Prussia was a historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and centred on the region of Prussia. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership, in November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19. The Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, from 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was successfully establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state. Prussia existed de jure until its liquidation by the Allied Control Council Enactment No.46 of 25 February 1947. The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians, in the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights—an organized Catholic medieval military order of German crusaders—conquered the lands inhabited by them.
In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk and their monastic state was mostly Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany and in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The Second Peace of Thorn split Prussia into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, and the part, from 1525 called the Duchy of Prussia. The union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701, Prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom, and exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries. During the 18th century it had a say in many international affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great. During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a Lesser Germany which excluded the Austrian Empire. At the Congress of Vienna, which redrew the map of Europe following Napoleons defeat, Prussia acquired a section of north western Germany.
The country grew rapidly in influence economically and politically, and became the core of the North German Confederation in 1867, and of the German Empire in 1871. The Kingdom of Prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new Germany that Junkers and other Prussian élites identified more and more as Germans and less as Prussians. In the Weimar Republic, the state of Prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by Franz von Papen. East Prussia lost all of its German population after 1945, as Poland, the main coat of arms of Prussia, as well as the flag of Prussia, depicted a black eagle on a white background. The black and white colours were already used by the Teutonic Knights. The Teutonic Order wore a white coat embroidered with a cross with gold insert
Order of the Rue Crown
The Order of the Rue Crown is a Dynastic order of knighthood of the Kingdom of Saxony. It was established in 1807 by Frederick Augustus I, the first King of Saxony, the order takes its name from the green floral crown of rue found on the Coat of arms of Saxony. The order was created to be the counterpart to the Military Order of St. Henry. The order was limited to 24 knights, but exceptions were made for members of ruling houses. The Order of the Rue Crown was presented in a single grade, the order was granted in a special grade with diamonds, to Portuguese Prime Minister Dom Nuno José de Moura Barreto, Duke of Loulé in 1859 and Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in 1885. From its founding to the fall of the Kingdom of Saxony in 1918, the badge of the order is a gold Maltese cross enameled in green with a white border. The white center medallion features the monogram of Frederick Augustus I of Saxony encircled by a green crown of rue. Between the arms of the cross is a crown of rue. The star of the order is of made of silver, and has eight points, the center of the star bears a gold medallion with the motto of the order PROVIDENTIÆ MEMOR inside a ring of green rue leaves.
The badge of the order is borne on a ribband of grass green worn over the right shoulder
Kingdom of Bavaria
The Kingdom of Bavaria was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918. The Bavarian Elector Maximilian IV Joseph of the House of Wittelsbach became the first King of Bavaria in 1805 as Maximilian I Joseph, the crown would go on being held by the Wittelsbachs until the kingdom came to an end in 1918. Since the end of the kingdom and the empire in 1918, on 30 December 1777, the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbachs became extinct, and the succession on the Electorate of Bavaria passed to Charles Theodore, the Elector Palatine. After a separation of four and a half centuries, the Palatinate, to which the duchies of Jülich, between the French and the Austrians, Bavaria was now in a bad situation. Before the death of Charles Theodore the Austrians had again occupied the country, Maximilian IV Joseph, the new elector, succeeded to a difficult inheritance. By the Treaty of Lunéville Bavaria lost the Palatinate and the duchies of Zweibrücken, the 1805 Peace of Pressburg allowed Maximilian to raise Bavaria to the status of a kingdom.
Accordingly, Maximilian proclaimed himself king on 1 January 1806, the King still served as an Elector until Bavaria seceded from the Holy Roman Empire on 1 August 1806. The Duchy of Berg was ceded to Napoleon only in 1806, the new kingdom faced challenges from the outset of its creation, relying on the support of Napoleonic France. The kingdom faced war with Austria in 1808 and from 1810 to 1814, lost territory to Württemberg, Italy, in 1808, all relics of serfdom were abolished, which had left the old empire. In the same year, Maximilian promulgated Bavarias first written constitution, over the next five years, it was amended numerous times in accordance with Paris wishes. During the French invasion of Russia in 1812 about 30,000 Bavarian soldiers were killed in action, on 14 October, Bavaria made a formal declaration of war against Napoleonic France. The treaty was passionately backed by the Crown Prince Ludwig and by Marshal von Wrede, finally in 1816, the Rhenish Palatinate was taken from France in exchange for most of Salzburg which was ceded to Austria.
It was the second largest and second most powerful state south of the Main, in Germany as a whole, it ranked third behind Prussia and Austria. On 1 February 1817, Montgelas had been dismissed, and Bavaria had entered on a new era of constitutional reform, on 26 May 1818, Bavarias second constitution was proclaimed. The Landtag would have two houses, a house comprising the aristocracy and noblemen, including the high-class hereditary landowners, government officials. The second house, a house, would include representatives of small landowners, the towns. The rights of Protestants were safeguarded in the constitution with articles supporting the equality of all religions, the initial constitution almost proved disastrous for the monarchy, with controversies such as the army having to swear allegiance to the new constitution. Within the Kingdom of Bavaria, the Palatinate enjoyed a legal and administrative position
The German Empire was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918, when Germany became a federal republic. The German Empire consisted of 26 constituent territories, with most being ruled by royal families and this included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, and one imperial territory. Although Prussia became one of kingdoms in the new realm, it contained most of its population and territory. Its influence helped define modern German culture, after 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron and railways. In 1871, it had a population of 41 million people, and by 1913, a heavily rural collection of states in 1815, now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly growing rail network, the worlds strongest army, and a fast-growing industrial base.
In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britains Royal Navy, after the removal of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II, the Empire embarked on a bellicose new course that ultimately led to World War I. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, the German Empire had two allies and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, however, left the once the First World War started in August 1914. In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris quickly in autumn 1914 failed, the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. Germany was repeatedly forced to send troops to bolster Austria and Turkey on other fronts, Germany had great success on the Eastern Front, it occupied large Eastern territories following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 was designed to strangle the British, it failed, but the declaration—along with the Zimmermann Telegram—did bring the United States into the war. Meanwhile, German civilians and soldiers had become war-weary and radicalised by the Russian Revolution and this failed, and by October the armies were in retreat, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered and the German people had lost faith in their political system.
The Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution as the Emperor and all the ruling monarchs abdicated, and a republic took over. The German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, German nationalism rapidly shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarcks pragmatic Realpolitik. He envisioned a conservative, Prussian-dominated Germany, the war resulted in the Confederation being partially replaced by a North German Confederation in 1867, comprising the 22 states north of the Main. The new constitution and the title Emperor came into effect on 1 January 1871, during the Siege of Paris on 18 January 1871, William accepted to be proclaimed Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. The second German Constitution was adopted by the Reichstag on 14 April 1871 and proclaimed by the Emperor on 16 April, the political system remained the same.
The empire had a parliament called the Reichstag, which was elected by universal male suffrage, the original constituencies drawn in 1871 were never redrawn to reflect the growth of urban areas
Military Merit Order (Bavaria)
The Bavarian Military Merit Order was established on July 19,1866 by King Ludwig II of Bavaria. It was the main decoration for bravery and military merit for officers. Civilians acting in support of the army were made eligible for the decoration. The Military Merit Order ranked below the Military Order of Max Joseph, the design of the order was a Maltese cross of blue enamel with a center medallion. Between the arms of most classes were golden flames, the obverse of the center medallion had a gold crowned L cipher on the black-enameled center and the word MERENTI on a ring of white enamel edged in gold. The reverse had a gold Bavarian lion on black enamel with the date of founding,1866, on the white-enameled ring. Most of the classes of the order were of different sizes and worn differently, as sash badges over the shoulder, as neck badges. The Officers Cross was a cross worn on the lower left chest. 3rd Class - Smaller cross worn from a ribbon on the left chest. 4th Class - Same cross as the 3rd Class, except with silver flames and, the Grand Cross and 1st Class always came with a breast star, but the 2nd Class could be awarded with or without the breast star.
The 3rd and 4th Classes could be awarded with or without a crown, these distinctions were based on rank, but in certain cases were used to permit a second award for further acts of bravery or military merit. Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria - Received the Grand Cross in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, King Ludwig III of Bavaria - Received the Knights Cross 1st Class as a lieutenant in the Austro-Prussian War. Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria - Field marshal in World War I, prewar recipient of the Grand Cross, he received Swords to the Grand Cross in 1917. Max von Fabeck - Prussian General Erich von Falkenhayn - Prussian general and Chief of the General Staff, received the 1st Class with Swords in 1914 and the Grand Cross with Swords in 1915. Robert Ritter von Greim - Bavarian pilot, Luftwaffe field marshal in World War II, received the 4th Class with Swords in, wilhelm Groener - Prussian officer, Defense Minister of Germany 1928-32, received the Officers Cross with Swords in 1914. Franz Halder - Bavarian officer, Chief of the German General Staff in World War II, received the 4th Class with Swords and the 4th Class with Crown and Swords in World War I.
Kurt von Hammerstein-Equord - Later Chief of the Army Leadership, the Weimar Republic equivalent of Commander of the Army, franz Ritter von Hipper - Bavarian-born German admiral, received the 2nd Class with Star and Swords in 1915. Max Hoffmann - Prussian officer and strategist in World War I, received the 3rd Class with Swords, 3rd Class with Crown and Swords, Max Immelmann - German ace pilot, received the 4th Class with Swords in World War I
Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art
The Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art was first established on 28 November 1853 by King Maximilian II. von Bayern. It is awarded to acknowledge and reward excellent and outstanding achievements in the field of science, from 1933 onwards the order was no longer awarded, until 1980 when it was reinstated by the Minister-President of the Free State of Bavaria Franz Josef Strauß. Since 1980 the order has been awarded to 184 recipients including 24 woman, the number of living members of the order cannot exceed 100. As of February 2013 there are 92 living members of the order, since 1932 the order has been issued 351 times. Overall the order was awarded to 535 people from 1853 to 2012, in continuation of a bavarian tradition, the Bavarian Maximialian Order for Art and Sciences was created. It is awarded to outstanding achievements in the field of science. The Maximilian Order is preferable awarded to German scientist and artist and it is not restricted to citizens of Bavaria. The order was instituted in one class and two sections, the order is restricted to 100 living members.
The Minister-President, the minister of state for their portfolio. These proposals are evaluated by an advisory committee and it gives its recommendation to the Minister-President for the final decision. All members of the committee are selected for a period of five years. The committee decides with the majority of its members, www. ordenmuseum. de, Der Bayerische Verdienstorden und Bayerischen Maximiliansorden für Wissenschaft und Kunst The law Information of the Bavarian State Chancellery
Order of Saint Elizabeth
The Order of Saint Elizabeth was an all-female chivalric and charitable order in the Kingdom of Bavaria. It was confirmed on the 31st of January 1767, by Pope Clement XII, the Catholic religion and the Seize Quartiers – the proof of noble descent running through sixteen generations of their own or their husband’s ancestors – are indispensable conditions for candidates. The nomination takes place either on Easter or on Saint Elizabeth’s Day, the entrance fee is four ducats. The badge is an enameled cross, representing on one side Saint Elizabeth dispensing charity to the poor, and on the other. It is worn on the left breast by a ribbon with a red border. No Member can appear in public without it, except by fine of one ducat, the King appoints the Grand Mistress. The Orders of Knighthood and Foreign, India, The Catholic Orphan Press,1884
Frederick Augustus II of Saxony
Frederick Augustus II was King of Saxony and a member of the House of Wettin. He was the eldest son of Maximilian, Prince of Saxony — younger son of the Elector Frederick Christian of Saxony — by his first wife, Caroline of Bourbon, from his birth, it was clear that one day Frederick Augustus would become the ruler of Saxony. His father was the son of the Elector Frederick Christian of Saxony who left surviving male issue. When the King Frederick Augustus I died and Anton succeeded him as King, Frederick Augustus became second in line to the throne and he was an officer in the War of the Sixth Coalition. However, he had little interest in military affairs, the July Revolution of 1830 in France marked the beginning of disturbances in Saxony that autumn. The people claimed a change in the constitution and demanded a young regent of the kingdom to share the government with the King Anton, on 1 September the Prince Maximilian renounced his rights of succession in favor of his son Frederick Augustus, who was proclaimed Prince Co-Regent of Saxony.
On 2 February 1832 Frederick Augustus brought Free Autonomy to the cities, also, by an edict of 17 March of that year, the farmers were freed from the corvée and hereditary submission. On 6 June 1836, King Anton died and Frederick Augustus succeeded him, as an intelligent man, he was quickly popular with the people as he had been since the time of his regency. The new king solved political questions only from a sense of duty. Mostly he preferred to leave things on the hands of his ministers. A standardized jurisdiction for Saxony created the Criminal Code of 1836, during the Revolutionary disturbances of 1848, he appointed liberal ministers in the government, lifted censorship, and remitted a liberal electoral law. On 28 April Frederick August II dissolved the Parliament, in 1849, Frederick Augustus was forced to flee to the Königstein Fortress. The May Uprising was crushed by Saxon and Prussian troops and Frederick was able to return only a few days. In 1844 Frederick Augustus, accompanied by his personal physician Carl Gustav Carus, among places they visited were Lyme Regis where he purchased from the local fossil collector and dealer, Mary Anning, an ichthyosaur skeleton for his own extensive natural history collection.
During a journey in Tyrol, he had an accident in Brennbüchel in which he fell in front of a horse that stepped on his head, on 8 August 1854, he died in the Gasthof Neuner. He was buried on 16 August in the Katholische Hofkirche of Dresden, in Dresden on 24 April 1833 Frederick Augustus married secondly with the Princess Maria of Bavaria, daughter of the King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria. Like his first marriage, this was childless, the musician Theodor Uhlig was an illegitimate son of Frederick Augustus. Without legitimate issue, after his death Frederick Augustus was succeeded by his younger brother, Johann
Order of Saint John (Bailiwick of Brandenburg)
The Order is led by its thirty-seventh Herrenmeister, Prince Oskar of Prussia. Each of its knights, about four thousand men worldwide, is either a Knight of Justice or a Knight of Honor, although membership no longer is limited to the nobility, as it was until 1948, the majority of knights still are drawn from this class. The Order comprises seventeen commanderies in Germany, one each in Austria, France and Switzerland, with the Roman Catholic Sovereign Military Order of Malta, these four Alliance orders represent the legitimate heirs of the Knights Hospitaller. The Order and its orders in the Netherlands and Sweden. The SMOM, headquartered in Rome, admits only men and women of the Roman Catholic faith, in time, these landholdings were gathered into regional administrative divisions known as commanderies, each headed by a senior knight, or knight commander of the Order. The first commandery in the Germanies was founded in the mid-twelfth century, though separated from the Roman Catholic main stem of the Order of Saint John, the Bailiwick of Brandenburg continued to flourish.
Admitting only noblemen, principally from the Germanies, the Bailiwick maintained hospitals and other institutions to care for the poor, the sick, and the injured. The horrific Thirty Years War devastated the Bailiwick, resulting in the deaths of many knights and he established a similarly named order of merit, the Royal Prussian Order of Saint John, in its stead. He announced his election to the head of the Order of Malta, during the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the Order created and supported more and more charitable activities. It now owns and operates numerous hospitals, ambulance services, old-age homes, after World War II, with the Neumark given by the victorious Allies to Poland, the Order moved its headquarters to Bonn, West Germany. After the reunification of West and East Germany, the headquarters were moved again, more than location of the seat of the Order changed in the aftermath of the Second World War. The Finnish commandery, remains a purely noble society, as do the now independent Swedish, there are three active classes in the Order, Knight of Justice, and Knight of Honor.
These services are similar to the St. John Ambulance in many Commonwealth nations, all are carried out under the auspices of the Christian faith. Additionally, spiritual retreats and other activities of the Order concentrate on the spiritual formation, the cloak of the Order is plain black with a large, linen eight-pointed cross on the left breast. For most knights, the cloak is black woollen with a plain lining, the cloaks of most knights are closed only at the neck, but the Herrenmeister, Honorary Commanders, and Knights of Justice wear a long black cord called a cingulum. The insignia, known as crosses of honor, are no longer bestowed by the Order automatically, Knights of Honor now must have rendered five years of service to the Order before a cross of honor is granted. Promotion to Knight of Justice requires at least seven years of distinguished service, the basic insignia of the Order is a white-enamelled Maltese cross. Each cross is worn from a black-moire,4. 5-centimeter-wide ribbon worn about the neck, all members of the Order may wear a plain, Maltese cross as a star or breast badge
Albert III, Duke of Saxony
Albert III was a Duke of Saxony. He was nicknamed Albert the Bold or Albert the Courageous and founded the Albertine line of the House of Wettin. Albert was born in Grimma as the third and youngest son of Frederick II the Gentle, Elector of Saxony, later, he was a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece. After escaping from the hands of Kunz von Kaufungen, who had abducted him together with his brother Ernest, he spent some time at the court of the emperor Frederick III in Vienna. In Eger on 11 November 1464 Albert married Zdenka, daughter of George of Podebrady, King of Bohemia, but failed to obtain the Bohemian Crown on the death of George in 1471. He was successful in restoring the authority of Maximilian in Holland and Brabant and his services were rewarded in 1498 when Maximilian bestowed upon him the title of Hereditary Governor of Friesland, but he had to make good his claim by force of arms. He had to a great extent succeeded, and was paying a visit to Saxony, the duke recaptured Groningen, but soon afterwards he died at Emden.
Albert, who was a man of strength and considerable skill in feats of arms, delighted in tournaments. His loyalty to the emperor Frederick, and the expenses incurred in connection, aroused some irritation among his subjects. Frederick, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights
Military Order of St. Henry
The Military Order of St. Henry was a military order of the Kingdom of Saxony, a member state of the German Empire. The order was the oldest military order of the states of the German Empire and it was founded on October 7,1736 by Augustus III, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony. The order underwent several more revisions over the course of the 19th and it became obsolete with the fall of the Saxon monarchy in the wake of Germanys defeat in World War I. The order came in four classes, Grand Cross, Commanders Cross 1st Class, Commanders Cross 2nd Class or sometimes just Commander, again with few exceptions, one was required to have received a lower grade before receiving the next higher grade. The badge of the order was a gold Maltese cross with white-enameled edges, around the center medallion was a blue-enameled gold ring bearing on the obverse the words FRIDR•AUG•D•G•REX•SAX•INSTAURAVIT and on the reverse the motto VIRTUTI IN BELLO. On the obverse, the medallion was yellow-enameled with a portrait of St.
Henry. On the reverse, the medallion bore the Saxon coat of arms, between the arms of the cross were green-enameled rue crowns, a symbol of Saxony. The badge was suspended from a royal crown, the Grand Cross was larger than the Commanders Cross, and the Commanders Cross was larger than the Knights Cross. The star was slightly larger for the Grand Cross, the ribbon of the order was light blue with yellow stripes near each edge. The Knights Cross was worn as a breast badge on the left chest. The Commanders Crosses were worn from the neck, with the breast star of the Commander 1st Class on the left chest. The Grand Cross was worn from a sash over the shoulder and its star was worn as with the Commander 1st Class. On occasion, the Grand Cross badge was worn from the neck and was distinguishable from the Commanders Crosses only by its size. Sachsen in grosser Zeit Neal OConnor, Aviation Awards of Imperial Germany in World War I, dr. Kurt-Gerhard Klietmann, Pour le Mérite und Tapferkeitsmedaille. Website on the Decorations of the Kingdom of Saxony Website on Sachsens-Orden Official website of the Order of St.
Henry in German