Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Paul Carnot was a French physician. He served as médecin des hôpitaux in Paris, becoming a professor of therapeutic medicine in 1918 to the Paris medical faculty. In 1922 he was elected as a member to the Académie de Médecine. In 1906 he coined the term hémopoïétine to define a humoral factor he believed was responsible for regulation of red blood cell production; this being based on experiments with laboratory rabbits that he conducted with his graduate student Clotilde-Camille DeFlandre. They noticed that an increase of reticulocytes in normal rabbits occurred following the injection of blood plasma taken from anemic donor rabbits who had earlier been subject to bloodletting. Findings from their research were published in a paper titled Sur l'activité hémopoïétique du sérum au cours de la régénération du sang. Carnot was the author of numerous treatises on a wide array of medical subjects. With Paul Brouardel, Augustin Nicolas Gilbert and others, he published the multi-volume Nouveau traité de médecine et de thérapeutique.
The following are a few of his better known writings: Les régénerations d'organes, 1899 Maladies microbiennes en général, 1905 Médications histopoiétiques et médications histolytiques, 1911 Precis de therapeutique, 1925 La clinique medicale de l'Hôtel-Dieu et l'oeuvre du Pr Gilbert 1927 His great-grand-father was Lazare Carnot, a French general, his father, Marie Adolphe Carnot was an engineer, head of the French École des Mines de Paris. IDREF.fr
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Jean-Martin Charcot was a French neurologist and professor of anatomical pathology. He is best known today for his work on hypnosis and hysteria, in particular his work with his hysteria patient Louise Augustine Gleizes. Known as "the founder of modern neurology", his name has been associated with at least 15 medical eponyms, including Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease and Charcot disease. Charcot has been referred to as "the father of French neurology and one of the world's pioneers of neurology", his work influenced the developing fields of neurology and psychology. He was the "foremost neurologist of late nineteenth-century France" and has been called "the Napoleon of the neuroses". Born in Paris, Charcot taught at the famous Salpêtrière Hospital for 33 years, his reputation as an instructor drew students from all over Europe. In 1882, he established a neurology clinic at Salpêtrière, the first of its kind in Europe. Charcot was a part of the French neurological tradition and studied under, revered, Duchenne de Boulogne."He married a rich widow, Madame Durvis, in 1862 and had two children and Jean-Baptiste, who became a doctor and a famous polar explorer".
He was accused of being an atheist. Charcot's primary focus was neurology, he was the first to describe multiple sclerosis. Summarizing previous reports and adding his own clinical and pathological observations, Charcot called the disease sclérose en plaques; the three signs of multiple sclerosis now known as Charcot's triad 1 are nystagmus, intention tremor, telegraphic speech, though these are not unique to MS. Charcot observed cognition changes, describing his patients as having a "marked enfeeblement of the memory" and "conceptions that formed slowly", he was the first to describe a disorder known as Charcot joint or Charcot arthropathy, a degeneration of joint surfaces resulting from loss of proprioception. He researched the functions of different parts of the brain and the role of arteries in cerebral hemorrhage. Charcot was among the first to describe Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease; the announcement was made with Pierre Marie of France and Howard Henry Tooth of England. The disease is sometimes called peroneal muscular atrophy.
Charcot's studies between 1868 and 1881 were a landmark in the understanding of Parkinson's disease. Among other advances he made the distinction between rigidity and bradykinesia, he led the disease named paralysis agitans to be renamed after James Parkinson. He noted apparent variations on PD, such as Parkinson's disease with hyperextension. Charcot received the first European professional chair of clinical diseases for the nervous system in 1882. Charcot is best known today for his work on hypnosis and hysteria. In particular, he is best remembered for his work with his hysteria patient Louise Augustine Gleizes, who somewhat increased his fame during his lifetime, he believed that hysteria was a neurological disorder for which patients were pre-disposed by hereditary features of their nervous system, but near the end of his life he concluded that hysteria was a psychological disease. Charcot first began studying hysteria after creating a special ward for non-insane females with "hystero-epilepsy".
He discovered two distinct forms of hysteria among these women: major hysteria. His interest in hysteria and hypnotism "developed at a time when the general public was fascinated in'animal magnetism' and'mesmerization'", revealed to be a method of inducing hypnosis, his study of hysteria "attract both scientific and social notoriety". Bogousslavsky and Veyrunes write:Charcot and his school considered the ability to be hypnotized as a clinical feature of hysteria... For the members of the Salpêtrière School, susceptibility to hypnotism was synonymous with disease, i.e. hysteria, although they recognized... that grand hypnotisme should be differentiated from petit hypnotisme, which corresponded to the hypnosis of ordinary people. Charcot argued vehemently against the widespread medical and popular prejudice that hysteria was found in men, presenting several cases of traumatic male hysteria, he taught that due to this prejudice these "cases went unrecognised by distinguished doctors" and could occur in such models of masculinity as railway engineers or soldiers.
Charcot's analysis, in particular his view of hysteria as an organic condition which could be caused by trauma, paved the way for understanding neurological symptoms arising from industrial-accident or war-related traumas. The Salpêtrière School's position on hypnosis was criticized by Hippolyte Bernheim, another leading neurologist of the time. Bernheim argued that the hypnosis and hysteria phenomena that Charcot had famously demonstrated were in fact due to suggestion. However, Charcot himself had had longstanding concerns about the use of hypnosis in treatment and about its effect on patients, he was concerned that the sensationalism hypnosis attracted had robbed it of its scientific interest, that the quarrel with Bernheim, amplified by Charcot's pupil Georges Gilles de la Tourette, had "damaged" hypnotism. Charcot thought of art as a crucial tool of the clinicoanatomic method, he used photos and drawings, many made in his classes and conferences. He drew outside the neurology domain, as a personal hobby.
Like Duchenne, he is considered a key figure in the incorporation of photography to the study
Louis-Antoine Ranvier was a French physician, pathologist and histologist, who discovered the nodes of Ranvier spaced discontinuities of the myelin sheath, occurring at varying intervals along the length of a nerve fiber. Ranvier was born and studied medicine at Lyon, graduating in 1865, he founded a small private research laboratory with Victor André Cornil, together they offered a course in histology to medical students. They wrote together an influential textbook on histopathology. In 1867, Ranvier worked as an assistant to Claude Bernard. In 1875, he was appointed to its chair of general anatomy. In 1878, Ranvier discovered the nodes. Other anatomical structures bearing his name are the Merkel-Ranvier cells, melanocyte-like cells in the basal layer of the epidermis that contain catecholamine granules. In 1897, he founded the scientific journal Archives d'anatomie microscopique with Edouard-Gérard Balbiani; some of his most noted students were Ferdinand-Jean Darier, Justin Marie Jolly, Joaquín Albarrán, Luis Simarro Lacabra and Fredrik Georg Gade.
He retired in 1900 to his estate in Thélys and died at Vendranges in 1922. Ranvier, Louis-Antoine and Victor André Cornil. 1869. Manuel d'histologie pathologique. Paris Ranvier, Louis-Antoine. 1875-1882. Traité technique d'histologie. Paris: F. Savy Ranvier, Louis-Antoine. 1878. Leçons sur l'histologie du système nerveux, par M. L. Ranvier, recueillies par M. Ed. Weber. Paris Ranvier, Louis-Antoine. 1880. Leçons d'anatomie générale sur le système musculaire, par L. Ranvier, recueillies par M. J. Renaut. Paris Ranvier, Louis-Antoine. 1885. Exposé des titres et des travaux de M. L. Ranvier. Paris Ranvier, Louis-Antoine at The Virtual Laboratory
University of Bordeaux
The University of Bordeaux was founded in 1441 in France. The University of Bordeaux is part of the Community of universities and higher education institutions of Aquitaine; the original Université de Bordeaux was established by the papal bull of Pope Eugene IV on 7 June 1441 when Bordeaux was an English town. The initiative for the creation of the university is attributed to Archbishop Pey Berland, it was composed of four faculties: arts, medicine and theology. The law faculty split into faculties of civil law and canon law. A professorship in mathematics was founded in 1591 by Bishop François de Foix, son of Gaston de Foix, Earl of Kendal; this university was disestablished in 1793, was re-founded on 10 July 1896. In 1970 the university was split into three universities: Bordeaux 1, Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux 3. In 1995, Bordeaux 4 split off from Bordeaux 1. In 2007 the universities were grouped together as Communauté d'universités et établissements d'Aquitaine From 1 January 2014, the university of Bordeaux were reunited, except for Bordeaux 3 which chose not to take part to the merger.
Geoffrey Keating, Irish historian Léon Duguit, French scholar of public law Henri Moysset, French historian and politician Jacques Ellul, French philosopher, lay theologian, professor James Joll, British historian and university lecturer Théophile Obenga, Congolese Egyptologist Spencer C. Tucker, American military historian Charles Butterworth, American political philosopher Helene Hagan, Moroccan–American anthropologist and Amazigh activist Pascal Salin, French economist and professor Marie-France Vignéras, French mathematician Alfredo Co, Filipino Sinologist Idowu Bantale Omole, Nigerian professor and academic administrator Aubrey Willis Williams, American social and civil rights activist Jean-Claude Bajeux, Haitian political activist and professor Louis Clayton Jones, African-American international attorney and civil rights leader Mireille Gillings, French Canadian neurobiologist and entrepreneur Thomas Barclay, Scottish jurist and professor James Marshall Sprouse, United States Circuit judge François Mauriac French novelist, critic, poet and Nobel Laureate Saint-John Perse, French poet-diplomat Lucien Xavier Michel-Andrianarahinjaka, Malagasy writer and politician Esther Seligson, Mexican writer, poet and historian Lee Mallory, American poet and academic Marc Saikali, Lebanese–French journalist Sarah Ladipo Manyika, British Nigerian writer Luc Plissonneau, French screenwriter and film director Morteza Heidari, Iranian TV presenter Jean Baptiste Gay, vicomte de Martignac, French statesman Jean Ybarnégaray, Basque–French politician Jean-Fernand Audeguil, French politician Michel Kafando, Burkinabé diplomat Xavier Darcos, French politician, civil servant and former Minister of Labour Jean-Paul Gonzalez, French virologist Mario Aoun, Lebanese politician Alain Vidalies, the French Secretary of State for Transport, the Sea and Fisheries Nagoum Yamassoum, Chadian politician and former Prime Minister of Chad Anicet-Georges Dologuélé, Central African politician Reza Taghipour, Iranian conservative politician Thierry Santa, French Polynesian politician in New Caledonia Germaine Kouméalo Anaté, Togolese government minister and writer Olivier Falorni, French politician Myriam El Khomri, French politician Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, French physician and freemason and namesake of the guillotine Célestin Sieur, French physician Charles-Joseph Marie Pitard, French pharmacist and botanist Pierre-Paul Grassé, French zoologist Émile Peynaud, French oenologist Laure Gatet, French pharmacist and spy Basile Adjou Moumouni, Beninese physician Roland Paskoff, French geologist Jean-Marie Tarascon, French chemist and professor Bruno Vallespir, French engineer and professor Jean-Pierre Escalettes, French retired footballer Karounga Keïta, Malian football official and former coach and player Bixente Lizarazu, Basque–French retired footballer Charles James, English-American fashion designer List of medieval universities Le projet Babord-Num