New Zealand national rugby union team
The New Zealand national rugby union team, called the All Blacks, represents New Zealand in men's rugby union, known as the country's national sport. The team has won the last two Rugby World Cups, in 2011 and 2015 as well as the inaugural tournament in 1987, they have a 77% winning record in test match rugby, are the only international men’s side with a winning record against every opponent. Since their international debut in 1903, they have lost to only six of the 19 nations they have played in test matches. Since the introduction of the World Rugby Rankings in 2003, New Zealand has held the number one ranking longer than all other teams combined; the All Blacks jointly hold the record for the most consecutive test match wins for a tier one ranked nation, along with England. New Zealand competes with Argentina and South Africa in The Rugby Championship; the All Blacks have won the trophy sixteen times in the competition's twenty-three-year history. New Zealand have completed a Grand Slam tour four times – 1978, 2005, 2008 and 2010.
The All Blacks have been named the World Rugby Team of the Year ten times since the award was created in 2001, an All Black has won the World Rugby Player of the Year award ten times over the same period. Fifteen former All Blacks have been inducted into the International Rugby Hall of Fame; the team's first match was in 1884, their first international test match was in 1903 against Australia in Sydney. The following year, they hosted their first home test, a match against a British Isles side in Wellington; this was followed by a 34-game tour of Europe and North America in 1905, where the team suffered only one defeat – their first test loss, against Wales. New Zealand's early uniforms consisted of a black jersey with a silver fern and white knickerbockers. By the 1905 tour, they were wearing all black, except for the silver fern, the name All Blacks dates from this time; the team perform a Māori challenge or posture dance, before each match. The haka has traditionally been Te Rauparaha's Ka Mate, although since 2005 Kapa o Pango has been performed.
Rugby union – universally referred to only as "rugby" in New Zealand – was introduced to New Zealand by Charles Monro in 1870. The first recorded game in New Zealand took place in May 1870 in Nelson between the Nelson club and Nelson College; the first provincial union, the Canterbury Rugby Football Union, was formed in 1879, in 1882 New Zealand's first internationals were played when New South Wales toured the country. NSW did not face a New Zealand representative team but played seven provincial sides – the tourists won four games and lost three. Two years the first New Zealand team to travel overseas toured New South Wales. A organised British team, which became the British and Irish Lions, toured New Zealand in 1888. No test matches were played, the side only played provincial sides; the British players were drawn from Northern England, but there were representatives from Wales and Scotland. In 1892, following the canvassing of provincial administrators by Ernest Hoben, the New Zealand Rugby Football Union was formed by the majority of New Zealand's provincial unions, but did not include Canterbury, Otago or Southland.
The first sanctioned New Zealand side toured New South Wales in 1893, where the Thomas Ellison captained team won nine of their ten matches. The following year New Zealand played its first home "international" game, losing 8–6 to New South Wales; the team's first true test match occurred against Australia on 15 August 1903 at the Sydney Cricket Ground in front of over 30,000 spectators, resulted in a 22–3 victory. A representative New Zealand team first toured the British Isles in 1905; the side is now known as the "Originals", as the "All Blacks" name emerged during this tour when, according to team member Billy Wallace, a London newspaper reported that the New Zealanders played as if they were "all backs". Wallace claimed that because of a typographical error, subsequent references were to "All Blacks"; this account is most a myth – because of their black playing strip, the side was referred to as the Blacks before they left New Zealand. Though the name All Blacks most existed before the trip, the tour did popularise it.
The Originals played 35 matches on tour, their only loss was a 3–0 defeat to Wales in Cardiff. The match has entered into the folklore of both countries because of a controversy over whether All Black Bob Deans scored a try which would have earned his team a 3–3 draw. In contrast to the success of the Originals on the field, the team did antagonise some in the Home Nations' rugby establishment; this complaint continued to dog New Zealand teams until the 1930s. The success of the Originals had uncomfortable consequences for the amateur NZRFU. In 1907, a party of professional players was assembled to tour the British Isles and play rugby league – a professional offshoot of rugby union, played by clubs that split from England's Rugby Football Union due to disagreements over financial compensation for players; when the "All Golds", as the team came to be known, returned they established rugby league in New Zealand, a large number of players switched to the professional code. English and Welsh authorities were alarmed by the threat of professionalism to rugby in New Zealand, in 1908 an Anglo-Welsh side undertook a tour to New Zealand to help promote the amateu
Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire and the Viceroy of India. Nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most Commonwealth countries ceased recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire when they created their own honours; the five classes of appointment to the Order are, in descending order of precedence: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Knight Commander or Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire The senior two ranks of Knight or Dame Grand Cross, Knight or Dame Commander, entitle their members to use the title of Sir for men and Dame for women before their forename.
Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, may permit use of post-nominal letters but not the title of Sir or Dame. Honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bob Geldof, for example. Honorary appointees who become a citizen of a Commonwealth realm can convert their appointment from honorary to substantive enjoy all privileges of membership of the order, including use of the title of Sir and Dame for the senior two ranks of the Order. An example is Irish broadcaster Terry Wogan, appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order in 2005, on successful application for British citizenship, held alongside his Irish citizenship, was made a substantive member and subsequently styled as Sir Terry Wogan. King George V founded the Order to fill gaps in the British honours system: The Orders of the Garter, of St Patrick honoured royals, peers and eminent military commanders.
In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War. When first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was formally divided into Military and Civil Divisions; the Order's motto is For the Empire. At the foundation of the Order, the'Medal of the Order of the British Empire' was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the'British Empire Medal', it stopped being awarded by the United Kingdom as part of the 1993 reforms to the honours system, but was again awarded beginning in 2012, starting with 293 BEMs awarded for Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. In addition, the BEM is awarded by some other Commonwealth nations. In 2004, a report entitled "A Matter of Honour: Reforming Our Honours System" by a Commons committee recommended to phase out the Order of the British Empire, as its title was "now considered to be unacceptable, being thought to embody values that are no longer shared by many of the country's population".
The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, appoints all other members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three: Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales; the Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commander, 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the total number of members of the fourth and fifth classes, but no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year. Foreign appointees, as honorary members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Although the Order of the British Empire has by far the highest number of members of the British Orders of Chivalry, with over 100,000 living members worldwide, there are fewer appointments to knighthoods than in other orders. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, second-lowest of knighthood.
Because of this, an appointment as Dame Commander is made in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor. For example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges
Rarotonga is the most populous island of the Cook Islands, with a population of 10,572, out of the country's total resident population of 14,974. Captain John Dibbs, master of the colonial brig Endeavour, is credited as the European discoverer on 25 July 1823, while transporting the missionary Rev. John Williams; the Cook Islands' Parliament buildings and international airport are on Rarotonga. Rarotonga is a popular tourist destination with many resorts and motels; the chief town, Avarua, on the north coast, is the capital of the Cook Islands. The volcanic island of Rarotonga stands over 14,750 feet above the ocean floor, it is 32 km in circumference and has an area of 67.19 km2. At a depth of 4,000 m the volcano is nearly 50 km in diameter. Te Manga, at 658 m above sea level, is the highest peak on the island; the island is surrounded by a lagoon, which extends more than a hundred metres to the reef slopes steeply to deep water. The reef fronts the shore to the north of the island, making the lagoon there unsuitable for swimming and water sports, but to the south east around Muri, the lagoon is at its widest and deepest.
This part of the island is the most popular with tourists for swimming and boating. Agricultural terraces and swamps surround the central mountain area. Along the southeast coast off Muri Beach are four small coral islets within a few hundred metres of the shore and within the fringing coral reef. From north to south, the islets are: Motutapu, 11.0 hectares Oneroa, 10.6 hectares Koromiri, 3.0 hectares Taakoka, 1.7 hectares The interior of the island is dominated by eroded volcanic peaks cloaked in dense vegetation. Paved and unpaved roads allow access to valleys but the interior of the island remains unpopulated due to forbidding terrain and lack of infrastructure. A large tract of land has been set aside in the south east as the Takitumu Conservation Area to protect native birds and plants the endangered kakerori, the Rarotonga flycatcher; the earliest evidence of human presence in the Southern Cook Islands has been dated to around AD 1000. Trading contact was evidently maintained with the Austral Islands, Society Islands and the Marquesas to import basalt, used for making local adze heads, while a pottery fragment found on Ma'uke has been traced to Tongatapu to the west, the main island of Tonga.
At least 30 of the traditional Polynesian crop plants found here were introduced from the west. Fletcher Christian did not land. Captain Theodore Walker sighted the island in 1813 on the ship Endeavour; the first recorded landing by a European was Captain Philip Goodenough with William Wentworth in 1814 on the schooner Cumberland. On 30 May 1965, five sounding rockets were launched from Rarotonga for studying a solar eclipse. Rarotonga is divided into vaka. Te Au O Tonga on the northern side of the island, Takitumu on the eastern and southern side and Puaikura on the western side. On the other hand, the island is divided into five Land Districts; the Land District of Avarua is represented under vaka Te Au O Tonga, the Land Districts of Matavera and Titikaveka are represented under vaka Takitumu and the Land District Arorangi is represented under vaka Puaikura. In 2008, the three vaka councils of Rarotonga were abolished. Palm-studded white sandy beaches fringe most of the island, there is a popular cross-island walk that connects Avatiu valley with the south side of the island.
It passes the Te Rua Manga, the prominent needle-shaped rock visible from the air and some coastal areas. Hikes can be taken to the Raemaru, or flat-top mountain. Other attractions include the ancient marae, Arai te Tonga. Popular island activities include snorkeling, scuba diving, bike riding, kite surfing, deep-sea fishing, boat tours, scenic flights, going to restaurants, seeing island shows, tennis, zipping around on mopeds, sleeping on the beach. There are many churches open for service with a cappella singing; the pace of life is so relaxed that at night people congregate at the sea wall that skirts the end of the airport's runway to be "jetblasted" by incoming planes. Rarotonga has three harbours, Avatiu and Avana, of which only Avatiu harbour is of commercial significance; the Port of Avatiu serves a small fleet of inter-island and fishing vessels, with cargo ships visiting from New Zealand via other Pacific Islands ports. Large cruise ships visit Rarotonga but the port is too small for cruise ships to enter and they are required to anchor off shore outside the harbour.
The island is encircled by Ara Tapu, that traces the coast. Three-quarters of Rarotonga is encircled by the ancient inner road, Ara Metua. 29 km long, this road was constructed in 11th century and for most or all of its whole length was paved with large stone slabs. Along this road are several important marae, including Arai Te Tonga, the most sacred shrine in Rarotonga. Due to the mountainous interior, there is no road crossing the island. Rarotonga has only two bus routes: anticlockwise. Although there are bus stops, the buses set down anywhere en route. Visitors to the island who rent motor scooters or cars for local transportation are required to get a Cook Islands driver license. Visitors from Australia, New Zealand, US, Canada, UK and the EU can now drive in the Cook Islands for up to six months using their overseas license. Rarotonga International Airport is the international airport of the Cook Islands
Avarua is a town and district in the north of the island of Rarotonga, is the national capital of the Cook Islands. The town is served by Rarotonga International Avatiu Harbour; the population of Avarua District is 5,445. The town and district of Avarua is subdivided into 18 tapere out of 54 for Rarotonga, grouped into 6 Census Districts, listed from west to east. Census figures are not available on the tapere level, but only for the so-called Census Districts listed from west to east: Nikao-Panama, covering the taperes of: Pokoinu and Puapuautu. Media related to Avarua at Wikimedia Commons Photo of Government Radio Station Rarotonga c1950
New Zealand pound
The pound was the currency of New Zealand from 1840 until 1967, when it was replaced by the New Zealand dollar. Like the British pound, it was subdivided into 20 shillings each of 12 pence; as a result of the great depression of the early 1930s, the New Zealand agricultural export market to the UK was badly affected. The Australian banks, which controlled the New Zealand exchanges with London, decided to devalue the New Zealand pound in relation to sterling in the UK. By 1933, the New Zealand pound had fallen to a value of only 16 shillings sterling. In 1948 however, it was once again restored to its original sterling value. In 1967, New Zealand decimalised its currency, replacing the pound with the dollar at a rate of $2 = £1. In November of that year, the pound sterling devalued, New Zealand used this as an opportunity to re-align its new dollar to parity with the Australian dollar. For a more general view of history in the wider region, see History of pound sterling in Oceania. British and Australian coins circulated in New Zealand.
The devaluation of the New Zealand pound relative to sterling in the 1930s led to the issue of distinct New Zealand coins in 1933, in denominations of 3d, 6d, 1s, 2s and 2 1⁄2s, minted in 50% silver until 1946 and in cupro-nickel from 1947. In 1940, bronze ½d and 1d coins were introduced. All these denominations were the same size and weight as their equivalents in the Australian and UK coinage; when the UK introduced the nickel-brass twelve sided threepenny bit, New Zealand continued to use the smaller silver coin until decimalisation in 1967. Notes: The sixpence and florin, although seen in circulation, remained legal tender as late as 2006, being used as the identical size and value of its decimal successors: the 5c, 10c, 20c coins respectively, they were demonetised on 31 October 2006, when the 5c coin and the original 10c and 20c coins were withdrawn from circulation. Commemorative crowns were minted in 1935, 1949, 1953 for the Treaty of Waitangi, a royal visit, the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, respectively.
Until 1934, private trading banks issued notes. The first bank notes were issued in New Zealand in March 1840 by the Union Bank of Australia at Britannia, now Wellington the New Zealand Banking Company followed in September 1840 at Kororareka, now Russell; these banks issued notes in New Zealand: Union Bank of Australia New Zealand Banking Company Otago Banking Company Oriental Bank Corporation Bank of New South Wales Bank of New Zealand Commercial Bank of New Zealand Bank of Australasia Bank of Auckland Bank of Otago Colonial Bank of New Zealand National Bank of New Zealand Bank of Aotearoa Commercial Bank of Australia Between 1852 and 1856, the Colonial Bank of Issue was the only banknote issuing body. Public distrust of these notes soon led to their redemption with Union Bank notes; the discovery of gold in 1861 encouraged competing banks into New Zealand leading to a variety of note issue. By 1924, public demand for convenience in usage led to the six remaining issuing banks agreeing a "Uniform" standard size and colour for each denomination.
When the Reserve Bank of New Zealand was established on 1 August 1934 by the Reserve Bank of New Zealand Act 1933, it became the sole issuer of notes. This government agency introduced notes for 10s, £1, £5 and £50. In 1940, £10 notes were added. Only two series of £1 notes were printed; the first featured the portrait of Matutaera Te Pukepuke Te Paue Te Karato Te-a-Pōtatau Tāwhiao, the second featured Captain James Cook. Notes in circulation when the dollar was introduced were: 10 shillings 1 pound 5 pounds 10 pounds 50 pounds Coins and uncancelled notes issued by the six private trading banks operating in 1934 as well as the Reserve Bank of New Zealand are still redeemable at the RBNZ offices in Wellington; the RBNZ has an obligation to redeem private bank notes. Under the 1933 Reserve Bank Act the held gold was confiscated and paid for in RBNZ banknotes. In all cases, the currency's value to collectors is now far higher than its face value, due to its rarity. A prime example is a first issue Union Bank £1 from the 1840s returned to New Zealand in 1934, for redemption at face value, by its owner in the United States.
Today a similar note would be valued in excess of £10,000 sterling. £50 notes of the Reserve Bank are extremely rare and fetch a high price from collectors. The note signed by Chief Cashier T. P. Hannah in uncirculated condition could fetch as high as NZ$25,000 according to the premier value listing for New Zealand notes and coins. "Reserve Bank of New Zealand Act, 1933". New Zealand Law online. Coins from New Zealand - Online Coin Club
Prime Minister of the Cook Islands
The Prime Minister of the Cook Islands is the head of government of the Cook Islands, a self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand. The office was established in 1965; the title "Premier" was used, but this was replaced by the title of "Prime Minister" in 1981. Cook Islands Politics of the Cook Islands Monarchy in the Cook Islands Queen's Representative Lists of incumbents World Statesmen - Cook Islands
The Cook Islands is a self-governing island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand. It comprises 15 islands; the Cook Islands' Exclusive Economic Zone covers 1,800,000 square kilometres of ocean. New Zealand is responsible for the Cook Islands' defence and foreign affairs, but they are exercised in consultation with the Cook Islands. In recent times, the Cook Islands have adopted an independent foreign policy. Although Cook Islanders are citizens of New Zealand, they have the status of Cook Islands nationals, not given to other New Zealand citizens; the Cook Islands has been an active member of the Pacific Community since 1980. The Cook Islands' main population centres are on the island of Rarotonga, where there is an international airport. There is a larger population of Cook Islanders in New Zealand itself. With about 100,000 visitors travelling to the islands in the 2010–11 financial year, tourism is the country's main industry, the leading element of the economy, ahead of offshore banking and marine and fruit exports.
In March 2019 it was reported that the Cook Islands had plans to change its name and remove the reference to Captain James Cook in favour of "a title that reflects its'Polynesian nature'". The Cook Islands were first settled in the 6th century by Polynesian people who migrated from Tahiti, an island 1,154 kilometres to the northeast. Spanish ships visited the islands in the 16th century; the first written record came in 1595 when the island of Pukapuka was sighted by Spanish sailor Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira, who gave it the name San Bernardo. Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, a Portuguese captain working for the Spanish crown, made the first recorded European landing in the islands when he set foot on Rakahanga in 1606, calling the island Gente Hermosa. British navigator Captain James Cook arrived in 1773 and again in 1777 giving the island of Manuae the name Hervey Island; the Hervey Islands came to be applied to the entire southern group. The name "Cook Islands", in honour of Cook, first appeared on a Russian naval chart published in the 1820s.
In 1813 John Williams, a missionary on the Endeavour made the first recorded sighting of Rarotonga. The first recorded landing on Rarotonga by Europeans was in 1814 by the Cumberland; the islands saw no more Europeans until English missionaries arrived in 1821. Christianity took hold in the culture and many islanders are Christians today; the islands were a popular stop in the 19th century for whaling ships from the United States and Australia. They visited, from at least 1826, to obtain water and firewood, their favourite islands were Rarotonga, Aitutaki and Penrhyn. The Cook Islands became a British protectorate in 1888 because of community fears that France might occupy the islands as it had Tahiti. On 6 September 1900, the islanders's leaders presented a petition asking that the islands be annexed as British territory. On 8 and 9 October 1900, seven instruments of cession of Rarotonga and other islands were signed by their chiefs and people. A British Proclamation was issued, stating that the cessions were accepted and the islands declared parts of Her Britannic Majesty's dominions.
However, it did not include Aitutaki. Though the inhabitants regarded themselves as British subjects, the Crown's title was unclear until the island was formally annexed by a Proclamation dated 9 October 1900. In 1901 the islands were included within the boundaries of the Colony of New Zealand by Order in Council under the Colonial Boundaries Act, 1895 of the United Kingdom; the boundary change became effective on 11 June 1901, the Cook Islands have had a formal relationship with New Zealand since that time. When the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948 came into effect on 1 January 1949, Cook Islanders who were British subjects automatically gained New Zealand citizenship; the islands remained a New Zealand dependent territory until the New Zealand Government decided to grant them self-governing status. Albert Henry of the Cook Islands Party was elected as the first Premier. Henry led the nation until 1978, when he resigned, he was succeeded by Tom Davis of the Democratic Party.
In March 2019 it was reported that the Cook Islands had plans to change its name and remove the reference to Captain James Cook in favour of "a title that reflects its'Polynesian nature'". The Cook Islands are in the South Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Zealand, between French Polynesia and American Samoa. There are 15 major islands spread over 2,200,000 km2 of ocean, divided into two distinct groups: the Southern Cook Islands and the Northern Cook Islands of coral atolls; the islands were formed by volcanic activity. The climate is moderate to tropical; the Cook Islands consist of two reefs. The table is ordered from north to south. Population figures from the 2016 census; the Cook Islands is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system in an associated state relationship with New Zealand. Executive power is exercised with the Chief Minister as head of government. Legislative power is vested in the Parliament of the Cook Islands. There is a pluriform multi-party system; the Judiciary is inde