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Tetractinellida is an order of sea sponges belonging to the Class Demospongiae. First described in 1876, this order received a new description in 2012 and replaced the two orders Astrophorida and Spirophorida, which became sub-orders as Astrophorina and Spirophorina. Suborder Astrophorina Sollas, 1887Family Ancorinidae Schmidt, 1870 Family Calthropellidae Lendenfeld, 1907 Family Corallistidae Sollas, 1888 Family Geodiidae Gray, 1867 Family Isoraphiniidae Schrammen, 1924 Family Macandrewiidae Schrammen, 1924 Family Neopeltidae Sollas, 1888 Family Pachastrellidae Carter, 1875 Family Phymaraphiniidae Schrammen, 1924 Family Phymatellidae Schrammen, 1910 Family Pleromidae Sollas, 1888 Family Theneidae Carter, 1883 Family Theonellidae Lendenfeld, 1903 Family Thrombidae Sollas, 1888 Family Vulcanellidae Cárdenas, Reveillaud, Schander & Rapp, 2011Suborder Spirophorina Bergquist & Hogg, 1969Family Azoricidae Sollas, 1888 Family Samidae Sollas, 1888 Family Scleritodermidae Sollas, 1888 Family Siphonidiidae Lendenfeld, 1903 Family Spirasigmidae Hallmann, 1912 Family Stupendidae Kelly & Cárdenas, 2016 Family Tetillidae Sollas, 1886Suborder Thoosina Carballo, Bautista-Guerrero, Cárdenas, Cruz-Barraza, Aguilar-Camacho, 2018Family Thoosidae Cockerell, 1925

Yitzhak Ben-Aharon

Yitzhak Ben-Aharon was an Israeli left-wing politician. He was a Knesset member from the first to the fifth Knessets and in the seventh and eighth, a former Minister of Transport and General secretary of the Histadrut; the philosopher Yeshayahu Ben-Aharon is his son. Ben-Aharon was born Yitzhak Nussenbaum in the Bukovina region of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, he attended high school in Cernăuţi and studied at the Advanced School for Political Science in Berlin. He became a leader in Hashomer Hatzair in Romania, in 1928 he emigrated to Mandate Palestine. In 1933, he became a member of kibbutz Givat Haim and after the 1952 split in the Kibbutz Movement, he joined the Mapam-affiliated Givat Haim, where he remained a member for the rest of his life. From 1932–38, he was Secretary of the Tel Aviv Workers' Council. In the summer of 1935, he served for a few months as the envoy for the Halutz organization in Nazi Germany until he was expelled by the Gestapo. From 1938–39, he was Secretary of Mapai. In 1940, he enlisted in the British army to fight against Nazi Germany in World War II, where he reached the rank of Major.

He was captured in the Greek front in 1941, along with other soldiers from the Yishuv, until they were released in 1945. After the war, he joined. After the split in Mapam in 1954, he became one of the leaders of a split that formed the Ahdut HaAvoda party, he was a Knesset member seven times, member of several parliamentary committees. From 1958–62, he became the Minister of Transport, but resigned over what he called the government's anti-labour socioeconomic policy. From 1969–73, he became General-Secretary of the Histadrut. In 1977, he retired from active political life, but continued to express critical, pro-socialist views for the rest of his life, he was the author of several articles. On 19 May 2006, he died in his kibbutz. Ben-Aharon donated his body to science, so there was no burial. In 1995, Ben-Aharon was awarded the Israel Prize for his special contribution to society and the State of Israel. Responding to Ben-Aharon's death, President of Israel, Moshe Katzav stated that: "Israel has lost one of its builders and shapers of its social character."

Prime Minister Ehud Olmert said that "the State of Israel has lost one of its giants, a true zionist and honest ideologue, who during tens of years did not hesitate to express his unique and penetrating views." Israel's Vice Prime Minister, Minister for the Development of the Negev and Galilee, Shimon Peres said that: "One of the spiritual fathers of the Israeli labour movement has left us." The Minister of Defense, Amir Peretz, said: "Today, one the giants of the State of Israel has left us. If there is a man that can be said to have been one of the titans of the generation, it is Yitzhak Ben-Aharon." Yitzhak Ben-Aharon on the Knesset website Yitzhak Ben-Aharon Israel War Veterans League Labor founding member Ben-Aharon dies aged 99 The Jerusalem Post, 19 May 2006 Labor Party veteran Yitzhak Ben Aharon dies at age 99 Haaretz, 20 May 2006 Yitzhak Ben-Aharon The Guardian, 5 June 2006 List of Israel Prize recipients

Union Pacific Missouri River Bridge

The Union Pacific Missouri River Bridge is a rail truss bridge across the Missouri River connecting Council Bluffs, Iowa with Omaha, Nebraska. When the first railroad bridge on the site opened on March 27, 1872, it connected the First Transcontinental Railroad to the eastern United States; the bridge was rebuilt twice, with the current bridge opening on December 20, 1916. When the Union Pacific began heading west from Omaha in 1862 there were no railroads connecting to it from the east. After the Chicago and North Western Railway reached Council Bluffs in 1867, the Union Pacific for a while tried to run freight trains across the frozen river during the winter; the Union Pacific Transfer company maintained a ferry service from 1866 to 1872. The bridge became the property of the UP when it absorbed the C&NW in 1995. In 1869 the transcontinental railroad was completed. An 1871 report to stockholders has this description: The want of a bridge over the Missouri River, at Omaha to connect the eastern railroads with the Union Pacific, has been one of the most annoying incidents connected with the trip to California...

The bridge is of 11 spans, 250 feet each, 50 feet above high water, resting upon one store abutment now complete. During the 3 years of construction, around 500 men were employed during the construction of the bridge. To place the piers, iron columns were sunk into the water and air pressure was used to displace the water in the column at which point, men entered the column and dug out the sand underneath allow the column to sink until it reached bedrock. Using this process, they were able to sink the columns as much as 17 feet per day; the deepest the men worked was 82 feet below the surface of the water during which time they were exposed to air pressure, 54 pounds per square inch greater than atmospheric pressure. The columns were filled with rock and concrete to form a base for the masonry piers above the water line; the new single-track railway bridge was completed in 1872 at a cost of $1.75 million. In 1877, a tornado weakened the two easternmost spans, requiring them to be replaced with a wooden trestle.

In 1885, to keep pace with the growing demand for railway transportation, construction began on a new bridge. Designed and built under the direction of George S. Morison, it opened in the fall of 1887, it was 1,750 feet long, with four Whipple trusses on stone masonry piers and three deck spans at each end. It was the first double-track railway bridge across the Missouri River; the 1888 bridge became obsolete. The peak year for American railroad track mileage was 1916. Nearly all interstate commerce went by rail. Six trunk lines of railroad used this bridge, with an average 320 freight and passenger trains crossing every 24 hours. Union Pacific decided to upgrade the Missouri River crossing to handle the traffic and tonnage, work began in May 1916. To keep this critical artery open, the replacement bridge was constructed on temporary wooden piles upstream of the 1888 stone piers. Another set of piles was driven into the river bed on the downstream side of the piers; when the new bridge was completed the old bridge was rigged with cables and winched from the stone piers to the temporary wood piles.

The cables were rerigged to the new structure and it was pulled onto the stone piers. Tracks were connected and traffic resumed with just one hour of interruption; the 1888 bridge was dismantled. The approaches to the bridge were a half on each side; the Union Pacific committed to including a roadway with the bridge. However, it recanted, it would not be until 1888 when the Douglas Street Bridge called the Ak-Sar-Ben Bridge, was opened as a roadway connecting the cities. List of crossings of the Missouri River 1871 Stockholder Report Aerial shots of the bridge History of Omaha and the bridge Historic images of the bridge - Nebraska Memories

List of The Young and the Restless characters (2015)

The Young and the Restless is an American television soap opera. It was first broadcast on March 26, 1973, airs on CBS; the following is a list of characters that first appeared on the soap opera in 2015, by order of first appearance. All characters are introduced by executive producer Jill Farren Phelps and co-executive producer/head writer Charles Pratt, Jr. Marco Annicelli was a primary antagonist in Victor Newman's plan to bring down his rival, Jack Abbott, he was portrayed by Peter Bergman. Marco's character was introduced in a plot in which Jack Abbott's character would be forcibly swapped out, he acted as a doppelgänger, took over his life, while Real Jack was held captive in an unknown location. Emma Randall, portrayed by Alice Greczyn, was introduced in September 2015 as the sister of Gwen Randall. Greczyn's casting was announced on August 2015, through Soaps In Depth; the role would be recurring. Greczyn's role was diminished. Luca Santori, portrayed by Miles Gaston Villanueva, is introduced as the estranged husband of Marisa Sierras.

The series had released a casting call for role in July 2015. Villanueva's casting was announced on August 10, 2015; the actor had appeared on the series in a bit part of a priest assisting Nikki Newman with locating her long lost son, Dylan McAvoy. In 2015, Villanueva was cast in the newly created role of Luca Santori and is revealed to be the estranged husband of Marisa Sierras, the girlfriend of Noah Newman. Luca would grant Marisa a divorce so that she could pursue a serious romantic relationship with Noah. Luca was briefly engaged to Nicholas Newman and Phyllis Abbott's daughter Summer Newman, before the engagement was called off when it was revealed by Victoria Newman's boyfriend Travis Crawford at Luca and Summer's engagement party that Luca was responsible for the destruction of the oil rigs owned by Newman Enterprises, he was arrested for that crime and sent to prison. Christian Newman is a fictional character from the original CBS Daytime soap opera, The Young and the Restless, he is the son of Sage Warner and Adam Newman, prematurely delivered by Adam in Chancellor Park on October 7, 2015.

Christian was presumed dead on November 8, 2015, as a result of complications from his premature birth. It was believed that Nicholas Newman is his father, however, it was revealed that Adam is Christian's biological father, Adam doctored the results to avoid suspicion when he was masquerading as the late Gabriel Bingham. Only days it was revealed that Christian's death was faked by Dr. Anderson, a doctor at Fairview. Dr. Anderson's motives for stealing the baby and faking his death are still unknown at this time, but on November 23, 2015, she handed Christian to Sharon Newman and congratulated her on the birth of her new son. Sharon was a patient at Fairview, medicated by Dr. Anderson and kept in a drug-induced state; the doctor kept her isolated at the hospital. Sharon and her husband, Dylan McAvoy decided to name their'baby' Sullivan "Sully" McAvoy, in honor of Dylan's friend, killed in Afghanistan. Sage confronted Nurse Stephens on April 27, 2016, she admitted to stealing Christian and helping Dr. Anderson pass off Christian as Sharon's son.

Sharon had a DNA test run which proved "Sully" was Christian but decided to hide the truth. Sage confronted Sharon, who admitted the truth, but Sage died in a car wreck on her way to tell Nick that Christian was alive; the secret was exposed a few months and Nick and Christian were reunited. In 2019, after Christian's biological father Adam returns, he was seeking to reunite with Christian, but was rebuffed by Nick and now Adam is suing for custody of Christian. Simone Neville, portrayed by Daytime Emmy winning actor Michael E. Knight, was introduced as a doctor for hire working on behalf of Neil Winters in October 2015. Best known for his portrayal of Tad Martin on All My Children, Knight's casting was announced by TV Insider in September 2015. In June 2016, it was announced. Elise Moxley, portrayed by Jensen Buchanan, was introduced in November 2015. Character and cast at the Internet Movie Database Characters and cast at TV Guide

Sabuncuoğlu Şerafeddin

Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu was a medieval Ottoman surgeon and physician. Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu started his medical interests at the age of 17. He would continue with this medical interest and practice in Amasya Dar-es Sifa Hospital until he died. Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu was the director of the Amasya Dar-es Sifa Hospital for 14 years. Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu lived during the 15th century in Amasya. During the early period of the Ottoman Empire, Amasya was a center of commerce and arts. During this period, Serafeddin Sabuncuoglu practiced medicine in Amasya Hospital, built in 1308. Sabuncuoğlu was the author of the Cerrahiyyetu'l-Haniyye, the first illustrated surgical atlas, the Mücerrebname. Sabuncuoğlu authored Imperial Surgery, the first illustrated Turkish-written medical textbook, in 1465 at the age of 80. Imperial Surgery is divided into three chapters dealing with 191 topics in the course of 412 pages. Three original handwritten copies survive, two in Sabuncuoglu's own hand; the originals are housed in Istanbul's Fatih Millet Library, the Capa Medical History Department of Istanbul University, in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris.

Sabuncuoğlu's Imperial Surgery was the first surgical atlas and the last major medical encyclopedia from the Islamic world. Though his work was based on Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi's Al-Tasrif, Sabuncuoğlu introduced many innovations of his own. Female surgeons were illustrated for the first time in the Imperial Surgery. One of the surgical techniques described by Sabuncuoğlu was the ligating of the temporal artery for migraine. Cerrahiyyet’u¨l Haniye was Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu's most important book for medicine out of his known seven books. Cerrahiyyet’u¨l Haniye was rediscovered by the historian Süheyl Ünver in 1939; this book was studied in 1992 by Ilter Uzel and translated into modern Turkish and Arabic. In Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu's medical textbook, Cerrahiyyet’u¨l Haniye, the descriptions of the diagnosis and techniques used are explained in detail in the Turkish language. Cerrahiyyet’u¨l Haniye was written in rhyme and meter in describing the different treatments, common practice for writers of the time.

This book was a modification and compilation of other medical techniques from Al-Zahrawi, but Sabuncuoğlu did contribute to unique ideas in this textbook. These include three new chapter that incorporate 134 surgical interventions and 156 surgical instruments; these three chapters discussed cauterization treatments, surgical procedures and dislocations, cancer related issues. Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu made sure to describe surgical complications and cite any knowledge he attained from others. When Cerrahiyyet’u¨l Haniye was completed, it was presented to the Ottoman emperor Sultan Mehmet II. Cerrahiyyet’u¨l Haniye shows that Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu believed that women had an important role as physicians. Female surgeons were depicted in his illustrations involving gynecology; the female surgeons were called “tabiba” in the book. These gynecology illustrations were important in portraying the correct position of the patient. In these treatments, Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu used his own observations from experimenting with animals to develop new treatments.

Successful treatments were transcribed to surgical procedures in humans. Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu would only transcribe and illustrate the treatments after he completed the treatments himself. He would test therapeutic treatments on himself before applying them on patients. Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu was aware of sepsis. In order to prevent the spread of a pathogen, he would wear a surgical attire that involved wine and olive oil as antiseptics. In one such treatment, Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu discussed a breast cancer treatment in which the suggested treatment was to surgically remove the small cancers in their early stage; this treatment ensures that the tumor does not spread or grow to the rest of the body, common practice for treating cancer today. Many of these treatments in Cerrahiyyet’u¨l Haniye have illustrations accompanied next to them, which ensure that the intended audience are able to follow the treatment correctly; every illustration contains a distinct physician and patient along with the tools used in the treatment.

In Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu treatment of epilepsy, he used the technique of skull cauterization as a way of purifying the body from evil spirits. This demonstrates the religious and incomplete understanding of some of the medical issues that were prevalent in the past; this was evident in the recovery phase of his epilepsy treatment where he states, “you’ll have to give the patient the following foods to enable the dehydration in order that the patient can recover, with the permission of Allah.” Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu recommended using a non-invasive and less intense treatment first before moving on to a stronger treatment. In his epilepsy treatment, herbal mixtures were recommended to be used first a cauterization on the forehead could be used if the herbal mixtures did not work. Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu was careful in not over-treating a patient. In Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu's description and diagnosis of spinal dislocations, he mentions how swelling after the treatment is normal and that repeating the treatment could lead to the death of the patient.

Serafeddin Sabuncuoglu was one of the first to describe hydrocephalic drainage techniques in children. Hydrocephalus is the medical condition; the treatment of children and women were found during this period as they were considered assets prior to the Renaissance period. However, Ş