Albert II, Duke of Austria
Albert II, known as the Wise or the Lame, a member of the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1330, as well as Duke of Carinthia from 1335 until his death. Albert II was born at Habsburg Castle in Swabia, a younger son of King Albert I of Germany and his wife Elizabeth of Carinthia, a member of the House of Gorizia, he prepared for an ecclesiastical career and, though still a minor, was elected Bishop of Passau in 1313. However, he had to rival with an opposing candidate and renounced the office in 1317. After the death of their elder brother Frederick the Fair in 1330, the surviving sons Albert II and Otto the Merry became joint rulers of all Habsburg dominions in Austria and Styria. Albert was able to further increase his possessions by the inheritance of his wife Joanna of Pfirt, made up of the Alsatian county of Pfirt and several cities. Furthermore, upon the death of his maternal uncle Duke Henry of Carinthia in 1335, Albert succeeded in establishing his claims on the Duchy of Carinthia and the March of Carniola, when he reached his enfeoffment by Emperor Louis IV against the claims raised by his mighty Luxembourg rival King John of Bohemia.
Reflecting his high reputation among the secular and church leaders of Europe, in 1335 Pope Benedict XII asked him to mediate in the church's conflict with Emperor Louis. Two years King Philip VI of France 1337 asked him for help against the Wittelsbach emperor and King Edward III of England. Albert remained faithful to the emperor until Louis' death in 1347. After the demolition of Rapperswil Castle by the forces of Rudolf Brun in 1350, the Austrian duke marched against the Swiss Confederacy and laid siege to the city of Zürich, though to no avail. In Austria, Duke Albert had the construction of the Gothic Choir begun in St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna, known as the Albertinian Choir, he established the "Albertinian House Rule" to predetermine the rules of succession in the Habsburg lands according to the principle of primogeniture. Although the rule was disregarded after his death, it was re-assumed under Emperor Maximilian. Adopted as part of the Pragmatic Sanction in 1713, the Albertinian House Rule remained one of the basic laws of Austria until 1918.
Styria owes him its constitution, the so-called "Mountain Book". It has been speculated. If so, however, it did not prevent him from fathering numerous children, of whom six survived childhood. Albert died at Vienna in 1358 and was buried in a monastery of his own foundation, Gaming Charterhouse in present-day Lower Austria. According to his House Rule, he was succeeded by his eldest son Rudolf IV whose younger brothers acted as regents. However, after Rudolf's death in 1365, the Habsburg lands were divided among Albert's younger sons Albert III and Leopold III by the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg. On 15 February 1324 Albert married Countess Johanna of Pfirt, daughter of Count Ulrich III of Pfirt, in Vienna; the couple had the following children: Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, who succeeded his father as Duke of Austria and Carinthia. His marriage with Catherine of Luxembourg remained childless. Catherine, Abbess of St. Klara in Vienna. Margaret, married: in Passau 4 September 1359 Count Meinhard III of Gorizia-Tyrol.
Frederick III, Duke of Austria. Died unmarried. Albert III, Duke of Austria, his first marriage with Elisabeth of Bohemia, a daughter of the Luxembourg emperor Charles IV remained childless. Leopold III, Duke of Austria. Married to Viridis Visconti, second daughter of Barnabò Visconti, Lord of Milan. Gabrielle Caerr-Stamm: Johanna von Pfirt, Gattin des Habsburgers Albrecht II. Herzog von Österreich oder das europäische Schicksal einer Elsässerin. Sundgaugeschichtsverein, Riedisheim 1996, ISBN 2-908498-06-5. Franz Kurz: Österreich unter Herzog Albrecht dem Lahmen, Linz 1819. Previte-Orton, C. W.. The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History: The Twelfth Century to the Renaissance. Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press
Albert II, Margrave of Meissen
Albert II, the Degenerate was a Margrave of Meissen, Landgrave of Thuringia and Count Palatine of Saxony. He was a member of the House of Wettin, he was the eldest son of Henry III, Margrave of Meissen by Constantia of Austria. In 1265 Margrave Henry III granted the Landgraviate of Thuringia and the Palatinate to Albert and the Margraviate of Landsberg in the Osterland to his younger brother Dietrich. Henry III kept for himself the Margraviates of Lusatia as a formal power over his sons. In June 1255 Albert married Margaret of Sicily, the daughter of Emperor Frederick II, King of Sicily, Isabella of England. Margaret known as Margaret of Schwaben was a sister of Henry Otto known as Carlotto; as a dowry the Pleissnerland was pledged to the House of Wettin. Albert and Margaret had five children: Henry, Lord of Pleissnerland, inherited the Pleissnerland in 1274. Frederick, Margrave of Meissen. Dietrich, called Diezmann, Margrave of Lusatia. Margaret. Agnes, married before 21 July 1282 to Henry I, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen.
After what was at first a happy rule and marriage, Albert turned away from Margaret and began a passionate love affair with Kunigunde of Eisenberg. She bore him two children: a daughter, Elisabeth in 1269, a son, Albert in 1270; when she discovered the adultery and the illegitimate births, Margaret left Wartburg on 24 June 1270 and went to Frankfurt am Main where she died on 8 August of the same year. The two younger sons and Diezmann were looked after by their uncle, Theodoric of Landsberg. Henry, the oldest, disappeared in Silesia in 1282. Albert legitimised their children; when Albert intended to leave the Landgraviate of Thuringia to Apitz and compensate his sons from his first marriage with only the Osterland and the County Palatine of Saxony, they began a war against their father. Frederick was locked up in Wartburg castle. During this time, in 1284, their uncle Theodoric of Landsberg died, four years in 1288, Henry the Illustrious, Albert's father died; these deaths heightened. At the death of his father, Albert became Margrave of Meissen, while his nephew Frederick Tuta - son of Theodoric of Landsberg - inherited the Margraviate of Lusatia, sold off by Albert's son Diezmann in 1303.
Shortly after, Frederick captured his father Albert in battle. By the Treaty of Rochlitz, Albert obtained his freedom after the renunciation of large parts of his lands, he retained Meissen for himself, but sold it to Frederick Tuta. When, after his death his cousins Frederick and Diezmann arbitrarily took possession of his lands, Albert - suffering financial difficulties - was compelled to sell Thuringia in 1293 to the German King Adolf of Nassau. In the sale, Albert included Meissen and Osterland as his fiefs, despite the fact they were in the hands of his sons. Thanks to this, Adolf's successor Albert I of Habsburg was able to take possession of these lands, claiming that the contract of sale was legitimate and lawful. Kunigunde of Eisenberg died on 31 October 1286. Four years on 1 October 1290, Albert married thirdly Elisabeth of Orlamünde, heiress of Nordhalben and widow of Hartmann XI of Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk; the same year, Albert's son by Kunigunde, was formally legitimized by the Emperor and created Herr of Tenneberg.
He wished to make Apitz his successor in Thuringia. On 11 April 1291 Apitz's younger full-sister, married Henry III of Frankenstein. Elisabeth died on 28 September 1293. Three years Apitz married a sister of his brother-in-law Henry III also called Elisabeth; this marriage, like his sister's, was childless. Four years Albert's eldest surviving son, married Elisabeth of Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk, daughter of his stepmother. Five years Apitz of Tenneberg died, aged thirty-five; the death of his favorite son was a terrible blow to Albert. He never recovered from the loss. Two years in 1307, Albert resigned the Landgraviate of Thuringia and the County Palatine of Saxony to his son Frederick in exchange for an annuity, he died seven years in Erfurt, aged seventy-four. List of Margraves of Meißen Wettin
Albert II, Duke of Mecklenburg
Albert II Duke of Mecklenburg was a feudal lord in Northern Germany on the shores of the Baltic Sea. He reigned as the head of the House of Mecklenburg, his princely seat was located in Schwerin beginning in the 1350s. Albert was born in Schwerin as the second son of Lord Henry II of Mecklenburg, Lord of Stargard, of the old Vendic princely clan of the Obotrites, his second wife Princess Anna of Saxe-Wittenberg, of the princely Ascanian House. Duke Albert succeeded his father as reigning Prince of Mecklenburg in 1329, he was keenly interested in obtaining influence in Scandinavia, e.g. fiefs or income. The Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund elevated Mecklenburg to the status of a Duchy on 1 July 1347, through which Albert became the first Duke of Mecklenburg. On 10 April 1336, Albert married a kinswoman, the Scandinavian heiress Euphemia of Sweden and Norway, her father was Eric of Sweden, Duke of Södermanland and Halland, her mother was Princess Ingeborg of Norway, the heiress and the only legitimate daughter of King Haakon V of Norway.
Through this marriage, Albert gained standing in Sweden by means of his wife's hereditary estates and ancestral connections. These enabled him to participate in the internal politics of Scandinavia. Albert acquired the nickname "The Fox of Mecklenburg" from the Swedes to evoke his scheming and avarice. Albert arranged for his eldest son, the future Henry III of Mecklenburg, to marry Ingeborg, the eldest daughter and potential heiress of King Valdemar IV of Denmark. Prince Henry married her some time around 1362, their infant son was soon offered unsuccessfully as heir to the kingdom of Denmark in competition with Waldemar's youngest daughter, Queen Margaret of Norway, the future ruler of the Kalmar Union. Albert's brother-in-law King Magnus IV of Sweden faced grave difficulties beginning in the 1350s. Influential nobles attempted to curb the concentration of royal power in Sweden and set up Magnus' own elder son Eric as a rival king. After young Eric's death, Albert's second son and namesake Albert became the next puppet claimant of the noble party in Sweden.
Duke Albert was involved in trying to make his son king in Sweden, but with himself as the real power behind the throne. The younger Albert deposed his uncle Magnus IV from the Swedish throne and ascended as King Albert of Sweden. In Albert and Euphemia's lifetime it was recognized that her genealogical position would become a pivotal point for any future claims to the Scandinavian thrones; when his first wife died, Duke Albert married a second time to countess Adelheid of Hohenstein, daughter of count Ulrich of Hohenstein. That marriage was childless. Duke Albert had five surviving children born from his marriage with Euphemia: his sons Henry and Magnus and daughters Ingeborg and Anna
Albert II, Prince of Monaco
Albert II is the reigning monarch of the Principality of Monaco and head of the princely house of Grimaldi. He is the son of the American actress Grace Kelly. Prince Albert's sisters are Caroline, Princess of Hanover, Princess Stéphanie. In July 2011, Prince Albert married Charlene Wittstock. Prince Albert II is one of the wealthiest royals in the world, with assets valued at more than $1 billion, which include land in Monaco and France. Although Prince Albert does not own the Prince's Palace of Monaco, he does own shares in the Société des bains de mer de Monaco, which operates Monaco's casino and other entertainment properties in the principality. Albert was born in the Prince's Palace of Monaco, he has ancestry from Italy, Britain, the United States, France, Mexico and Monaco. He was baptized on 20 April 1958, by Monsignor Jean Delay, archbishop of Marseille, in the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of Monaco, before being presented at the balcony of the Palace to the people of Monaco.
His godmother was the Spanish queen Victoria Eugenia of Spain, his godfather was Prince Louis de Polignac. Albert graduated with distinction from the Lycée Albert Premier, in 1976, he was a camper and a counselor for six summers at Camp Tecumseh, on Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire, in the 1970s. He spent a year training in various princely duties and enrolled at Amherst College, in western Massachusetts, in 1977 as Albert Grimaldi, studying political science, economics and English literature, he speaks French, English and Italian. He spent the summer of 1979 touring Europe and the Middle East with the Amherst Glee Club, graduated in 1981 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science. Albert undertook an exchange program with the University of Bristol, at the Alfred Marshall School of Economics and Management in 1979. Prince Albert's mother was killed in a car accident in 1982 at age 52. In 2017, in In Depth interview with Graham Bensinger, the Prince stated that his mother's death was a'traumatic' event for him and the family.
He revealed that his father was never the'same man' after the loss. Albert was an enthusiastic sportsman, participating in cross country, javelin throwing, judo, tennis, sailing, skiing and fencing, he is a patron of AS Monaco. Albert competed in the bobsleigh at five consecutive Winter Olympics for Monaco, taking part in both the two-man and four-man events. In the two-man bobsleigh Albert finished 25th at the 1988 games in Calgary, 43rd at the 1992 games in Albertville, 31st at the 2002 games. In the four-man bobsleigh Albert finished 27th in 1992, 26th at the 1994 games in Lillehammer, 28th at both the 1998 games in Nagano and the 2002 games in Salt Lake City. Albert was Monaco's flag bearer at the 1988, 1994, 1998 Winter Olympics. Albert has been a member of the International Olympic Committee since 1985, his maternal grandfather, John B. Kelly Sr. and maternal uncle, John B. Kelly Jr. were both Olympic medalists in rowing. Albert has been the patron of the World Olympians Association since 2012.
In 2017 Albert gained OLY post-nominal status under his competition name of Albert Grimaldi rather than his royal title. Albert did not finish it, he became a judo black belt. On 31 March 2005, following consultation with the Crown Council of Monaco, the Palais Princier announced that Rainier's son, Hereditary Prince Albert, would take over the duties of his father as regent since Rainier was no longer able to exercise his royal functions. On 6 April 2005, Rainier III died and Albert succeeded him as Albert II; the first part of Prince Albert II's enthronement as ruler of the Principality was on 12 July 2005, after the end of the three-month mourning period for his father. A morning Mass at Saint Nicholas Cathedral presided over by the Archbishop of Monaco, the Most Reverend Bernard Barsi, formally marked the beginning of his reign. Afterward Albert II returned to the princely palace to host a garden party for 7,000 Monégasques born in the principality. In the courtyard, the Prince was presented with two keys of the city as a symbol of his investiture and he made a speech.
The evening ended with a spectacular fireworks display on the waterfront. The second part of his investiture was on 19 November 2005. Albert was enthroned at Saint Nicholas Cathedral, his family was there in attendance, including his elder sister Princess Caroline with her husband Ernst, Prince of Hanover and three of her four children, Andrea and Charlotte. Royalty from 16 delegations were present for the festivities throughout the country; the evening ended with an opera performance in Monte Carlo. Prince Albert continues the policy – initiated by previous rulers of Monaco – of strengthening environmental awareness. Just like his great-great-grandfather Albert I, he travelled to Spitsbergen in July 2005. During this trip, he visited the glaciers Monacobreen. Prince Albert II engaged in a Russian Arctic expedition, reaching the North Pole on Easter, 16 April 2006; as a result, he is the first incumbent head of state to have reached the North Pole. Prince Albert is the Vice-Chairman of the Princess Grace Foundation-USA, an American charity founded in 1982, after his mother's death, which supports emerging artists in theatre and film, as Princess Grace did in her lifetime.
In 2006, Prince Albert created the Prince Albert II of Monac
Albert II of Belgium
Albert II reigned as the King of the Belgians from 1993 until his abdication in 2013. King Albert II is the son of born princess of Sweden, he is the younger brother of Grand Duchess Joséphine-Charlotte of Luxembourg and King Baudouin, whom he succeeded upon Baudouin's death in 1993. He is the last living child of Leopold III and Astrid, he married Donna Paola Ruffo di Calabria. Albert's elder son, Philippe, is the current King of the Belgians. On 3 July 2013, King Albert II attended a midday session of the Belgian cabinet, he announced that, on 21 July, Belgian National Day, he would abdicate the throne for health reasons. He was succeeded by his son Philippe on 21 July 2013. Albert II was the fourth monarch to abdicate in 2013, following Pope Benedict XVI, Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, Emir Hamad bin Khalifa of Qatar. In so doing, he was the second Belgian monarch to abdicate, following his father Leopold III who abdicated in 1951, albeit under different circumstances. Prince Albert was born in Stuyvenberg Castle, Brussels, as the second son and youngest child of King Leopold III and his first wife, Princess Astrid of Sweden.
He was second in line to the throne at birth, was given the title Prince of Liège. Queen Astrid died in a car accident on 29 August 1935, in which King Leopold was injured but survived; the King remarried to Mary Lilian Baels in 1941, a union that produced three more children: Prince Alexandre, Princess Marie-Christine and Princess Marie-Esméralda. During World War II, on 10 May 1940, at the time when Belgium was being invaded, Prince Albert, his elder sister Princess Joséphine-Charlotte and his elder brother Prince Baudouin, left the country for France and Spain; the Prince and the Princess returned to Belgium on 2 August 1940. They continued their studies until 1944, either at Laeken, or at the Castle of Ciergnon in the Ardennes. In June 1944, at the time of the Allied landings, King Leopold, his wife Princess Lilian and the royal children were deported by the Germans to Hirschstein, to Strobl, where they were liberated by the American Army on 7 May 1945. Owing to the political situation in Belgium, King Leopold and his family moved to the villa "Le Reposoir" in Pregny, when they left Austria in October 1945 and stayed until July 1950.
During that time, Prince Albert would continue his education in a secondary school in Geneva. King Leopold III, accompanied by Prince Baudouin and Prince Albert, returned to Belgium on 22 July 1950. In 1958, Albert went to the Vatican to witness the coronation of Pope John XXIII. At a reception at the Belgian Embassy, he met Italian Donna Paola Ruffo di Calabria. Prince Albert proposed marriage to which she accepted. Two months after their meeting, the prince introduced his future wife to his family, four months to the press; the couple married on 2 July 1959 and have three children, two sons and a daughter, twelve grandchildren and one great-grandchild: King Philippe of the Belgians. On 4 December 1999, the Duke of Brabant married Jonkvrouwe Mathilde d'Udekem d'Acoz, created Princess Mathilde of Belgium a day before their marriage, she is a daughter of the late Count Patrick d'Udekem d'Acoz and his wife, Countess Anna Maria Komorowska. The current King and Queen have four children, two sons and two daughters: The Duchess of Brabant, heiress apparent Prince Gabriel of Belgium Prince Emmanuel of Belgium Princess Eléonore of Belgium Princess Astrid of Belgium.
On 22 September 1984, she married Archduke Lorenz of Austria-Este, Archduke of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia, created a Prince of Belgium in 1995. They have five children, two sons and three daughters: Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este married on 5 July 2014 to Elisabetta Rosboch von Wolkenstein. On May 17, 2016 Albert became a great-grandfather to Archduchess Anna Astrid, the daughter of his eldest grandchild Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este. Princess Maria Laura of Belgium, Archduchess of Austria-Este Prince Joachim of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este Princess Luisa Maria of Belgium, Archduchess of Austria-Este Princess Laetitia Maria of Belgium, Archduchess of Austria-Este Prince Laurent of Belgium. On 12 April 2003, he married an Anglo-Belgian former real-estate agent, she was created Princess Claire of Belgium 11 days before their marriage. They have three children, twin sons and one daughter: Princess Louise of Belgium Prince Nicolas of Belgium Prince Aymeric of Belgium Since 1999, the media have claimed that the Belgian sculptor Delphine Boël is King Albert II's extramarital daughter.
In June 2013, Boël summoned the King, the Duke of Brabant and the Archduchess of Austria-Este to appear in court. She hoped to use DNA tests to prove that she is the King's daughter
Albert II, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
Albert II or V of Brandenburg-Ansbach was a German prince, Margrave of Ansbach from 1634 until his death. Born in Ansbach, Albert was the second son of Joachim Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and his wife Sophie, daughter of John George, Count of Solms-Laubach. On Joachim Ernst's death Albert's elder brother Frederick III succeeded him in Ansbach from 1625 onwards under their mother's guardianship, but he was killed without issue in the Thirty Years' War in 1634. Albert thus succeeded him, though again the early years of his rule were under his mother's guardianship, only taking up full government responsibilities when his minority ended in 1639. With much diplomatic skill, he manoeuvred Brandenburg-Ansbach through the last ten years of the war and through administrative reforms, support for the guilds and cultural life and a good credit policy he promoted the beginnings of post-war reconstruction, he offered refuge to religious refugees from Austria and in 1647 or 1662 granted them lands in Treuchtlingen and Berolzheim.
Albert's main advisor on this was his former teacher Johannes Limnäus. Active in the politics of the Holy Roman Empire, he sent troops to back the war against the Ottoman Empire. A typical Baroque absolute ruler, he died at Ansbach in 1667, he was buried in the Johanniskirche in that city. In Stuttgart on 31 August 1642 he married Henriette Louise, daughter of Louis Frederick, Duke of Württemberg-Montbéliard, with the following children: Sophie Elisabeth Albertine Luise Sophie Amalie He married for a second time on 15 October 1651 at Oettingen, to Sophie Margarete, daughter of Joachim Ernst, Count of Oettingen-Oettingen, with the following children: Luise Sophie John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach ∞ 1. 1673 Princess Johanna Elisabeth of Baden-Durlach ∞ 2. 1681 Princess Eleonore of Sachsen-Eisenach Albrecht Ernst Dorothea Charlotte ∞ 1687 Ernest Louis, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt Eleonore Juliane ∞ 1682 Frederick Charles, Duke of Württemberg-Winnental He married for a third time on 6 August 1665 in Durlach, to Christine, daughter of Frederick VI, Margrave of Baden-Durlach.
This marriage was childless. Hanns Hubert Hofmann: Albrecht V.. In: Neue Deutsche Biographie. Band 1, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1953, S. 163 f. M. Spindler, A. Kraus: Geschichte Frankens bis zum Ausgang des 18. Jahrhunderts, München 1997. ISBN 3-406-39451-5
Monkeys and apes in space
Before humans went into space, several other animals were launched into space, including numerous other primates, so that scientists could investigate the biological effects of space travel. The United States launched flights containing primate passengers between 1948-1961 with one flight in 1969 and one in 1985. France launched two monkey-carrying flights in 1967; the Soviet Union and Russia launched monkeys between 1983 and 1996. Most primates were anesthetized before lift-off. Overall thirty-two monkeys flew in the space program. Numerous backup monkeys went through the programs but never flew. Monkeys and apes from several species were used, including rhesus macaque, crab-eating macaque, squirrel monkeys, pig-tailed macaques, chimpanzees; the first primate astronaut was Albert, a rhesus macaque, who on June 11, 1948, rode to over 63 km on a V-2 rocket. Albert died of suffocation during the flight. Albert was followed by Albert II who survived the V-2 flight but died on impact on June 14, 1949, after a parachute failure.
Albert II became the first monkey and the first primate in space as his flight reached 134 km - past the Kármán line of 100 km taken to designate the beginning of space. Albert III died at 35,000 feet in an explosion of his V2 on September 16, 1949. Albert IV, on the last monkey V-2 flight, died on impact on December 8 that year after another parachute failure, his flight reached 130.6 km. Alberts, I, II, IV were rhesus macaque while Albert III was a Crab-eating macaque. Monkeys flew on Aerobee rockets. On April 18, 1951, a monkey called Albert V, died due to parachute failure. Yorick called Albert VI, along with 11 mouse crewmates, reached 236,000 ft and survived the landing, on September 20, 1951, the first monkey to do so, although he died 2 hours later. Two of the mice died after recovery. Albert VI's flight surpassed the 50-mile boundary the U. S. was below the international definition of space. Patricia and Mike, two cynomolgus monkeys, flew on May 21, 1952, survived, but their flight was only to 26 kilometers.
On December 13, 1958, Gordo called Old Reliable, a squirrel monkey, survived being launched aboard Jupiter AM-13 by the US Army. He was killed due to mechanical failure of the parachute recovery system in the rocket nose cone. On May 28, 1959, aboard the JUPITER AM-18, Able, a rhesus macaque, Miss Baker, a squirrel monkey flew a successful mission. Able was born at the Ralph Mitchell Zoo in Kansas, they travelled in excess of 16,000 km/h, withstood 38 g. Able died June 1, 1959, while undergoing surgery to remove an infected medical electrode, from a reaction to the anesthesia. Baker became the first monkey to survive the stresses of spaceflight and the related medical procedures. Baker died November 29, 1984, at the age of 27 and is buried on the grounds of the United States Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Able was preserved, is now on display at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum, their names were taken from the 1943-1955 US military phonetic alphabet. On December 4, 1959, Sam, a rhesus macaque, flew on the Little Joe 2 in the Mercury program to 53 miles high.
Miss Sam a rhesus macaque, followed in 1960, on Little Joe 1B although her flight was only to 8 mi in a test of emergency procedures. Ham and Enos flew in the Mercury program but they were chimpanzees; the names'Sam' and'Ham' were acronyms. Sam was named in homage to the School of Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas; the name'Ham' was taken from Holloman Aerospace Medicine at New Mexico. Goliath, a squirrel monkey, died in the explosion of his Atlas rocket on November 10, 1961. A rhesus macaque called Scatback flew a sub-orbital flight on December 20, 1961, but was lost at sea after landing. Bonny, a pig-tailed macaque, flew on Biosatellite 3, a mission which lasted from June 29 to July 8, 1969; this came after longer human spaceflights were common. He died within a day of landing. Spacelab 3 on the Space Shuttle flight STS-51-B featured two squirrel monkeys named No. 3165 and No. 384-80. The flight was from April 29 to May 6, 1985. France launched a pig-tailed macaque named Martine on a Vesta rocket on March 7, 1967, another named Pierette on March 13.
These suborbital flights reached 243 234 km, respectively. Martine became the first monkey to survive more than a couple of hours after flying above the international definition of the edge of space.. The Soviet /Russian space program used only rhesus macaques in its Bion satellite program in 1980s and 1990s; the names of the monkeys began with sequential letters of the Russian alphabet. The animals all survived their missions but for a single fatality in post-flight surgery, after which the program was cancelled; the first monkeys launched by Soviet space program and Bion, flew on Bion 6. They remained aloft from December 14, 1983 – December 20, 1983. Next came Bion 7 with monkeys Verny and Gordy from July 10, 1985 – July 17, 1985. Dryoma and Yerosha on Bion 8 from September 29, 1987 – October 12, 1987. After returning from space Dryoma was presented to Cuban leader Fidel Castro. Bion 9 with monkeys Zhakonya and Zabiyaka followed from September 15, 1989 to September 28, 1989; the two took the space endurance record for monkeys at 13 days, 1