Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Albert the Tall, a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1252 and the first ruler of the newly created Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1269 until his death. Albert was the oldest surviving son of the first Brunswick duke Otto the Child and his wife, Matilda of Brandenburg; when his father died in 1252, he took over the rule of the duchy. Albert's rule was troubled by several armed conflicts as the Welf dukes still had to cope with the followers of the extinct Hohenstaufen dynasty within their dominions. In 1260/61 Albert's troops fought against the Danish duke Eric I of Schleswig on behalf of Queen Margaret Sambiria and her minor son King Eric V of Denmark. In 1263 the duke quite luckless interfered in the War of the Thuringian Succession to support the claims raised by his mother-in-law Sophie of Brabant. On 31 May 1267, the brothers agreed to divide the Welf lands, which happened in 1269. Albert partitioned the territory, he took the northern half including the region of Lüneburg and the city of Hanover, while Albert received the southern part around the cities of Brunswick and Wolfenbüttel, stretching from the area around the Calenberg hill to the town of Helmstedt, the Harz mountain range, Göttingen.
The Brunswick residence itself was to remain common property of the brothers. Albert concentrated on the development of his hereditary lands. During the Imperial interregnum, he sided with the rising Bohemian king Ottokar II until his final defeat in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld; when his brother John died in 1277, he took over the guardianship for his minor nephew Otto II of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Albert is buried at Brunswick Cathedral, he was succeeded by his elder three sons, the younger three joined the Church. In 1254, Albert married Elizabeth of Brabant, daughter of Duke Henry II of Brabant and Sophie of Thuringia, they had no children After Elizabeth's death in 1261, Henry married Adelheid, daughter of Margrave Boniface II of Montferrat around 1263. Once widowed she married Gerhard I, Count of Holstein-Itzehoe. Albert and Adelheid had the following children: Henry I, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg William I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg Otto Matilda of Brunswick-Lüneburg, married the Piast duke Henry III of Głogów, died 11 December 1310 Luther von Braunschweig, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights from 1331 Conrad Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, vol.
1, p. 257-261 At the House of Welf site RootsWeb: Rulers of Brandenburg and their Czech Roots
Albert Kalonji Ditunga was a Congolese politician best known as the leader of the short-lived secessionist state of South Kasai during the Congo Crisis. Kalonji, a chief from the Luba ethnic group, began his political career under Belgian colonial rule as a member of the nationalist Mouvement National Congolais party led by Patrice Lumumba. Kalonji, split with Lumumba to form a federalist faction of the party, known as the Mouvement National Congolais-Kalonji, which failed to achieve significant success while Lumumba was made Prime Minister of the independent Congo in 1960. Within days of being independent from Belgium, the new Republic of the Congo found itself torn between competing political factions, as well as by foreign interference; as the situation deteriorated, Moise Tshombe declared the independence of Katanga Province as the State of Katanga on 11 July 1960. Kalonji, claiming that the Baluba were being persecuted in the Congo and needed their own state in their traditional Kasai homeland, followed suit shortly afterwards and declared the autonomy of the diamond-rich South Kasai on 8 August, with himself as head.
Unlike Tshombe, Kalonji shrank from declaring full independence from the Congo and rather declared its "autonomy" with a hypothetical, federalised Congo. He, as representatives of his party, continued to sit in the Congolese parliaments in Léopoldville. In emulation of Winston Churchill, he adopted the V sign for victory to express his confidence in South Kasai's ability to achieve its goals. On 12 April 1961, Kalonji's father was granted the title Mulopwe, but he "abdicated" in favor of his son. On 16 July, In April 1961, Kalonji took the royal title Mulopwe to tie the state more to the pre-colonial Luba Empire; the act divided the South Kasaian authorities and Kalonji was disavowed by the majority of South Kasai's parliamentary representatives in Léopoldville. The move cost him much support. Kalonji's reign, proved to be short-lived; as preparation for the invasion of Katanga, Congolese government troops invaded and occupied South Kasai, becoming involved in ethnic-based violence and displacing thousands of Baluba.
On 30 December, Kalonji was arrested. He did manage to escape shortly afterwards; the administrative apparatus of South Kasai survived, under Congolese occupation, until a coup d'état was led against Kalonjists by the state's Prime Minister, Joseph Ngalula, in October 1962 when the state returned to the Congo. Escaping from arrest, Kalonji fled to Francoist Spain, he returned to the Congo between 1964-65 to hold a ministerial portfolio in the central government led by Tshombe but returned to exile following Joseph-Désiré Mobutu's 1965 coup d'état. Under Mobutu, the territory of South Kasai was divided into two regions to discourage future secessionist tendencies. In exile in Europe, Kalonji still claimed the title Souverain Possesseur des Terres occupées par les Balubas, he wrote about his experiences in Memorandum: Ma lutte, au Kasai, pour la Verité au service de la Justice and Congo 1960. La Sécession du Sud-Kasaï. La vérité du Mulopwe, he was buried in Katende. RDC: décès d'Albert Kalonji Mulopwe at Radio Okapi
Monkeys and apes in space
Before humans went into space, several other animals were launched into space, including numerous other primates, so that scientists could investigate the biological effects of space travel. The United States launched flights containing primate passengers between 1948-1961 with one flight in 1969 and one in 1985. France launched two monkey-carrying flights in 1967; the Soviet Union and Russia launched monkeys between 1983 and 1996. Most primates were anesthetized before lift-off. Overall thirty-two monkeys flew in the space program. Numerous backup monkeys went through the programs but never flew. Monkeys and apes from several species were used, including rhesus macaque, crab-eating macaque, squirrel monkeys, pig-tailed macaques, chimpanzees; the first primate astronaut was Albert, a rhesus macaque, who on June 11, 1948, rode to over 63 km on a V-2 rocket. Albert died of suffocation during the flight. Albert was followed by Albert II who survived the V-2 flight but died on impact on June 14, 1949, after a parachute failure.
Albert II became the first monkey and the first primate in space as his flight reached 134 km - past the Kármán line of 100 km taken to designate the beginning of space. Albert III died at 35,000 feet in an explosion of his V2 on September 16, 1949. Albert IV, on the last monkey V-2 flight, died on impact on December 8 that year after another parachute failure, his flight reached 130.6 km. Alberts, I, II, IV were rhesus macaque while Albert III was a Crab-eating macaque. Monkeys flew on Aerobee rockets. On April 18, 1951, a monkey called Albert V, died due to parachute failure. Yorick called Albert VI, along with 11 mouse crewmates, reached 236,000 ft and survived the landing, on September 20, 1951, the first monkey to do so, although he died 2 hours later. Two of the mice died after recovery. Albert VI's flight surpassed the 50-mile boundary the U. S. was below the international definition of space. Patricia and Mike, two cynomolgus monkeys, flew on May 21, 1952, survived, but their flight was only to 26 kilometers.
On December 13, 1958, Gordo called Old Reliable, a squirrel monkey, survived being launched aboard Jupiter AM-13 by the US Army. He was killed due to mechanical failure of the parachute recovery system in the rocket nose cone. On May 28, 1959, aboard the JUPITER AM-18, Able, a rhesus macaque, Miss Baker, a squirrel monkey flew a successful mission. Able was born at the Ralph Mitchell Zoo in Kansas, they travelled in excess of 16,000 km/h, withstood 38 g. Able died June 1, 1959, while undergoing surgery to remove an infected medical electrode, from a reaction to the anesthesia. Baker became the first monkey to survive the stresses of spaceflight and the related medical procedures. Baker died November 29, 1984, at the age of 27 and is buried on the grounds of the United States Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Able was preserved, is now on display at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum, their names were taken from the 1943-1955 US military phonetic alphabet. On December 4, 1959, Sam, a rhesus macaque, flew on the Little Joe 2 in the Mercury program to 53 miles high.
Miss Sam a rhesus macaque, followed in 1960, on Little Joe 1B although her flight was only to 8 mi in a test of emergency procedures. Ham and Enos flew in the Mercury program but they were chimpanzees; the names'Sam' and'Ham' were acronyms. Sam was named in homage to the School of Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas; the name'Ham' was taken from Holloman Aerospace Medicine at New Mexico. Goliath, a squirrel monkey, died in the explosion of his Atlas rocket on November 10, 1961. A rhesus macaque called Scatback flew a sub-orbital flight on December 20, 1961, but was lost at sea after landing. Bonny, a pig-tailed macaque, flew on Biosatellite 3, a mission which lasted from June 29 to July 8, 1969; this came after longer human spaceflights were common. He died within a day of landing. Spacelab 3 on the Space Shuttle flight STS-51-B featured two squirrel monkeys named No. 3165 and No. 384-80. The flight was from April 29 to May 6, 1985. France launched a pig-tailed macaque named Martine on a Vesta rocket on March 7, 1967, another named Pierette on March 13.
These suborbital flights reached 243 234 km, respectively. Martine became the first monkey to survive more than a couple of hours after flying above the international definition of the edge of space.. The Soviet /Russian space program used only rhesus macaques in its Bion satellite program in 1980s and 1990s; the names of the monkeys began with sequential letters of the Russian alphabet. The animals all survived their missions but for a single fatality in post-flight surgery, after which the program was cancelled; the first monkeys launched by Soviet space program and Bion, flew on Bion 6. They remained aloft from December 14, 1983 – December 20, 1983. Next came Bion 7 with monkeys Verny and Gordy from July 10, 1985 – July 17, 1985. Dryoma and Yerosha on Bion 8 from September 29, 1987 – October 12, 1987. After returning from space Dryoma was presented to Cuban leader Fidel Castro. Bion 9 with monkeys Zhakonya and Zabiyaka followed from September 15, 1989 to September 28, 1989; the two took the space endurance record for monkeys at 13 days, 1
Albert I, Prince of Monaco
Albert I was Prince of Monaco and Duke of Valentinois from 10 September 1889 until his death. He devoted much of his life to oceanography. Alongside his expeditions, Albert I made reforms on political and social levels, bestowing a constitution on the Principality in 1911. Born Albert Honoré Charles Grimaldi on 13 November 1848 in Paris, the son of Prince Charles III, Countess Antoinette de Mérode-Westerloo, a Belgian noblewoman, maternal aunt of Donna Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo, Princess della Cisterna, Duchess consort of Aosta and Queen consort of Spain; as a young man, Prince Albert served in the Spanish Navy, during the Franco-Prussian War, he joined the French Navy where he was awarded the Legion of Honor. In addition to his interest in oceanographic studies, Albert had a keen interest in the origins of man and in Paris, he founded the "Institute for Human Paleontology", responsible for a number of archeological digs; the "Grimaldi Man" found in the Baousse-Rousse cave was named in his honour.
Albert's intellectual achievements gained him worldwide recognition and in 1909, the British Academy of Science made him a member. On 21 September 1869 at the Château de Marchais in Champagne, Prince Albert was married to Lady Mary Victoria Hamilton, of Lanarkshire, Scotland, a daughter of the 11th Duke of Hamilton and his wife, Princess Marie of Baden; the couple met for the first time in August 1869 at a ball hosted by the Emperor and Empress of France. Caroline had tried to make a match between Albert and Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, the first cousin of Queen Victoria, sought the help of Napoléon III and his wife, Empress Eugénie; the Emperor convinced Caroline that Queen Victoria would never allow a relative of hers to marry into a family who were making a living out of gambling. He suggested Mary, his third cousin and sister of his good friend, the 12th Duke of Hamilton, as a suitable alternative. Mary was a granddaughter of Charles, Grand Duke of Baden and related by blood to the French Imperial family through her maternal grandmother Stéphanie de Beauharnais, Emperor Napoléon I's adopted daughter and second cousin of Napoléon III's mother, Hortense de Beauharnais.
The Hamiltons were well aware of the extent of Monaco's estate, no bigger than theirs, but were sufficiently impressed by its status as an independent principality. The couple married at Château de Marchais on 21 September 1869. Within a year of their marriage, the couple's only child was born, but Mary, from the hills of Scotland, disliked Monaco and everything Mediterranean. While Albert was away fighting in the Franco-Prussian war, she left Monaco permanently; the couple divorced and their marriage was annulled by the Church on 3 January 1880, although a special provision was made by the Vatican to allow Louis to remain legitimate in the eyes of the Church. Civilly, the marriage was dissolved on 28 July 1880 by the Order of Prince Charles III; that same year, the former Princess of Monaco remarried in Florence, Italy, to a Hungarian nobleman, Prince Tassilo Festetics von Tolna. On 10 September 1889, Albert ascended the throne of Monaco on the death of his father; that same year in Paris, on 30 October, he married the Dowager Duchess de Richelieu, née Marie Alice Heine.
The American daughter of a New Orleans building contractor of German-Jewish descent, Alice Heine had married the Duc de Richelieu but had been widowed by age 21 and left with a young son, Armand. Her marriage to Prince Albert proved an equal blessing for him and the tiny principality of Monaco, since Alice brought a strong business acumen, well in advance of her youth. Having helped put her husband's principality on a sound financial footing, she would devote her energies to making Monaco one of Europe's great cultural centers, with an opera, a ballet under the direction of the famed Russian impresario Serge Diaghilev. Despite the initial success of the marriage of Prince Albert and Princess Alice, in 1902, they separated without issue, though did not divorce. According to Anne Edwards' book The Grimaldis of Monaco, this was due to the Princess's friendship with the composer Isidore de Lara. By the same token, the courtesan Caroline Otero, La Belle Otero, who had served him as a high class prostitute between 1893 and 1897, recalled Albert fondly in her memoirs and claimed that he was not a virile man and suffered from erection difficulty.
Princess Alice had La Belle Otero banned from the province in 1897 for being seen with her husband. In March 1910, there were mass protests against his rule; the Monegasque demanded a constitution and a parliament to rein in the absolute monarch or else they would overthrow him and establish a republic. They were dissatisfied about economy. There was severe unemployment as the country lacked factories and farmland and the casinos did not allow citizens to work there. On 5 January 1911, Prince Albert I granted Monaco a constitution, but the document had little real meaning in terms of reducing autocratic rule and was soon suspended by the Prince when World War I broke out. In 1911, Prince Albert created the Monte Carlo Rally, an automobile race designed to draw tourists to Monaco and the Casino. Despite his military service, or because of it, the Prince became a pacifist, establishing the International Institute of Peace in Monaco as a place to develop a peaceful settlement for conflict through arbitration.
In the tension-filled times leading up to World War I, Prince Albert made numerous attempts to dissuade Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm II from
Albert I of Belgium
Albert I reigned as the King of the Belgians from 1909 to 1934. This was an eventful period in the history of Belgium, which included the period of World War I, when 90 percent of Belgium was overrun and ruled by the German Empire. Other crucial issues included the adoption of the Treaty of Versailles, the ruling of the Belgian Congo as an overseas possession of the Kingdom of Belgium along with the League of Nations mandate of Ruanda-Urundi, the reconstruction of Belgium following the war, the first five years of the Great Depression. King Albert died in a mountaineering accident in eastern Belgium in 1934, at the age of 58, he was succeeded by his son Leopold III. Albert Léopold Clément Marie Meinrad was born in Brussels, he was the fifth child and second son of Prince Philippe, Count of Flanders, his wife, Princess Marie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. Prince Philippe was the third son of Leopold I, the first King of the Belgians, his wife, Louise-Marie of France, the younger brother of King Leopold II of Belgium.
Princess Marie was a relative of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, a member of the non-reigning, Catholic branch of the Hohenzollern family. Albert grew up in the Palace of the Count of Flanders as third in the line of succession to the Belgian throne as his reigning uncle Leopold II's son had died. When, Albert's older brother, Prince Baudouin of Belgium, subsequently prepared for the throne died young, Albert, at the age of 16, unexpectedly became second in line to the Belgian Crown. Retiring and studious, Albert prepared himself strenuously for the task of kingship. In his youth, Albert was concerned with the situation of the working classes in Belgium, travelled around working class districts incognito, to observe the living conditions of the people. Shortly before his accession to the throne in 1909, Albert undertook an extensive tour of the Belgian Congo, annexed by Belgium in 1908, finding the country in poor condition. Upon his return to Belgium, he recommended reforms to protect the native population and to further technological progress in the colony.
Albert was married in Munich on 2 October 1900 to Bavarian Duchess Elisabeth Gabrielle Valérie Marie, a Wittelsbach princess whom he had met at a family funeral. A daughter of Bavarian Duke Karl-Theodor, his second wife, the Infanta Maria Josepha of Portugal, she was born at Possenhofen Castle, Germany, on 25 July 1876, died on 23 November 1965; the civil wedding was conducted by Friedrich Krafft Graf von Crailsheim in the Throne Hall, the religious wedding was conducted by Cardinal von Stein, assisted by Jakob von Türk, Cofessionar of the King of Bavaria. Based on the letters written during their engagement and marriage the young couple appear to have been in love; the letters express a deep mutual affection based on a rare affinity of spirit. They make clear that Albert and Elisabeth continually supported and encouraged each other in their challenging roles as king and queen; the spouses shared an intense commitment to their country and family and a keen interest in human progress of all kinds.
Together, they cultivated the friendship of prominent scientists, mathematicians and philosophers, turning their court at Laeken into a kind of cultural salon. Albert and Elisabeth had three children: Léopold Philippe Charles Albert Meinrad Hubert Marie Miguel, Duke of Brabant, Prince of Belgium, who became the fourth king of the Belgians as Leopold III. Charles Théodore Henri Antoine Meinrad, Count of Flanders, Prince of Belgium, Prince Regent of Belgium. Marie-José Charlotte Sophie Amélie Henriette Gabrielle, Princess of Belgium, she was married at Rome, Italy on 8 January 1930 to Prince Umberto Nicola Tommaso Giovanni Maria, Prince of Piemonte. He became King Umberto II of Italy. Following the death of his uncle, Leopold II, Albert succeeded to the Belgian throne in December 1909, since Albert's own father had died in 1905. Previous Belgian kings had taken the royal accession oath only in French, he and his wife, Queen Elisabeth, were popular in Belgium due to their simple, unassuming lifestyle and their harmonious family life, which stood in marked contrast to the aloof, autocratic manner and the irregular private life of Leopold II.
An important aspect of the early years of Albert's reign was his institution of many reforms in the administration of the Belgian Congo, Belgium's only colonial possession. King Albert was a devout Catholic. Many stories illustrate his tender piety. For instance, when his former tutor General De Grunne, in his old age, entered the Benedictine monastery of Maredsous in Belgium, King Albert wrote a letter to him in which he spoke of the joy of giving oneself to God, he said: "May you spend many years at Maredsous in the supreme comfort of soul, given to natures touched by grace, by faith in God's infinite power and confidence in His goodness." To another friend, a Chinese diplomat who became a Catholic monk, Albert wrote: "Consecrating oneself wholly to the service of Our Lord gives, to those touched by grace, the peace of soul, the supreme happiness here below." Albert used to tell his childre
Albert I of Germany
Albert I of Habsburg, the eldest son of King Rudolf I of Germany and his first wife Gertrude of Hohenberg, was a Duke of Austria and Styria from 1282 and King of Germany from 1298 until his assassination. From 1273 Albert ruled as a landgrave over his father's Swabian possessions in Alsace. In 1282 his father, the first German monarch from the House of Habsburg, invested him and his younger brother Rudolf II with the duchies of Austria and Styria, which he had seized from late King Ottokar II of Bohemia and defended in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld. By the 1283 Treaty of Rheinfelden his father entrusted Albert with their sole government, while Rudolf II ought to be compensated by the Further Austrian Habsburg home territories – which, never happened until his death in 1290. Albert and his Swabian ministeriales appear to have ruled the Austrian and Styrian duchies with conspicuous success, overcoming the resistance by local nobles. King Rudolf I was unable to secure the succession to the German throne for his son due to the objections raised by Ottokar's son King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia, the plans to install Albert as successor of the assassinated King Ladislaus IV of Hungary in 1290 failed.
Upon Rudolf's death in 1291, the Prince-electors, fearing Albert's power and the implementation of a hereditary monarchy, chose Count Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg as King of the Romans. An uprising among his Styrian dependents compelled Albert to recognize the sovereignty of his rival and to confine himself for a time to the government of the Habsburg lands at Vienna, he did not abandon his hopes of the throne, which were realised: In 1298, he was chosen German king by some of the princes, who were bothered about Adolf's attempts to gain his own power basis in the lands of Thuringia and Meissen, again led by the Bohemian king Wenceslaus II. The armies of the rival kings met at the Battle of Göllheim near Worms, where Adolf was defeated and slain. Submitting to a new election but securing the support of several influential princes by making extensive promises, he was chosen at the Imperial City of Frankfurt on 27 July 1298, crowned at Aachen Cathedral on 24 August. Although a hard, stern man, Albert had a keen sense of justice when his own interests were not involved, few of the German kings possessed so practical an intelligence.
He encouraged the cities, not content with issuing proclamations against private war, formed alliances with the princes in order to enforce his decrees. The serfs, whose wrongs attracted notice in an age indifferent to the claims of common humanity, found a friend in this severe monarch, he protected the despised and persecuted Jews. Stories of his cruelty and oppression in the Swiss cantons did not appear until the 16th century, are now regarded as legendary. Albert sought to play an important part in European affairs, he seemed at first inclined to press a quarrel with the Kingdom of France over the Burgundian frontier, but the refusal of Pope Boniface VIII to recognize his election led him to change his policy, and, in 1299, he made a treaty with King Philip IV, by which his son Rudolph was to marry Blanche, a daughter of the French king. He afterwards became estranged from Philip, but in 1303, Boniface recognized him as German king and future emperor. Albert had failed in his attempt to seize the counties of Holland and Zeeland, as vacant fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire, on the death of Count John I in 1299, but in 1306 he secured the crown of Bohemia for his son Rudolph III on the death of King Wenceslaus III.
He renewed the claim made by his predecessor, Adolf, on Thuringia, interfered in a quarrel over the succession to the Hungarian throne. The Thuringian attack ended in Albert's defeat at the Battle of Lucka in 1307 and, in the same year, the death of his son Rudolph weakened his position in eastern Europe, his action in abolishing all tolls established on the Rhine since 1250, led the Rhenish prince-archbishops and the Elector of the Palatinate to form a league against him. Aided by the Imperial cities, however, he soon crushed the rising, he was on the way to suppress a revolt in Swabia when he was murdered on 1 May 1308, at Windisch on the Reuss River, by his nephew Duke John, afterwards called "the Parricide" or "John Parricida", whom he had deprived of his inheritance. Albert, by the grace of God, King of the Romans, Duke of Austria and Styria, Lord of Carniola, over the Wendish Mark and of Port Naon, Count of Habsburg and Kyburg, Landgrave of Alsace In 1274 Albert had married Elizabeth, daughter of Count Meinhard II of Tyrol, a descendant of the Babenberg margraves of Austria who predated the Habsburgs' rule.
The baptismal name Leopold, patron saint margrave of Austria, was given to one of their sons. Queen Elizabeth was in fact better connected to mighty German rulers than her husband: she was a descendant of earlier German kings, for example Emperor Henry IV, she was a niece of the Wittelsbach dukes of Bavaria, Austria's important neighbor. Albert and his wife had twelve children: Rudolph III, Married but line extinct and predeceased his father. Frederick I. Married but line extinct. Leopold I. Married, had issue. Albert II. Henry the Gentle. Married but line extinct. Meinhard, 1300 died young. Otto. Married but line extinct. Anna (12
Albert I of Käfernburg
Albert I of Käfernburg was Archbishop of Magdeburg from 1205 until his death. He was the son of Count Gunther II of Käfernburg, a member of the Thuringian nobility and relative of the comital House of Schwarzburg, who held large estates in the area around Arnstadt, his mother was a daughter of Count Simon I of Saarbrücken. Albert began his studies at the cathedral school in Hildesheim, completing them at Paris and Bologna. At an early age he was made a prebendary of Magdeburg Cathedral, in 1200 was appointed Provost of the collegiate church of St Mary in Mainz by Pope Innocent III. Albert played a prominent part in the great struggle for the Imperial crown, which marked the close of the twelfth and the beginning of the thirteenth centuries. Before his consecration, he had inclined to the side of the Hohenstaufen candidate Philip of Swabia, who sought the crown in spite of his minor nephew Frederick II, the son and heir of late Emperor Henry VI. In turn, through the influence of the Bishop of Halberstadt, he was nominated successor of the Magdeburg Archbishop Ludolph of Kroppenstedt who had died on 17 August 1205.
After receiving the papal approbation, at first withheld by Innocent III on account of those who had taken part in his election and on his account of his attitude towards King Philip, Albert proceeded to Rome, where he was consecrated bishop by the Pope on 24 December 1206 and received the pallium. Albert entered the city of Magdeburg on Palm Sunday, 15 April 1207, five days - on Good Friday - a conflagration destroyed many of the buildings in the city, including his own cathedral. One of his first cares was to repair the damage wrought by fire, in 1208 he laid the cornerstone of the present cathedral, an early example of the Gothic architecture in Germany which, though completed 156 years serves as his most fitting memorial, he rebuilt a large part of the city, is regarded as the founder of Magdeburg's Alte Neustadt quarter. Albert did much to further the interest of religion, he established the Dominicans, the Franciscans in the city, founded a convent for women in honour of St. Mary Magdalene.
Albert's activity was not confined to his diocese. In the German throne quarrel, he came under pressure from the Welf aspirant Otto of Brunswick. Otto, a younger son of Henry the Lion, had been set up as anti-king to Philip of Swabia by a party headed by Archbishop Adolphus of Cologne and crowned King of the Romans at Aachen Cathedral. Archbishop Albert accepted the papal "deliberation" and signed a support agreement with Otto in July 1208. After the assassination of Philip in June 1208, Albert did much to have his rival acknowledged as king, he accompanied him to Rome, where Otto was crowned emperor by Pope Innocent III on 4 October 1209. Magdeburg was indebted to Albert for several valuable privileges which he obtained from the Welf emperor. However, Otto soon broke off relations. Still in Italy, he seized Ancona and Spoleto - part of the papal territories - and installed his vassal Dipold as Duke of Spoleto. Upon attempting to enter the Kingdom of Sicily, Otto was excommunicated by Pope Innocent III on 18 November 1210, his subjects released from their allegiance.
Albert, after some hesitation, published the bull of excommunication and thenceforth transferred his allegiance to Frederick II. While Albert prepared the Frederick's election as King of the Romans in 1212, Otto returned to Germany and defied the Pope; the struggles that followed, in which Magdeburg and its neighbourhood suffered did not come to an end until Otto's power was broken at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214. Albert's years were overshadowed by a feud with the young Brandenburg margraves John I and Otto III. In 1222 he accompanied Frederick II to Italy and made several efforts to arbitrate between the Empire and the Papacy. Albert is said to have died in Cividale, during an interval of peace in 1232, his mortal remains were transferred to Magdeburg Cathedral. Albert's younger half-brother Wilbrand became dean of Magdeburg Cathedral in 1233 and Archbishop in 1235; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia.
New York: Robert Appleton