William Haile was an American merchant and politician who served as Governor of New Hampshire. Haile was born in Putney, Vermont in May 1807, he was educated in the local schools of Putney, as a teenager he moved to Chesterfield, New Hampshire to work in a store and learn the mercantile business. Haile's operated his own store, which he moved to Hinsdale, he established Haile and Company, a business that produced flannel cloth and clothing items. A Democrat with nativist and antislavery views, Haile served in the New Hampshire House of Representatives from 1846 to 1850, in 1853 and 1856, he was a member of the New Hampshire State Senate from 1854 to 1856, was senate president in 1855. Haile became a Republican when the party was founded, was the party's successful nominee for governor in 1857, he was reelected in 1858, served from June 4, 1857 to June 2, 1859. In 1873 Haile moved to New Hampshire, he died in Keene on July 22, 1876, was buried at Pine Grove Cemetery in Hinsdale. His son, William H. Haile, served as Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts from 1890 to 1893.
William Haile at National Governors Association Haile at New Hampshire's Division of Historic Resources William Haile at Find a Grave William Haile at National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Volume XI
Ayer is a town in Middlesex County, United States. Part of Groton, it was incorporated February 14, 1871, became a major commercial railroad junction; the town was home to Camp Stevens, a training camp for Massachusetts volunteers during the American Civil War. Fort Devens was established by the federal government to train New England soldiers for World War I. Fort Devens is a major influence on the area, although it is smaller than when it was first closed in the mid-1990s; the town's population was 7,427 at the 2010 census. For geographic and demographic information on specific parts of the town of Ayer, please see the articles on Ayer and Devens, Massachusetts. Ayer was inhabited by the Nashaway, a Nipmuc people that inhabited the lands along the Nashua River and its tributaries. A small settlement was located along the banks of the Nonacoicus Brook, located in the western part of the town; the name of the Nashaway village, its people and the brook, pronounced by locals as /ˈnɒ nə ˌkɔɪ ʃəs/, was recorded in early English sources as'Nonajcoyjicus,"Nonocoyecos,"Nonacoiacus' and'Nonaicoics.'
According to the personal manuscripts of Justice Samuel Sewall, best known for his controversial role in the Salem witch trials, he was told sometime in 1698 by Hanah, wife of Sachem Ahaton of the Ponkapoag Massachusett tribe, that the name was Nunnacoquis and signified'an Indian earthen pot' although refers to a'small dry earthen pot.' The name was a reference to a series of small mounds along the banks of the Nonacoicus Brook. Little archaeological evidence has been found of settlement in the region, most lost to centuries of cultivation and development, although a handful of stone tools or evidence of habitation have been found along the shores of the Nashua River, Nonacoicus Brook, Sandy Pond and Long Pond as well as a rock shelter on Snake Hill. Although some have been dated to the Early Woodland Period, the majority of findings are from the Late Woodland and Early Contact Period. In addition, portions of Main Street and Sandy Pond Road are believed to follow the vast network of trails used by Native peoples for trade and communication.
The Nashaway cultivated corn and squash, but depended on foraging for fruits, nuts and seeds to supplement their diets. Seasonally, camps were set up in hunting areas, but the most important gatherings were the annual spawning migrations of Atlantic salmon, American shad, blueback herring and sea lamprey that once swam up the Nashua River from the sea via the Merrimack River; the arrival of English settlers in the seventeenth century disrupted things. Virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, influenza, scarlet fever and measles ravaged Native communities due to their lack of immunity to Old World diseases; the influx of English settlers led to competition for land and resources and efforts to subjugate and assimilate the Native peoples. The Nashaway were visited by the missionary John Eliot, who had translated the Bible in the Massachusett language, understood throughout New England as a second language, began teaching Indians to read and write and train as missionaries and teachers. Land was set aside for the Indians for the Praying town of Nashoba in what is now neighboring Littleton, Massachusetts which attracted many of the Nashaway families in the surrounding areas.
Nashoba was one of fourteen communities in the colony established for the Indian converts, where they came to meld English and traditional ways. By 1675, the peace between the English settlers and the Native Americans was broken with the uprising of the Wampanoag sachem Metacomet; the Praying Indians, the inhabitants of the Praying towns such as Nashoba, were rounded up by English colonial militias and sent to Deer Island where most froze or starved to death. Although heavy losses were inflicted on both sides, the English won and executed a vast number of Indians or sold them to slavery in the West Indies. Many left the region and chose to seek safety with the Abenaki and the French colonists in what is now Canada. Nashoba remained in Indian hands until 1736, the Native Americans began to congregate into a smaller number of communities. Three state-recognized tribes of Nipmuc, descended from the remnant communities that survived the epidemics and King Philip's War include the Chaubunagungamaug Nipmuck of Webster, the Hassanamisco Nipmuc of Grafton and the Natick Massachusett-Nipmuc, a Massachusett people of partial Nipmuc ancestry.
The town of Groton, which included Ayer as well as several other towns in the region, was settled by English colonists as early as 1655. The first settlement in the portion of Groton that would become Ayer was in 1667, when a mill was constructed to serve a small hamlet that had developed around the Nonacoicus Brook; the community came to be known as South Groton, or with the arrival of the railroad, Groton Junction. This area was partitioned and incorporated as the town of Ayer in 1871; the town was named Ayer in honor of Dr. James Cook Ayer, a prominent resident of Lowell and one of the wealthiest pharmaceutical manufacturers of his day. Dr. Ayer provided the funding for the construction of the Town Hall; the town's growth was influenced by a period of rapid development of railroad transportation. Though only 9.5 square miles in area, the town became a major junction for both east-west and north-south rail lines, developed into an important commercial center oriented towards the rail industry.
Known as Groton Junction and Ayer Junction, the int
Samuel Dinsmoor Jr.
Samuel Dinsmoor Jr. was an American lawyer, banker and thirtieth Governor of New Hampshire. Dinsmoor was born in Keene, New Hampshire and graduated from Dartmouth College in 1814, he studied law and was a legal assistant to Territorial Governor James Miller for several years in Arkansas. A commissioner who made it possible for the visit of French General Lafayette to New Hampshire in 1825, Dinsmoor served as clerk of the New Hampshire Senate in 1826, 1827, 1829 and 1830. Having secured the Democratic gubernatorial nomination, Dinsmoor was elected by a popular vote in 1849, reelected to a second term in 1850, as well as a third term in 1851, he served as thirtieth Governor of New Hampshire from June 7, 1849 to June 3, 1852. The state militia was restructured during his tenure. Upon leaving the governorship, Dinsmoor retired from political life, but continued to stay active in his legal and banking interests. From 1835 until his death Dinsmoor was President of the Ashuelot Bank in Keene. Dinsmoor died in Keene on February 24, 1869.
He is interred at Washington Street Cemetery in Keene. His father, Samuel Dinsmoor, had been Governor of New Hampshire from 1831 to 1834. On September 11, 1841, Samuel Dinsmoor Jr. married Anne Eliza Jarvis, they had two children: William Jarvis Dinsmoor and Samuel Dinsmoor III. Anne died on July 17, 1849. Dinsmoor at New Hampshire's Division of Historic Resources National Governors Association profile
Ralph Metcalf (New Hampshire politician)
Ralph Metcalf was an American lawyer and politician from New Hampshire who served two terms as Governor. Ralph Metcalf was born in Charlestown, New Hampshire on November 21, 1796, he was educated locally and worked on the farm of his father, a veteran of the American Revolution, until deciding on a career in the law in 1818. Metcalf graduated from the academy in Chester and attended Dartmouth College, from which he graduated in 1823, he studied law with Henry Hubbard and attorney Richard Bartlett of Concord, was admitted to the bar in 1826. He practiced law in New Hampshire, first with George B. Upham, with David Hale. From 1828 to 1830 he practiced in Binghamton, New York, after which he returned to New Hampshire to open an office in Claremont. In 1831 Metcalf was elected Secretary of State, he held this post until 1838, when he moved to Washington, D. C. to accept a position in the Department of the Treasury while Levi Woodbury of New Hampshire was serving as Secretary. In 1840 he returned to New Hampshire and practiced law, first in Plymouth, in Newport.
In 1845 he was appointed Register of Probate for Sullivan County. In 1848 he was appointed a trustee of the state asylum for the insane, he served several more non-consecutive terms, he served in the New Hampshire House of Representatives from 1852 to 1853. In 1853 he served on the state commission appointed to codify New Hampshire's statutes. A member of the Democratic Party for most of his career, Metcalf became recognized as anti-slavery and an opponent of Franklin Pierce's attempts to obtain passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act; as a result of Metcalf's opposition to slavery, in 1855 he was nominated for Governor by the Know Nothing movement, one of the few parties with an anti-slavery plank in its platform. This effort was promoted by Free Soil Democrats including John P. Hale, who hoped to create a movement that would send New Hampshire anti-slavery activists to the United States Senate and help build the nascent Republican Party. Metcalf won the 1855 race for Governor, defeating incumbent Nathaniel B.
Baker, James Bell and Asa Fowler. In 1856 he defeated John S. Wells and Ichabod Goodwin, but his margin over Wells was narrow, the selection moved to the New Hampshire General Court, which chose Metcalf. Metcalf became identified with the Republican Party when it was founded as the major anti-slavery party in the mid 1850s. In addition to his abolitionist views, Metcalf's governorship was noteworthy for his support of a prohibition law, which passed in 1855, remained in force until 1889, he retired after the completion of his second term, resided in Claremont. He died in Claremont on August 26, 1858. In 1835 he married Lucretia Ann Bingham, she died a few weeks after giving birth in 1836, the baby died soon afterwards. He married Martha Ann Gilmore in 1843, they had two children: son Ralph. Ralph Metcalf at New Hampshire's Division of Historic Resources Ralph Metcalf at National Governors Association Ralph Metcalf at Political Graveyard
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. Established in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, it is the ninth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Although founded as a school to educate Native Americans in Christian theology and the English way of life, Dartmouth trained Congregationalist ministers throughout its early history; the university secularized, by the turn of the 20th century it had risen from relative obscurity into national prominence as one of the top centers of higher education. Following a liberal arts curriculum, the university provides undergraduate instruction in 40 academic departments and interdisciplinary programs including 57 majors in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, enables students to design specialized concentrations or engage in dual degree programs. Dartmouth comprises five constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Geisel School of Medicine, the Thayer School of Engineering, the Tuck School of Business, the Guarini School of Graduate and Advanced Studies.
The university has affiliations with the Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center, the Rockefeller Institute for Public Policy, the Hopkins Center for the Arts. With a student enrollment of about 6,400, Dartmouth is the smallest university in the Ivy League. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.9% for the Class of 2023. Situated on a terrace above the Connecticut River, Dartmouth's 269-acre main campus is in the rural Upper Valley region of New England; the university functions on a quarter system, operating year-round on four ten-week academic terms. Dartmouth is known for its undergraduate focus, strong Greek culture, wide array of enduring campus traditions, its 34 varsity sports teams compete intercollegiately in the Ivy League conference of the NCAA Division I. Dartmouth is included among the highest-ranked universities in the United States by several institutional rankings, has been cited as a leading university for undergraduate teaching and research by U. S. News & World Report.
In 2018, the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education listed Dartmouth as the only "majority-undergraduate," "arts-and-sciences focused," "doctoral university" in the country that has "some graduate coexistence" and "very high research activity." In a New York Times corporate study, Dartmouth graduates ranked 41st in terms of the most sought-after and valued in the world. The university has produced many prominent alumni, including 170 members of the U. S. Senate and the U. S. House of Representatives, 24 U. S. governors, 10 billionaire alumni, 10 U. S. Cabinet secretaries, 3 Nobel Prize laureates, 2 U. S. Supreme Court justices, a U. S. vice president. Other notable alumni include 79 Rhodes Scholars, 26 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 13 Pulitzer Prize winners, numerous MacArthur Genius fellows, Fulbright Scholars, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 corporations, high-ranking U. S. diplomats, scholars in academia and media figures, professional athletes, Olympic medalists. Dartmouth was founded by Eleazar Wheelock, a Congregational minister from Columbia, who had sought to establish a school to train Native Americans as Christian missionaries.
Wheelock's ostensible inspiration for such an establishment resulted from his relationship with Mohegan Indian Samson Occom. Occom became an ordained minister after studying under Wheelock from 1743 to 1747, moved to Long Island to preach to the Montauks. Wheelock founded Moor's Indian Charity School in 1755; the Charity School proved somewhat successful, but additional funding was necessary to continue school's operations, Wheelock sought the help of friends to raise money. The first major donation to the school was given by Dr. John Phillips in 1762, who would go on to found Phillips Exeter Academy. Occom, accompanied by the Reverend Nathaniel Whitaker, traveled to England in 1766 to raise money from churches. With these funds, they established a trust to help Wheelock; the head of the trust was a Methodist named William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth. Although the fund provided Wheelock ample financial support for the Charity School, Wheelock had trouble recruiting Indians to the institution because its location was far from tribal territories.
In seeking to expand the school into a college, Wheelock relocated it to Hanover, in the Province of New Hampshire. The move from Connecticut followed a lengthy and sometimes frustrating effort to find resources and secure a charter; the Royal Governor of New Hampshire, John Wentworth, provided the land upon which Dartmouth would be built and on December 13, 1769, issued a royal charter in the name of King George III establishing the College. That charter created a college "for the education and instruction of Youth of the Indian Tribes in this Land in reading, writing & all parts of Learning which shall appear necessary and expedient for civilizing & christianizing Children of Pagans as well as in all liberal Arts and Sciences and of English Youth and any others." The reference to educating Native American youth was included to connect Dartmouth to the Charity School and enable use of the Charity School's unspent trust funds. Named for William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth—an important supporter of Eleazar Wheelock's earlier efforts but who, in fact, opposed creation of the College and never donated to it—Dartmouth is the nation's ninth oldest college and the last institution of higher learning established under Colonial rule.
The College granted its first degrees in 1771. Given the limited success of the Charity School, Wheelock intended his ne
Jeremiah Smith (lawyer)
Jeremiah Smith was an American lawyer and politician from Exeter, New Hampshire. Born in Peterborough in the Province of New Hampshire, Smith attended Harvard University before graduating from Queens College in New Brunswick, New Jersey in 1780, he served in the Continental Army, read law to enter the bar in 1786. He was in private practice in Peterborough from 1786 to 1796, he was a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives from 1798 to 1799, the United States House of Representatives from 1791 to 1797. He was United States Attorney for the District of New Hampshire from 1797 to 1800, he was a probate judge of Rockingham County, New Hampshire from 1800 to 1801. On February 18, 1801, Smith was nominated by President John Adams to a new seat as a federal judge on the United States circuit court for the First Circuit, created by 2 Stat. 89. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on February 20, 1801, received his commission the same day. Smith's federal judicial service was terminated on July 1802, due to abolition of the court.
He became Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of New Hampshire, served from 1802 to 1809. Smith was elected Governor of New Hampshire in 1809, defeating incumbent Governor John Langdon by only 319 votes. However, Langdon defeated Smith in the following election, in 1810. Smith returned to the private practice of law from 1810 until 1813, when he again became Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of New Hampshire, this time until 1816, when he was removed by the elimination of the court by the legislature, he again returned to private practice New Hampshire from 1816 to 1820. Smith was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1814, he was a trustee and the treasurer at Phillips Exeter Academy from 1828 to 1842, served as the president of trustees from 1830 to 1842. Jeremiah Smith Hall at the academy is named for him. Smith died in 1842 in Dover, New Hampshire, is buried at the Winter Street Cemetery in Exeter. "Jeremiah Smith". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
Jeremiah Smith at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Jeremiah Smith at National Governors Association Jeremiah Smith at Find a Grave
John Hardy Steele
John Hardy Steele served as Governor of New Hampshire from 1844 to 1846. John H. Steele was born in Salisbury, North Carolina on January 4, 1789, his mother, Elizabeth Taylor, was unmarried. His father, John Steele was married to another woman, was the father of several children with his wife; as a result of the circumstances of his parentage and the early death of his mother, John Hardy Steele was raised by his maternal grandfather, Absalom Taylor. Steele was educated in Salisbury, at age 14 was apprenticed as a cabinetmaker and chair maker. At age 22 Steele settled in Fayetteville, where he worked at his trade for Nathaniel Morrison, a native of Peterborough, New Hampshire. Morrison was impressed with Steele's mechanical aptitude, asked Steele to accompany him to New Hampshire to establish a textile manufacturing business. Steele designed and constructed the spinning mules and looms for Morrison's mills, one of, the first to weave cotton cloth by waterpower. In 1824 Steele joined several partners to establish the Union Manufacturing Company, a cloth production factory which operated with Steele as manager.
A Democrat in a town, predominantly Whig in its politics, Steele was popular enough to win election to the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1829. He declined reelection, declined an 1831 nomination for a seat in the New Hampshire State Senate. From 1830 to 1838 Steele served as Peterborough's Town Meeting Moderator. Steele was active in the New Hampshire Militia, attained the rank of Colonel as aide-de-camp to Governor Matthew Harvey. In 1840 Steele won election to the Executive Council of New Hampshire, he was reelected in 1841. Steele was elected Governor in 1844, reelected in 1845, his term was marked by the creation of a state railroad commission. In addition, Steele provided letters of introduction to James Knox Polk and members of Polk's cabinet for his friend Jesse Carter Little, a Mormon pioneer who sought government assistance to enable the Mormons to begin settling in Utah. After leaving office Steele retired to a farm, where he conducted experiments in animal husbandry and other scientific agriculture techniques.
He was President of the Peterborough Savings Bank. He served as a Selectman in 1846, in 1850 he was a delegate to New Hampshire's constitutional convention. Steele was buried in the Village Cemetery. Biography at New Hampshire Historical Resources John Hardy Steele at Find a Grave John Hardy Steele at National Governors Association