Prior to 1892, the drop was between four and ten feet, depending on the weight of the body, was calculated to deliver a force of 1,260 lbf, which fractured the neck at either the 2nd and 3rd or 4th and 5th cervical vertebrae; this force resulted in some decapitations, such as the infamous case of Black Jack Ketchum in New Mexico Territory in 1901, owing to a significant weight gain while in custody not having been factored into the drop calculations. Between 1892 and 1913, the length of the drop was shortened to avoid decapitation. After 1913, other factors were taken into account, the force delivered was reduced to about 1,000 lbf; the decapitation of Eva Dugan during a botched hanging in 1930 led the state of Arizona to switch to the gas chamber as its primary execution method, on the grounds that it was believed more humane. One of the more recent decapitations as a result of the long drop occurred when Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti was hanged in Iraq in 2007
Parliament of Queensland
The Parliament of Queensland is the legislature of Queensland, Australia. According to the state's constitution, the Parliament consists of the Queen and the Legislative Assembly, it is the only unicameral state parliament in the country. The upper chamber, the Legislative Council, was abolished in 1922; the Legislative Assembly sits in Parliament House in Brisbane. All laws applicable in Queensland are authorised by the Parliament of Queensland, with the exception of specific legislation defined in the Constitution of Australia, criminal law applying under the Australia Act 1986 as well as older laws passed by New South Wales and the United Kingdom because the state having been was a colony. Following the outcome of the 2015 election, successful amendments to the electoral act in early 2016 include: adding an additional four parliamentary seats from 89 to 93, changing from optional preferential voting to full-preferential voting, moving from unfixed three-year terms to fixed four-year terms.
The Parliament was founded 22 May 1860, less than a year after the Colony of Queensland was created in June 1859. It was convened at military and convict barracks converted for the purpose located on Queen Street, Brisbane. Immigration was an important issue for the early Parliament. Population growth was encouraged with new settlers enticed by land ownership; the official flag of Queensland was adopted in 1867. In 1915, Queensland became the first state to make voting compulsory at state elections. Since 1 April 2003, live audio broadcasts have streamed through the internet from the Parliament while it is in session. In June 2007, the Parliament started broadcasting video of parliamentary proceedings. Nine in-house television cameras are used to record sessions; the first female Speaker, Fiona Simpson was elected on 15 May 2012. The Assembly has 93 Members of Parliament; these are intended to represent the same population in each electorate. Voting is by the Full Preferential Voting system, with elections held once every three years.
In April 2016, legislation was passed to increase the number of seats in the parliament by four to a total of 93. An amendment was passed to abolish optional preferential voting. A referendum held the previous month was passed, supporting a bill to establish fixed four-year terms; the role of the monarch in Parliament is to give royal assent to legislation. This function is in practice exercised by the Governor of Queensland, who conventionally will never refuse assent to a bill that has passed the Legislative Assembly; the party or coalition with the most seats in the house is invited by the Governor to form a government. The leader of that party subsequently becomes Premier of Queensland. In the Liberal National Party, the Premier selects members of their party to act as Ministers. In the Labor Party, the Ministers are elected by partyroom ballot, with the Leader assigning ministerial portfolios to each one. Once all winning candidates have been declared, the Governor of Queensland proclaims a date for the start of the new Parliament.
It is the role of the Clerk of the Parliament to call members to attendance. According to the Constitution of Queensland Act 2001, members of Parliament must swear an oath or affirmation to the Sovereign as well as an oath of office before signing a Roll of Members; the Clerk of the Parliament has the power to swear in members. Sworn-in representatives are required to elect a Speaker to preside over the House's business. Before this occurs the Clerk may point to the next member who may speak. Once elected the Speaker is presented to the Governor at Government House; the ceremonial opening of the new Parliament is marked by a speech by the Governor. Traditionally the speech is written by the new government and it may outline current activities, budget details and proposed lists of legislation which are intended to be introduced. A day in Parliament begins with housekeeping matters, including prayers and the tabling of any documents. An opportunity is given to Ministers to make statements. During a period of no more than an hour, known as question time, any member may pose a question to a Minister.
As of February 2019, the composition of Parliament is: 47 votes as a majority are required to pass legislation. Next Queensland state election Parliaments of the Australian states and territories Legislative Assembly of Queensland List of members of the Queensland Legislative Assembly Palaszczuk Ministry Official website
Caboolture is a town and suburb in Moreton Bay Region, Australia. At the 2016 census, the town of Caboolture had an estimated population of 67,460, it is located on the north side of the Caboolture River, which separates the town from Morayfield and Caboolture South. Caboolture is an urban centre or satellite city 44 kilometres north of Brisbane, the state capital of Queensland. Caboolture is considered to be the northernmost urban area of the greater Brisbane metropolitan region within South East Queensland, it marks the end of the Brisbane suburban commuter railway service along the North Coast railway line; the urban extent of the town of Caboolture is not formally defined but is regarded as including the following suburbs: Bellmere Caboolture Caboolture South Morayfield Upper Caboolture The Kabi indigenous people are the traditional custodians of the area now known as Caboolture. The name Kabultur is derived from the Yugarabul dialect meaning "place of the carpet snake"; the Kabi people harvested bush food, fresh water mussels, oysters and some game animals, moving around the land to take best advantage of seasonally-available produce.
Each year in March, the Kabi people would hold Bunya Festivals to feast on the plentiful and nutritious annual nuts of the Bunya Pine. These huge trees provided a food source. Neighbouring clans were invited to the festivals, where singing, dancing story-telling and arranging of marriages took place; the Caboolture area was colonised by European people in 1842 when the land around the Moreton Bay penal colony was opened up to free settlers. By the mid-1860s the local pastoralists were experimenting with sugar cotton. In 1867, a tiny settlement was established as a supply and trading centre for the settlers in the area and to service the needs of miners trekking from Brisbane to the goldfields near Gympie The local shire was constituted in 1879 and in 1888 the railway line from Brisbane was opened. Caboolture Post Office opened on 1 September 1869. Settlement in Caboolture was accelerated with the discovery of gold at Gympie. In 1868, the town was used as a stop-over point by the Cobb and Co coach service connecting Brisbane and Maryborough.
This function continued with the rail link established in 1888. A small dairy town, the location of Caboolture on the corridor between Brisbane and the Sunshine Coast resulted in an influx of residents in the 1970s and 1980s; the three main factors in this expansion were the electrification of the railway line to Brisbane, enabling travel to the Brisbane CBD in less than an hour, the development of the Bruce Highway to freeway standard, the availability of cheap land. The Caboolture Library opened in 2011; as part of the 30th Anniversary of Expo 88 celebration, on 26 October 2018, artist Ken Done unveiled the restoration of his iconic signs made for the Australia pavilion at Expo 88. It had spent the intervening years in a cow paddock beside the Bruce Highway at Deception Bay; the restoration was undertaken by the Caboolture Historical Village where they will remain on display. Caboolture has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Buckle Street: Lagoon Creek Pumping Station According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 67,460 people in Caboolture Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 4.8% of the population.
75.7% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were New Zealand 4.6%, England 3.5%, Philippines 0.9%, Taiwan 0.6% and South Korea 0.5%. 85.8% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 0.8%, Samoan 0.6%, Tagalog 0.4%, Korean 0.4% and Cantonese 0.3%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 33.2%, Catholic 19.0% and Anglican 15.7%. Caboolture is a regional transport hub. With its connections across the Great Dividing Range via the D'Aguilar Highway, easy highway access to Brisbane and the Sunshine Coast via the Bruce Highway, the Bribie Island Road to Bribie Island, it is a focal point for road traffic. Caboolture railway station is the terminus for QR Citytrain's Caboolture railway line, as well as being a major stop on the North Coast railway line. Citytrain operates regular services to Brisbane, in addition to interurban services to Nambour and Gympie, with significant expansion of services north of Caboolture planned over the next decade.
The area is serviced by Caboolture Bus Lines and the larger Kangaroo Bus Lines. Caboolture contains its own airfield, which services general and recreational aviation. Visiting aircraft are able to operate into the Caboolture airstrip, under the operational control of the Caboolture Aero Club Inc. Additionally the airport is home to a number of aviation enterprises and attractions - amongst them, the Caboolture Warplane Museum, skydiving club, the Beaufort Restoration group. Caboolture's senior sporting teams predominantly play in the respective Sunshine Coast competitions; the suburbs cricket club are reigning Sunshine Coast Cricket Association first division premiers. The rugby union club have rejoined the Sunshine Coast Rugby Union competition after a few years in Queensland Suburban rugby's Barber Cup; the town has a Little Athletics club, Schools in Caboolture include Caboolture State School near the CBD, Minimbah State School, Tullawong State School, Caboolture East Primary School, Saint Paul's Lutheran Primary School and Australian Christian College - Moreton.
High Schools include Caboolture State High School, Morayfield State High School
1975 Australian constitutional crisis
The 1975 Australian constitutional crisis known as the Dismissal, has been described as the greatest political and constitutional crisis in Australian history. It culminated on 11 November 1975 with the dismissal from office of the Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam of the Australian Labor Party, by Governor-General Sir John Kerr, who commissioned the Leader of the Opposition, Malcolm Fraser of the Liberal Party, as caretaker Prime Minister. Whitlam's Labor government had been elected in 1972 with a small majority in the House of Representatives, but with the Opposition controlling the Senate. Another election in 1974 resulted in little change. While the Whitlam Government introduced many new policies and programs, it was rocked by scandals and political miscalculations. In October 1975, the Opposition used its control of the Senate to defer passage of appropriation bills, passed by the House of Representatives; the Opposition stated that they would continue their stance unless Whitlam called an election for the House of Representatives, urged Kerr to dismiss Whitlam unless he agreed to their demand.
Whitlam believed that Kerr would not dismiss him, Kerr did nothing to disabuse Whitlam of this notion. On 11 November 1975, Whitlam intended to call a half-Senate election in an attempt to break the deadlock; when he went to seek Kerr's approval of the election, Kerr instead dismissed him as Prime Minister and shortly thereafter installed Fraser in his place. Acting before all ALP parliamentarians became aware of the change of government and his allies were able to secure passage of the appropriation bills, Kerr dissolved Parliament for a double dissolution election. Fraser and his government were returned with a massive majority in the election held the following month; the events of the Dismissal led to only minor constitutional change. The Senate retained its power to block supply, the Governor-General the power to dismiss government ministers. However, these powers have not since been used to force a government from office. Kerr was criticised by ALP supporters for his actions, resigned early as Governor-General, lived much of his remaining life abroad.
As established by the Constitution of Australia, the Parliament of Australia is composed of two houses, the House of Representatives and the Senate, together with the Queen. The monarch is represented through the Governor-General, who has executive powers granted in the Constitution, as well as exercised reserve powers; the reserve powers are the legal authorities remaining in the Crown after most of its historic powers were transferred to Parliament or to officials. The Governor-General is ordinarily bound by convention to act only upon the advice of the government and the Prime Minister, but can act independently and against advice in exercising the reserve powers; the Governor-General is removable by the Queen on the advice of the Australian Prime Minister. As Liberal Party leader Malcolm Fraser, who would play a large part in the crisis, put it, "The Queen has tenure, she couldn't be sacked, but a Governor-General holds office at pleasure, if he ceases to please he can be removed by a Prime Minister."As in most Westminster system parliaments, Australia's government is ordinarily formed by the party enjoying the confidence of the lower House of Parliament, the House of Representatives.
However, Australia's Parliament has a powerful upper house, the Senate, which must pass any legislation initiated by the House of Representatives if it is to become law. The composition of the Senate, in which each state has an equal number of senators regardless of that state's population, was designed to attract the Australian colonies into one Federation; the Constitution forbids the Senate to originate or amend a money bill, but places no limitation on the Senate's ability to defeat one. In 1970, Gough Whitlam, as Leader of the Opposition, had stated of a budget bill, "Let me make it clear at the outset that our opposition to this Budget is no mere formality. We intend to press our opposition by all available means on all related measures in both Houses. If the motion is defeated, we will vote in the Senate. Our purpose is to destroy this Budget and destroy the Government which has sponsored it."Prior to the 1975 crisis, the Governor-General's power to dismiss a Prime Minister against the incumbent's will under Section 64 of the Constitution had never been exercised.
Twice since Federation, conflicts between state premiers and state governors, who perform analogous functions to the Prime Minister and Governor-General at the state level, had resulted in the departure of one or the other. In 1916, New South Wales Premier William Holman was expelled from the Australian Labor Party for supporting conscription, he managed to hold on to power with the aid of opposition parties and consulted the Governor, Sir Gerald Strickland, proposing to pass legislation to extend the term of the lower house of the state legislature by a year. When Strickland objected, stating that such a course was unfair to Labor, Holman had him replaced. In 1932 the New South Wales Labor Premier, Jack Lang, refused to pay moneys owing to the Federal government, which froze the state's bank accounts, causing Lang to order that payments to the state government be only in cash; the governor, Sir Philip Game, wrote to Lang, warning him that ministers were breaking the law, that if they continued, he would have to obtain ministers who could carry on government within legal bounds.
Lang replied that he would not resign, Game dismissed his government and commissioned the Leader of the Opposition, Bertram Stevens, to form a caretaker government pending a new election, in which Labor was
Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are citizens and nationals of the Commonwealth of Australia, although some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim Australian nationality. Home to people of many different ethnic origins and national origins, the Australian culture and law does not correspond nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and loyalty to the country. Despite the fact that over half of the citizens descend from the peoples of the British Isles, Australia is a multicultural society and has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Many early settlements were penal colonies and transported convicts made up a significant proportion of the population in most colonies. Large-scale immigration did not occur. Further waves of immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Europe, the Middle East, Pacific Islands, Latin America and Africa.
Prior to British settlement, Australia was inhabited by various indigenous peoples – Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal Tasmanians and Torres Strait Islanders, a Melanesian people. A small percentage of present-day Australians descend from these peoples; the development of a separate Australian identity and national character is most linked with the period surrounding the First World War, which gave rise to the concept of the Anzac spirit. The Eureka Rebellion of 1854 and various events of the Second World War, most notably the Kokoda Track campaign, are frequently mentioned in association with Australian identity. However, Australian culture predates the federation of the Australian colonies by several decades – Australian literature, most notably the work of the bush poets, dates from colonial times. Modern Australian identity draws on a multicultural and British cultural heritage; the majority of Australians or their ancestors immigrated within the past four centuries, with the exception of the Indigenous population and other outer lying islands who became Australian through expansion of the country.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of Australia held in common by most Australians can be referred to as mainstream Australian culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of British and Irish colonists and immigrants. The Colony of New South Wales was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1788, with the arrival of the First Fleet, five other colonies were established in the early 19th century, now forming the six present-day Australian states. Large-scale immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Southern and Eastern Europe introducing a variety of elements. Immigration from the Middle East and east Asia, Pacific Islands and Latin America has been having an impact; the predominance of the English language, the existence of a democratic system of government drawing upon the British traditions of Westminster Government, Parliamentarianism and constitutional monarchy, American constitutionalist and federalist traditions, Christianity as the dominant religion, the popularity of sports originating in the British Isles, are all evidence of a significant Anglo-Celtic heritage.
Australian culture has diverged since British settlement. Sporting teams representing the whole of Australia have been in existence since the 1870s. Australians are referred to as "Aussie" and "Antipodean". Australians were referred to as "Colonials", "British" and "British subjects"; as a result of many shared linguistic, historical and geographic characteristics, Australians have identified with New Zealanders in particular. Furthermore, elements of Indigenous, American and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the modern Australian culture. Today, Australians of English and other European descent are the majority in Australia, estimated at around 70% of the total population. European immigrants had great influence over Australian history and society, which resulted in the perception of Australia as a Western country. Since soon after the beginning of British settlement in 1788, people of European descent have formed the majority of the population in Australia; the majority of Australians are of British – English, Welsh, Cornish, or Manx – and Irish ancestral origin.
Although some observers stress Australia's convict history, the vast majority of early settlers came of their own free will. Far more Australians are descended from assisted immigrants than from convicts, the majority being British and Irish. About 20% of Australians are descendants of convicts. Most of the first Australian settlers came from London, the Midlands and the North of England, Ireland. Settlers that arrived throughout the 19th century were from all parts of the United Kingdom and Ireland, a significant proportion of settlers came from the Southwest and Southeast of England, from Ireland and from Scotland. Anglo-Celtic Australians have been influential in shaping the nation's character. By the mid-1840s, the numbers of freeborn settlers had overtaken the convict population. In 1888, 60 percent of the Australian population had been born in Australia, all had British ancestral origins. Out of the remaining 40 percent, 34 percent had been born in the British Isles, 6 percent were of European origin from Germany and Scandinavia.
In the 1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12 percent of
High Court of Australia
The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia. It has both original and appellate jurisdiction, the power of judicial review over laws passed by the Parliament of Australia and the parliaments of the states, the ability to interpret the Constitution of Australia and thereby shape the development of federalism in Australia; the High Court is mandated by section 71 of the Constitution, which vests in it the judicial power of the Commonwealth of Australia. The Court was constituted by, its first members were appointed under, the Judiciary Act 1903, it now operates under sections 71 to 75 of the Constitution, the Judiciary Act, the High Court of Australia Act 1979. It is composed of seven Justices: the Chief Justice of Australia Susan Kiefel, six other Justices, they are appointed by the Governor-General of Australia on the advice of the federal government, under the constitution must retire at age 70. The High Court has had a permanent home in Canberra since 1979.
The majority of its sittings are held in the High Court building, situated in the Parliamentary Triangle overlooking Lake Burley Griffin. With an increasing utilisation of video links, sittings are often held in the state capitals; the High Court exercises appellate jurisdiction. The High Court is the court of final appeal with the ability to interpret the common law for the whole of Australia, not just the state or territory in which the matter arose; the High Court's broad jurisdiction is similar to that of the Supreme Court of Canada and unlike the Supreme Court of the United States which has a more limited jurisdiction. As such, the court is able to develop the common law across all the states and territories; this role, alongside its role in constitutional interpretation, is one of the court's most significant. As Sir Owen Dixon said on his swearing in as Chief Justice of Australia: "The High Court's jurisdiction is divided in its exercise between constitutional and federal cases which loom so in the public eye, the great body of litigation between man and man, or man and government, which has nothing to do with the Constitution, and, the principal preoccupation of the court."
This broad array of jurisdiction enables the High Court to take a leading role in Australian law and contributes to a consistency and uniformity among the laws of the different states. The original jurisdiction of the High Court refers to matters that are heard in the High Court; the Constitution confers potential original jurisdiction. Section 75 of the Constitution confers original jurisdiction in regard to "all matters": The conferral of original jurisdiction creates some problems for the High Court. For example, challenges against immigration-related decisions are brought against an officer of the Commonwealth within the original jurisdiction of the High Court. Section 76 provides that Parliament may confer original jurisdiction in relation to matters: Constitutional matters, referred to in section 76, have been conferred to the High Court by section 30 of the Judiciary Act 1903. However, the inclusion of constitutional matters in section 76, rather than section 75, means that the High Court's original jurisdiction regarding constitutional matters could be removed.
In practice, section 75 and section 75 are broad enough that many constitutional matters would still be within jurisdiction. The original constitutional jurisdiction of the High Court is now well established: the Australian Law Reform Commission has described the inclusion of constitutional matters in section 76 rather than section 75 as "an odd fact of history." The 1998 Constitutional Convention recommended an amendment to the constitution to prevent the possibility of the jurisdiction being removed by Parliament. Failure to proceed on this issue suggests that it was considered unlikely that Parliament would take this step; the requirement of "a matter" in section 75 and section 76 of the constitution means that a concrete issue must need to be resolved and the High Court cannot give an advisory opinion. The High Court's appellate jurisdiction is defined under section 73 of the Constitution; the High Court can hear appeals from the Supreme Courts of the states and territories, any federal court or court exercising federal jurisdiction, decisions made by one or more Justices exercising the original jurisdiction of the court.
However, section 73 allows the appellate jurisdiction to be limited "with such exceptions and subject to such regulations as the Parliament prescribes". Parliament has prescribed a large limitation in section 35A of the Judiciary Act 1903; this requires "special leave" to appeal. Special leave is granted only where a question of law is raised, of public importance. Therefore, while the High Court is the final court of appeal, it cannot be considered a general court of appeal; the decision as to whether to grant special leave to appeal is determined by one or more Justices of the High Court. That is, the Court exercises the power to decide which appeal cases it will consider; the issue of appeals from the High Court to the United Kingdom's Judicial Committee of the Privy Council was a significant one during the drafting of the Constitution and it continued to be significant in the years after the cour