Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a Census-estimated 2,636,735 residents in 2015. It borders the borough of Queens at the end of Long Island. Today, if New York City dissolved, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous city in the U. S. behind Los Angeles, the borough continues, however, to maintain a distinct culture. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves, Brooklyns official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght which translates from early modern Dutch as Unity makes strength. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms. The history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years, the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North Americas first tidal mill. It was built by the Dutch, and the foundation can be seen today, the area was not formally settled as a town. Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furmans early compilation, what is today Brooklyn left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War.
The English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1,1683 and this tract of land was recognized as a political entity for the first time, and the municipal groundwork was laid for a expansive idea of Brooklyn identity. On August 27,1776 was fought the Battle of Long Island, the first major engagement fought in the American Revolutionary War after independence was declared, and the largest of the entire conflict. British troops forced Continental Army troops under George Washington off the heights near the sites of Green-Wood Cemetery, Prospect Park. The fortified American positions at Brooklyn Heights consequently became untenable and were evacuated a few days later, One result of the Treaty of Paris in 1783 was the evacuation of the British from New York City, celebrated by residents into the 20th century. The New York Navy Yard operated in Wallabout Bay for the entire 19th century, the first center of urbanization sprang up in the Town of Brooklyn, directly across from Lower Manhattan, which saw the incorporation of the Village of Brooklyn in 1817.
Reliable steam ferry service across the East River to Fulton Landing converted Brooklyn Heights into a town for Wall Street. Ferry Road to Jamaica Pass became Fulton Street to East New York and Village were combined to form the first, kernel incarnation of the City of Brooklyn in 1834. Industrial deconcentration in mid-century was bringing shipbuilding and other manufacturing to the part of the county. Each of the two cities and six towns in Kings County remained independent municipalities, and purposely created non-aligning street grids with different naming systems and it became the most popular and highest circulation afternoon paper in America. The publisher changed to L. Van Anden on April 19,1842, on May 14,1849 the name was shortened to The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, on September 5,1938 it was further shortened to Brooklyn Eagle
Fordham University is a private, independent research university in New York City, founded by the Catholic Diocese of New York in 1841. It is the oldest Catholic institution of education in the northeastern United States. The colleges first president, John McCloskey, was the first Catholic cardinal in the United States, after merging with Thomas More College in 1974, Fordham became a coeducational institution. Fordhams Bronx campus features some of the earliest examples of gothic architecture in North America. In addition to masters and doctoral degrees, Fordham awards the Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science. In addition to locations, the university maintains a study abroad center in the United Kingdom and field offices in Spain. Fordhams notable alumni and faculty include numerous U. S, vice Chief of Staff of the Army, a U. S. Postmaster General, a U. S. Attorney General, a U. S, vice Presidential candidate, and a President of the United States. Fordham University has produced at least 119 Fulbright Scholars since 2003, Fordham was founded as St.
Johns College in 1841 by the Irish-born coadjutor bishop of the Diocese of New York, the Most Reverend John J. Hughes. The college was the first Catholic institution of education in the northeastern United States. Rose Hill was the originally given to the site in 1787 by its owner, Robert Watts. The seminary was paired with St. Johns College, which opened at Rose Hill with a student body of six on June 21,1841, the Reverend John McCloskey was the schools first president, and the faculty were secular priests and lay instructors. In 1845, the church, Our Lady of Mercy, was built. The same year, Bishop Hughes convinced several Jesuit priests from the St. Marys Colleges in Maryland, in 1846, the college received its charter from the New York State Legislature, and roughly three months later, the first Jesuits began to arrive. Bishop Hughes deeded the college over but retained title to the seminary property, in 1847, Fordhams first school in Manhattan opened. The school became the independently chartered College of St.
Francis Xavier in 1861 and it was in 1847 that the American poet Edgar Allan Poe arrived in the village of Fordham and began a friendship with the college Jesuits that would last throughout his life. In 1849, he published his famed work The Bells, some traditions credit the colleges church bells as the inspiration for this poem. Poe spent considerable time in the Fordham Library, and even stayed overnight
On the other hand, Just War Theory explores the moral dimensions of warfare, and to better limit the destructive reality caused by war, seeks to establish a doctrine of military ethics. The discipline of history is dynamic, changing with development as much of the subject area as the societies. An important recent concept is the Revolution in Military Affairs which attempts to explain how warfare has been shaped by emerging technologies and it highlights the short outbursts of rapid change followed by periods of relative stability. In terms of the profession in major countries, military history is an orphan. William H. McNeill points out, This branch of our discipline flourishes in an intellectual ghetto, the study of military history in universities remains seriously underdeveloped. Indeed, lack of interest in and disdain for military history probably constitute one of the strangest prejudices of the profession, historiography is the study of the history and method of the discipline of history or the study of a specialised topic.
In this case, military history with an eye to gaining an accurate assessment of conflicts using all available sources, Military historians use Historiographical analysis in an effort to allow an unbiased, contemporary view of records. Historians utilize their knowledge of government regulation and military organization, and employing a targeted, despite these limits, wars are some of the most studied and detailed periods of human history. Military historians have often compared organization and strategic ideas, leadership, in the early 1980s, historian Jeffrey Kimball surveyed the ideological preferences of 109 active diplomatic historians in the United States as well as 54 active military historians. He reports that, Of historians in the field of history, 7% are Socialist, 19% are Other, 53% are Liberal, 11% are None. Of military historians, 0% are Socialist, 8% are Other, 35% are Liberal, 18% are None, the documentation of military history begins with the confrontation between Sumer and Elam c.2700 BC near the modern Basra, and includes such enduring records as the Hebrew Bible.
Other prominent records in history are the Trojan War in Homers Iliad. An approach centered on the analysis of a leader was taken by Xenophon in Anabasis, the records of the Roman Julius Caesar enable a comparative approach for campaigns such as Commentarii de Bello Gallico and Commentarii de Bello Civili. New weapons development can dramatically alter the face of war, the cost of warfare, the preparations, a rule of thumb is that if your enemy has a potentially war winning weapon, you have to either match it or neutralize it. The chariot was an effective, fast weapon, while one man controlled the maneuvering of the chariot and these became crucial to the maintenance of several governments, including the New Egyptian Kingdom and the Shang Dynasty and the nation states of early to mid Zhou dynasty. The infantry started as opposing armed groups of soldiers underneath commanders, the Greeks and early Romans used rigid, heavily armed phalanxes. The Macedonians and Hellenistic states would adopt phalanx formations with sarissa pikemen, the Romans would adopt more flexible maniples from their neighbors which made them extremely successful in the field of battle.
The kingdoms of the Warring States in East Asia adopted infantry combat, in the Sicilian Expedition, led by Athens in an attempt to subdue Syracuse, the well-trained Syracusan cavalry became crucial to the success of the Syracusans
National Museum of the Pacific War
The National Museum of the Pacific War is located in Fredericksburg, the boyhood home of Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz. Fleet Admiral Nimitz served as CinCPAC, Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet during World War II, Charles Henry Nimitz, German merchant marine and grandfather of Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz, was born in Bremen in Germany. He emigrated to the United States by way of South Carolina in 1844, in 1846, Nimitz moved to Fredericksburg with the initial settlers. In 1848, he married Sophie Dorothea Mueller, and nine of the twelve children lived to adulthood. Local trouble maker James P. Waldrip tried unsuccessfully to recruit Nimitz into Die Haengebande, Charles Nimitz built the Nimitz Hotel in 1852, and deeded it over to his son Charles H. Nimitz, Jr. in 1906. Locals referred to it as the Steamboat Hotel because of the bow front. The hotel had its own saloon and brewery, a ballroom that doubled as a theatre, a smokehouse, in its heyday, the hotel hosted such guests as Horace Greeley, Johnny Ringo, President Rutherford B.
Hayes, General Robert E. Lee, General James Longstreet, General Phil Sheridan, William Sydney Porter, anna Henke Nimitz, the wife of his son Chester Bernard Nimitz became pregnant with their only child Chester William Nimitz. The senior Chester died before his son was born on February 24,1885, little Chesters grandfather Charles served as a father figure the first five years of his life. In 1890, the widow Nimitz married her husbands brother William Nimitz, while still a teenager, Chester was accepted for enrollment in the United States Naval Academy, where he graduated seventh out of a class of 114. Chester Nimitz rose to the rank of Commander-in-Chief of the U. S, Pacific Forces in World War II. Fleet Admiral Nimitz died February 20,1966, the Nimitz Hotel was designated a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark in 1989, Marker number 10089. The Admiral Nimitz Foundation was established in 1964 to support a museum honoring Fredericksburg’s native son, Commander-in-Chief of Allied Forces, Pacific Ocean Area.
The hotel owned by Nimitzs grandfather Charles Henry Nimitz was restored to its original design, the original intent was to focus only as a memorial to Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz. In 2000, the complex was renamed Admiral Nimitz State Historic Site - National Museum of the Pacific War and is dedicated exclusively to the Pacific Theater battles of World War II, the conning tower of USS Pintado is at the main museum entrance. The Pacific Combat Zone is a re-creation of a Pacific island battlefield, and includes a Quonset hut hospital, a PT boat and base, Japanese tank, palm trees, re-enactments, called Living History exhibits, are held throughout the year. The Veterans Walk of Honor and Memorial Wall can be found within the Memorial Courtyard, on May 8,1976, the 130th anniversary of the founding of Fredericksburg, the Japanese government gifted the museum with the Japanese Garden of Peace. The garden was designed by Taketora Saita as a replica of the garden of Gensui The Marquis Tōgō
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
City University of New York
The City University of New York is the public university system of New York City, and the largest urban university in the United States. CUNY and the State University of New York are separate and independent university systems, CUNY, however, is additionally funded by the City of New York. CUNY is the third-largest university system in the United States, in terms of enrollment, behind the State University of New York, and the California State University system. More than 270, 000-degree-credit students and 273,000 continuing, the university has one of the most diverse student bodies in the United States, with students hailing from 208 countries. The black and Hispanic undergraduate populations each comprise more than a quarter of the student body, fifty-eight percent are female, and 28 percent are 25 or older. The following table is sortable, click on a heading to re-sort the table by values of that column. Rosenthal, philosopher Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr, by 1979, the Board of Higher Education had become the Board of Trustees of the CUNY.
The Free Academy became the City College of New York, the Female Normal and High School – Founded in 1870, and renamed the Normal College. It would be renamed again in 1914 to Hunter College, during the early 20th century, Hunter College expanded into the Bronx, with what became Herbert Lehman College. Brooklyn College – Founded in 1930, Queens College – Founded in 1937. CUNY has served a student body, especially those excluded from or unable to afford private universities. Its four-year colleges offered a high quality, tuition-free education to the poor, the working class, during the post-World War I era, when some Ivy League universities, such as Yale University, discriminated against Jews, many Jewish academics and intellectuals studied and taught at CUNY. The City College of New York developed a reputation of being the Harvard of the proletariat, most of these limited matriculation students enrolled in the Evening Session, and paid tuition. Demand in the United States for higher education rapidly grew after World War II, community colleges would have drawn from the same city coffers that were funding the senior colleges, and city higher education officials were of the view that the state should finance them.
It wasnt until 1955, under an arrangement with New York State. Unlike the day college students attending the citys public baccalaureate colleges for free, community college students paid tuition fees for approximately 10 years. Over time, tuition fees for limited-matriculated students became an important source of system revenues. In fall 1957, for example, nearly 36,000 attended Hunter, Brooklyn and City Colleges for free, but another 24,000 paid tuition fees of up to $300 a year – the equivalent of $2,413 in 2011
Boys and Girls High School
Boys and Girls High School, the oldest public high school in Brooklyn, is a comprehensive high school in Bedford–Stuyvesant, New York, United States. The school is located at 1700 Fulton Street, as of the 2014-15 school year, the school had an enrollment of 643 students and 43.0 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 15.0,1. There were 463 students eligible for free lunch and 15 eligible for reduced-cost lunch, brooklyns first public high school, the Central Grammar School, September 1878 in a rented building on Court & Livingston Streets. The boys remained in the Court Street space, as there were now effectively two schools, in 1891 they were renamed as the Girls High School and the Boys High School. A new building for the boys was begun in 1891, on Marcy Avenue and it opened as Boys High School on November 1,1892. In 1975 the two schools were merged again, and shortly afterwards moved into their present building at Fulton Street. By 1989 some 70 percent of graduates were enrolled in colleges
The Smithsonian Institution, established in 1846 for the increase and diffusion of knowledge, is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. Originally organized as the United States National Museum, that ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Massachusetts, New York City, Virginia, more than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states, Puerto Rico, and Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates. The Institutions thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge and its annual budget is around $1.2 billion with 2/3 coming from annual federal appropriations. Other funding comes from the Institutions endowment and corporate contributions, membership dues, and earned retail, Institution publications include Smithsonian and Air & Space magazines. The British scientist James Smithson left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford, Congress officially accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, and pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1,1836.
The American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest, Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns. Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithsons rather vague mandate for the increase, the money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas which soon defaulted. The United States Exploring Expedition by the U. S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842, in 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation, in 1847, money was appropriated for meteorological research. The Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, the Smithsonian played a critical role as the U. S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba. The Smithsonian Institution Building began construction in 1849, designed by architect James Renwick Jr. its interiors were completed by general contract Gilbert Cameron and the building opened in 1855.
The Smithsonians first expansion came with construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881, Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income. It did, and the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss and Paul Schulze, meigs of the United States Army Corps of Engineers. The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonians Department of Living Animals and this structure was designed by the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall. More than 40 years would pass before the museum, the Museum of History. It was designed by the firm of McKim, Mead & White. That same year, the Smithsonian signed an agreement to take over the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration, the National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum opened in the Old Patent Office Building on October 7,1968. The first new building to open since the National Museum of Natural History was the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
New York Military Affairs Symposium
The New York Military Affairs Symposium, is an independent, not for profit educational body dedicated to the preservation and furthering of military history in the city of New York. The membership includes scholars and retired personnel. On occasion, members were able to arrange for distinguished historians and other scholars to meet with the group, in 1982 NYMAS was incorporated as a not-for-profit academic organization under the laws of the State of New York. NYMAS currently presents twenty-three lectures each academic year and these are given by scholars, diplomats and retired military personnel, and knowledgeable laymen represent viewpoints all across the political spectrum. In addition to lectures and conferences, NYMAS has occasionally sponsored or co-sponsored special events, such as tours, film screenings, staff rides. NYMAS is a tax exempt membership corporation chartered under the laws of New York State and is associated with the Society for Military History, Region 2
Marine Corps University
The Marine Corps University is a group of accredited higher-education schools at Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia. It reports to the United States Marine Corps Training And Education Command and it was established on August 1,1989 by General Alfred M. Gray, Jr. Commandant of the Marine Corps. Marine Corps University is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges, the Marine Corps Universitys history dates back to 1891 when 29 company officers attended the School of Application. This facility became the Officers Training School in 1909, and relocated to Marine Corps Base Quantico, in 1919, Major General John A. Lejeune ordered the creation of the Marine Corps Officers Training School. Brigadier General Smedley D. Butler established the Field Officers Course, in October 1920, preserve and display the history and heritage of the Marine Corps. College graduates receive a Master of Strategic Studies degree and Staff College offers students the option of completing the requirements for a Master of Military Studies degree.
The course develops complex problem solving and decision making skills that can be used to improve the capabilities of an organization at the operational level of war. School of Advanced Warfighting graduates receive a Master of Operational Studies degree