Redeemer University College
Redeemer University College is a private Christian liberal arts and science university located in Hamilton, Canada in the rural community of Ancaster. Founded in 1982, Redeemer stands in the Reformed Tradition and offers Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Education, Bachelor of Science degrees; the college opened in 1982 with 97 full-time and 63 part-time students. This number grew to about 250 for the 1985-86 academic year, the final year classes met in facilities rented from the Board of Education of the City of Hamilton. In 1985 the college purchased 78 acres of land in Ancaster, Ontario for the construction of a new campus; the college occupied the new facilities in August 1986, welcomed 279 full-time students in September. In November, 1986, the college held its first graduation, with 40 students graduating. On June 25, 1998, the Ontario Government passed Bill Pr17, which granted Redeemer College the authority to offer Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees. Prior to that time, the college conferred a Bachelor of Christian Studies degree, recognized by the AUCC as comparable to the Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree.
As a university degree granting institution, Redeemer undergoes audits of its undergraduate program reviews, carried out under the auspices of the Council of Ontario Universities. In view of its status as an undergraduate university, the Ontario Legislature approved a change in institutional name to Redeemer University College on June 22, 2000. On June 26, 2003 the Ontario Government passed Bill Pr14, granting Redeemer the authority to offer a Bachelor of Education degree to replace its B. C. Ed. Degree. On December 10, 2003 the new teacher education program was granted initial accreditation by the Ontario College of Teachers, giving Redeemer the only provincially recognized Christian teacher education program in Ontario. In 2005, a considerable expansion to the academic facilities including the addition of the Peter Turkstra Library was completed. Redeemer University College's Arms and Badge were registered with the Canadian Heraldic Authority on September 15, 2005. In 2013 they settled a class action lawsuit with about 450 families over the tax deductible donations the families made to the institution which the institution in turn lent to their children to pay tuition and would forgive the loan if the child completed the academic year.
The Canadian government had ruled that the donations were ineligible for tax deduction since the donors had benefited and ordered payment of back taxes and interest from donors. In the settlement the institution gave back 10% of the donations and paid the legal costs of the families. In February 2019, a $11 million donation allowed Redeemer University College to lower tuition to $9800 for the next 5 years. Redeemer University College offers over minors. Bachelor of Arts: Applied Social Sciences, Business, Environmental Studies, History and Physical Education and Communication Studies, Philosophy and International Studies, Psychology and Theology, Theatre Arts Bachelor of Science: Biochemistry, Chemistry, Environmental Studies, Health Sciences, Mathematics, Bachelor of Education: Education Redeemer offers three styles of on-campus residence. Townhouse: Incoming students live in the Townhouse residences at Redeemer, located in Calvin Court, Luther Court and Cranmer Court. There are 43 two-storey townhouse residences in all, each with four bedrooms, two bathrooms, a full kitchen, a dining room, a living room, a basement.
Features of a Townhouse residence are a furnished common area, dining/living room, bedrooms and cable Internet access, local telephone access, self-locking doors and campus security patrol of campus 24/7, Residence Advisor or Housing Advisor, coin laundry facilities, parking space. Augustine Hall: Typically, second-year students live in Augustine Hall at Redeemer, located just past the Recreation Centre. A three-storey complex, Augustine Hall is made up of twelve 3-bedroom residences and three 2-bedroom residences; each 3-bedroom residence includes two bathrooms, a full kitchen, dining room, living room, an extra storage unit. Up to six students live together in these residences. One of them serves as Housing Advisor who meets with the Assistant Resident Coordinator in Student Life on a regular basis; the HA ensures everything runs smoothly as students share meals and devotions together. As of 2015, Augustine Hall has become a senior student residence for third-, fourth- and fifth-year students.
The building is overseen by two fellow senior students known as Residence Life Facilitators who plan monthly events and ensures that each apartment is cared for. Independent apartments: Independent apartments are available for students with disabilities, married students and senior students; the 23 apartments are located in Augustine Hall. Some of the features are choice of a one or two bedroom unit, air conditioning and cable internet access, kitchen appliances, parking space, extra storage unit, coin laundry facilities. LAUNCH is a week-long orientation made up of
The Copper Scroll is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls found in Cave 3 near Khirbet Qumran, but differs from the others. Whereas the other scrolls are written on parchment or papyrus, this scroll is written on metal: copper mixed with about 1 percent tin. Unlike the others, it is not a literary work, but a list of places where various items of gold and silver are buried or hidden, it differs from the other scrolls in its Hebrew, its orthography and date. Since 2013, the Copper Scroll has been on display at the newly opened Jordan Museum in Amman after being moved from its previous home, the Jordan Archaeological Museum on Amman's Citadel Hill. A new facsimile of the Copper Scroll by Facsimile Editions of London was announced as being in production in 2014. While most of the Dead Sea Scrolls were found by Bedouins, the Copper Scroll was discovered by an archaeologist; the scroll, on two rolls of copper, was found on March 1952 at the back of Cave 3 at Qumran. It was the last of 15 scrolls discovered in the cave, is thus referred to as 3Q15.
The corroded metal could not be unrolled by conventional means and so the Jordanian government sent it to Manchester University's College of Technology in England on the recommendation of English archaeologist and Dead Sea Scrolls scholar John Marco Allegro for it to be cut into sections, allowing the text to be read. He arranged for the university's Professor H. Wright Baker to cut the sheets into 23 strips in 1955 and 1956, it became clear that the rolls were part of the same document. Allegro, who had supervised the opening of the scroll, transcribed its contents immediately; the first editor assigned for the transcribed text was Józef Milik. He believed that the scroll was a product of the Essenes but noted that it was not an official work of theirs. At first he believed. However, Milik's view changed. Since there was no indication that the scroll was a product of the Essenes from the Qumran community, he changed his identification of the scroll, he now believes that the scroll was separate from the community, although it was found at Qumran in Cave 3, it was found further back in the cave, away from the other scrolls.
As a result, he suggested the Copper Scroll was a separate deposit, separated by a "lapse in time."Although the text was assigned to Milik, in 1957 the Jordanian Director of Antiquities approached Allegro to publish the text. After a second approach by a new director of Jordanian Antiquities, who had waited for signs of Milik of moving to publish, took up the second request and published an edition with translation and hand-drawn transcriptions from the original copper segments in 1960. Milik published his official edition in 1962 with hand-drawn transcriptions, though the accompanying black-and-white photographs were "virtually illegible"; the scroll was re-photographed in 1988 with greater precision. From 1994 to 1996 extensive conservation efforts by Electricité de France included evaluation of corrosion, photography, x-rays, making a facsimile and a drawing of the letters. Emile Puech's edition had the benefit of these results. Scholarly estimates of the probable date range of The Copper Scroll vary.
F. M. Cross proposed the period of 25-75 CE on paleographical grounds, while W. F. Albright suggested 70-135 CE and Manfred Lehmann put forward a similar date range, arguing that the treasure was principally the money accumulated between the First Jewish–Roman War and the Bar Kokhba revolt, while the temple lay in ruins. P. Kyle McCarter Jr. Albert M. Wolters, David Wilmot and Judah Lefkovits all agree that the scroll originated around 70 CE. Whereas Emile Puech argued that the deposit of the Copper Scroll behind 40 jars could not have been placed after the jars, so the scroll "predates 68 CE."Józef Milik proposed that the scroll was written around 100 CE, nearly a "generation after the destruction of Jerusalem." If Milik's dating of the scroll is correct, it would mean that the scroll did not come from the Qumran community because his dating puts the scroll "well after the Qumran settlement was destroyed." The style of writing is different from the other scrolls. It is written in a style similar to Mishnaic Hebrew.
While Hebrew is a well-known language, the majority of ancient Hebrew text in which the language is studied is biblical in nature, which, of course, the Copper Scroll is not. As a result, "most of the vocabulary is not found in the Bible or anything else we have from ancient times." The orthography is unusual, the script having features resulting from being written on copper with hammer and chisel. There is the anomaly that seven of the location names are followed by a group of two or three Greek letters; the "clauses" within the scroll mark intriguing parallels to that of Greek inventories, from the Greek temple of Apollo. This similarity to the Greek inventories, would suggest that scroll is in fact an authentic "temple inventory."Some scholars believe that the difficulty in deciphering the text is due to it having been copied from another original document by an illiterate scribe who did not speak the language in which the scroll was written, or at least was not well familiar. As Milik puts it, the scribe "uses the forms and ligature of the cursive script along with formal letters, confuses graphically several letters of the formal hand."
As a result, it has made understanding of the text difficult. The text is an inventory of 64 locations.
Herman Bavinck was a Dutch Reformed theologian and churchman. He was one of the greatest Calvinist scholars of the world with Abraham Kuyper and B. B. Warfield. Bavinck was born in the town of Hoogeveen in the Netherlands to a German father, he first went to theological school at Kampen, but moved on to Leiden for further training. He graduated in 1880 from Leiden having completed a dissertation on Ulrich Zwingli. A year Bavinck was appointed Professor of Dogmatics at Kampen Theological Seminary. While serving there, he assisted his denomination that had formed out of the withdrawal of orthodox Calvinists earlier from the state Hervormde Kerk, a withdrawal movement called the "Afscheiding" in its merger with a second and subsequent larger breakaway movement that left the Hervormde Kerk, this time under the leadership of Abraham Kuyper, a movement called "the Doleantie"; the now-united Church combined the "Afgescheidenen" and "Dolerenden" into the Gereformeerde Kerken in Nederland. As a result of the merger, GKiN inherited the denominational seminary of the Afscheiding churches and that seminary became the denominational seminary of the GKiN, where Bavinck stayed put, so as to ease the transition of his colleagues and people within the much larger new Church.
When the Afgescheidenen merged with the Dolerenden, there was a minority of the Seceders who stayed out of the union. Amidst all these developments, Bavinck stayed put and pursued his class lectures, research and publication - making his distinctive mark as an orthodox Calvinist theologian and churchman; the founded Free University in Amsterdam, under the leadership of Abraham Kuyper, was meant to be a bastion of Reformed learning in all fields of thought. The Free University including its Theology Faculty for training clergy, unlike Kampen Seminary, was independent of both the state and all church denominations. But, of course, theology was the VU's initial leading concern for some decades. So, when he was first invited to join the VU Faculty, had to weigh the merits of teaching what concerned him in his theological research, in such a independent environment. With Kuyper in the same faculty, he might have come to feel quite crowded. After refusing the invitation of Abraham Kuyper several times to come to Amsterdam Bavinck accepted Kuyper's plea.
In 1902 he succeeded Abraham Kuyper as Professor of Theology at the Free University in Amsterdam. Kuyper himself had developed other workloads, wanted the best man available to replace himself. Thus, Bavinck moved to the big city, with his first edition of multi-volume Gereformeerde Dogmatiek in publication, he arrived well-respected. He remained at VU for the remainder of his teaching career. In 1906 he became member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 1911, he was named to the Senate of the Netherlands Parliament, he assisted in the encouragement of the Gereformeerde people to build their own Christian schools, without state financial help, until such a time as the 80-years "School War" was brought to an end by the granting of government assistance to all schools. In 1908 he gave the Stone Lectures at Princeton Theological Seminary, he has been compared with his contemporary Abraham Kuyper. J. H. Landwehr, Bavinck's first biographer, had this to say of the two: "Bavinck was an Aristotelian, Kuyper had a Platonic spirit.
Bavinck was the man of clear concept, Kuyper the man of the fecund idea. Bavinck worked with the given. Bavinck's was an inductive mind. One major difference in ideas between Bavinck and Kuyper is formulated in theological terms contrasting a doctrine called "Common Grace" with a doctrine called "the Antithesis." Bavinck emphasized Common Grace. A comparison of the two positions, which came to designate two interwoven and contentious traditions in the GKiN and the Neo-Calvinist Christian social movements that flowed from its membership, is presented in Jacob Klapwijk's important work of Reformational philosophy, entitled Bringing into Captivity Every Thought. Bavinck sensed the open question caused by the subjectivistic tendency of Friedrich Schleiermacher's doctrine of revelation. Concerned with the problem of objectivism and subjectivism in the doctrine of revelation, he employed Schleiermacher’s doctrine of revelation in his own way and regarded the Bible as the objective standard for his theological work.
Bavinck stressed the importance of the church, which forms the Christian consciousness and experience. The Doctrine of God. Gereformeerde Dogmatiek Our Reasonable Faith. Philosophy of Revelation; the Christian Family. The Last Things. Essays on Religion and Society. Bavinck, Herman. "The Catholicity of Christianity and the Church". Calvin Theological Journal. 27: 220–251. John Bolt Herman Bavinck on the Law-Gospel Distinction and Preaching Natural Law and the Two Kingdoms in the Thought of Herman
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Fall of man
The fall of man, or the fall, is a term used in Christianity to describe the transition of the first man and woman from a state of innocent obedience to God to a state of guilty disobedience. Although not named in the Bible, the doctrine of the fall comes from a biblical interpretation of Genesis chapter 3. At first and Eve lived with God in the Garden of Eden, but the serpent tempted them into eating the fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil, which God had forbidden. After doing so, they became ashamed of their nakedness and God expelled them from the Garden to prevent them from eating from the tree of life and becoming immortal. For many Christian denominations, the doctrine of the fall is related to that of original sin, they believe that the fall brought sin into the world, corrupting the entire natural world, including human nature, causing all humans to be born into original sin, a state from which they cannot attain eternal life without the grace of God. The Eastern Orthodox Church accepts the concept of the fall but rejects the idea that the guilt of original sin is passed down through generations, based in part on the passage Ezekiel 18:20 that says a son is not guilty of the sins of his father.
Calvinist Protestants believe that Jesus gave his life as a sacrifice for the elect, so they may be redeemed from their sin. Judaism does not have a concept of "the fall" or "original sin" and has varying other interpretations of the Eden narrative. Lapsarianism, the logical order of God's decrees in relation to the Fall, is the distinction, by some Calvinists, as being supralapsarian or infralapsarian; the story of the Garden of Eden and the fall of man represents a tradition among the Abrahamic peoples, with a presentation more or less symbolical of certain moral and religious truths. The doctrine of the fall of man is extrapolated from Christian exegesis of Genesis 3. According to the narrative, God creates the first man and woman. God places them in the Garden of Eden and forbids them to eat fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil; the serpent tempts Eve to eat fruit from the forbidden tree, which she shares with Adam and they become ashamed of their nakedness. Subsequently, God banishes Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden, condemns Adam to working in order to get what he needs to live and condemns Eve to giving birth in pain, places cherubim to guard the entrance, so that Adam and Eve will not eat from the "tree of life".
The Book of Jubilees gives time frames for the events that led to the fall of man by stating that the serpent convinced Eve to eat the fruit on the 17th day, of the 2nd month, in the 8th year after Adam's creation. It states that they were removed from the Garden on the new moon of the 4th month of that year. Christian exegetes of Genesis 2:17 have applied the day-year principle to explain how Adam died within a day. Psalms 90:4, 2 Peter 3:8 and Jubilees 4:29–31 explained that, to God, one day is equivalent to a thousand years and thus Adam died within that same "day"; the Greek Septuagint, on the other hand, has "day" translated into the Greek word for a twenty-four-hour period. According to the Genesis narrative, during the antediluvian age, human longevity approached a millennium, such as the case of Adam who lived 930 years. Thus, to "die" has been interpreted as to become mortal. However, the grammar does not support this reading, nor does the narrative: Adam and Eve are expelled from the Garden lest they eat of the second tree, the tree of life, gain immortality.
Catholic exegesis of Genesis 3 claims that the fall of man was a "primeval event, a deed that took place at the beginning of the history of man." Traditionally, the fall of Adam and Eve is said to have brought “four wounds” to human nature. These are enumerated by St Bede and others St Thomas Aquinas They are original sin, physical frailty and death, darkened intellect and ignorance; these negated or diminished the gifts of God to Adam and Eve of original justice or sanctifying grace, integrity and infused knowledge. This first sin was "transmitted" by Adam and Eve to all of their descendants as original sin, causing humans to be "subject to ignorance and the dominion of death, inclined to sin." Although the state of corruption, inherited by humans after the primeval event of Original Sin, is called guilt or sin, it is understood as a sin acquired by the unity of all humans in Adam rather than a personal responsibility of humanity. Children partake in the effects of the sin of Adam, but not in the responsibility of original sin, as sin is always a personal act.
Baptism is considered to erase original sin, though the effects on human nature remain, for this reason the Catholic Church baptizes infants who have not committed any personal sin. Eastern Orthodoxy rejects the idea that the guilt of original sin is passed down through generations, it bases its teaching in part on Ezekiel 18:20 that says a son is not guilty of the sins of his father. The Church teaches that, in addition to their conscience and tendency to do good and women are born with a tendency to sin due to the fallen condition of the world, it follows Maximus the Confessor and others in characterising the change in human nature as the introduction of a "deliberative will" in opposition to the "natural will" created by God which tends toward the good. Thus, according to St Paul in his epistle to th