Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Constitution Square (Ottawa)
Constitution Square is a three-tower office complex, located in downtown Ottawa, Ontario at 340, 350 and 360 Albert Street. It is home to a variety of businesses and embassies; the three towers are owned and operated by global real estate investor and owner Oxford Properties Group. The 1,058,046 square foot complex, located in the heart of the capital city's downtown core, is close to Ottawa's Parliament Hill and key federal buildings, is a neighbour to the city's prominent financial and high tech industries; the first tower comprises 18 floors, was completed in 1986, while tower two was completed in 1992 with 21 floors. In July 2005, it was announced that a third tower with 19 floors would be added to the complex, tower three opened less than two years within the original budget; the building fronts the OC Transpo Transitway, has underground parking, a fitness center and 24-hour security. 2009 - BOMA Canada National Office Building of the Year Award 2009 - BOMA Ottawa Local Office Building of the Year Award 2007 - BOMA Best Certification
Bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit called a busway or transitway, is a bus-based public transport system designed to improve capacity and reliability relative to a conventional bus system. A BRT system includes roadways that are dedicated to buses, gives priority to buses at intersections where buses may interact with other traffic. BRT aims to combine the capacity and speed of a metro with the flexibility, lower cost and simplicity of a bus system; the first BRT system was the Rede Integrada de Transporte in Curitiba, which entered service in 1974. As of March 2018, a total of 166 cities in six continents have implemented BRT systems, accounting for 4,906 km of BRT lanes and about 32.2 million passengers every day, of which about 19.6 million passengers ride daily in Latin America, which has the most cities with BRT systems, with 54, led by Brazil with 21 cities. The Latin American countries with the most daily ridership are Brazil and Mexico. In the other regions and Iran stand out. TransJakarta is considered as the largest BRT network in the world with 230.9 kilometres of corridors connecting the Indonesian capital city.
Bus rapid transit takes its name from rail rapid transit, which describes a high-capacity urban public-transit system with its own right of way, multiple-car vehicles at short headways, longer stop spacing than traditional streetcars and buses. BRT uses buses on a wide variety of rights-of-way, including mixed traffic, dedicated lanes on surface streets, busways separated from traffic; the expression "BRT" is used in the Americas and China. Critics have charged that the term "bus rapid transit" has sometimes been misapplied to systems that lack most or all the essential features which differentiate it from conventional bus services; the term "bus rapid transit creep" has been used to describe degraded levels of bus service which fall far short of the BRT Standard promoted by the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy and other organizations. The first use of a protected busway was the East Side Trolley Tunnel in Rhode Island, it was converted from trolley to bus use in 1948. However, the first BRT system in the world was the OC Transpo system in Canada.
Introduced in 1973, the first element of its BRT system was dedicated bus lanes through the city centre, with platformed stops. The introduction of the first exclusive separate busways occurred in 1983. By 1996, all of the envisioned 31 km Transitway system was in operation; as of 2017, the central part of the Transitway is being converted to a Light Rail Transit, due to the downtown section being operated beyond its designed capacity. The second BRT system in the world was the Rede Integrada de Transporte, implemented in Curitiba, Brazil, in 1974. Most of the elements that have become associated with BRT were innovations first suggested by Curitiba Mayor Architect Jaime Lerner. Just dedicated bus lanes in the center of major arterial roads, in 1980 the Curitiba system added a feeder bus network and inter-zone connections, in 1992 introduced off-board fare collection, enclosed stations, platform-level boarding. Other systems made further innovations, including platooning in Porto Alegre, passing lanes and express service in São Paulo.
In the United States, BRT began in 1977, with Pittsburgh's South Busway, operating on 4.3 miles of exclusive lanes. Its success led to the Martin Luther King Jr. East Busway in 1983, a fuller BRT deployment including a dedicated busway of 9.1 miles, traffic signal preemption, peak service headway as low as two minutes. After the opening of the West Busway, 5.1 miles in length in 1990, Pittsburgh’s Busway system is today over 18.5 miles long. In 1995, Ecuador, opened trolleybus BRT; the TransMilenio in Bogotá, opening in 2000, was the first BRT system to combine the best elements of Curitiba's BRT with other BRT advances, achieved the highest capacity and highest speed BRT system in the world. The success of TransMilenio spurred other cities to develop high quality BRT systems. In January 2004 the first BRT in Asia, TransJakarta, opened in Indonesia; as of 2015, at 210 kilometres, it is the longest BRT system in the world. Africa's first BRT system was opened in Lagos, Nigeria, in March 2008 but is considered as a light BRT system by many people.
Johannesburg’s BRT, Rea Vaya, was the first true BRT in Africa, in August 2009, carrying 16,000 daily passengers. Rea Vaya and MIO were the first two systems to combine full BRT with some services that operated in mixed traffic joined the BRT trunk infrastructure. BRT systems include most of the following features: Bus-only lanes make for faster travel and ensure that buses are not delayed by mixed traffic congestion. A median alignment bus-only keeps buses away from busy curb-side side conflicts, where cars and trucks are parking and turning. Separate rights of way may be used such as the elevated Xiamen BRT. Transit malls or'bus streets' may be created in city centers. Fare prepayment at the station, instead of on board the bus, eliminates the delay caused by passengers paying on board. P
The Transitway is a bus rapid transit network operated by OC Transpo in Ottawa, Canada. It began service in 1983. Many of the Transitway roads are above or below the grade of normal streets in Ottawa, by the use of overpasses and trench highways. Thus, they intersect directly with the regular traffic, make it possible for the buses to continue at full speed during rush hour. Buses that travel on the Transitway can cross long distances without stopping for a single traffic light. Most sections of the Transitway have a speed limit of 70–90 km/h between stations, 50 km/h in the station areas; the following routes are BRT routes, branded "Rapid" routes by OC Transpo. These routes travel on large stretches of the Transitway, or travel on the Transitway. 61 - St-Laurent. The following routes are other major crosstown routes that use small stretches of the Transitway:6 - South Keys to Greenboro. All Connexion routes use the Transitway from downtown out towards the suburbs; some Greyhound intercity buses use the Transitway from St-Laurent to Laurier either to/from the city's main bus terminal.
In June 2006, the City of Ottawa released a 2009 service plan for O-Train LRT services, the Transitway and new bus routes. To the west, there are new Moodie, Bells Corners, Queensway-Carleton and Kanata North Transitway stops. To the south, there is a new Nepean Sportsplex stop, proposed stops for Strandherd and Marketplace. To the east, the Southeastern transitway is extended to Hawthorne, the Eastern to Blackburn Hamlet and beyond. To the north, there is a planned stop at the Les Terrasses Complex, it investigates the possibility of transitway buses along Baseline, another downtown location, from further east on the Queensway from Kirkwood all the way to Eagleson. The downtown section of the Transitway, the Central Transitway, consists of two single bus-only lanes on Albert and Slater Streets. Traffic congestion here, where the buses mingle with private vehicles, sometimes causes service delays and is seen by some as the main weakness in the Transitway system; the Transit Committee planned to reduce the number of buses travelling on Albert and Slater streets by 30% if the extension of the light-rail was implemented.
Other measures may be implemented to avoid traffic problems despite the cancellation of the initial O-Train extension downtown. The Confederation Line project will replace the downtown portion of the Transitway with an underground, high-capacity rapid transit rail line by 2019; the City of Ottawa has branded this conversion to light rail as #OnTrack2018. All OC buses are now low floor "accessible" buses, with an aim to improve access to the service by the elderly and handicapped, to speed up boarding by other passengers. Route 61 has used the new Invero low-floor buses since September 2005 and route 101 since the start of spring 2006. Route 94 experimented with three Alexander Dennis Enviro500 double decker
One-way traffic is traffic that moves in a single direction. A one-way street is a street either facilitating only one-way traffic, or designed to direct vehicles to move in one direction. One-way streets result in higher traffic flow as drivers may avoid encountering oncoming traffic or turns through oncoming traffic. Residents may dislike one-way streets due to the circuitous route required to get to a specific destination, the potential for higher speeds adversely affecting pedestrian safety; some studies challenge the original motivation for one-way streets, in that the circuitous routes negate the claimed higher speeds. Signs are posted showing which direction the vehicles can move in: an upward arrow, or on a T junction where the main road is one-way, an arrow to the left or right. At the end of the street through which vehicles may not enter, a prohibitory traffic sign "Do Not Enter", "Wrong Way", or "No Entry" sign is posted, e.g. with that text, or a round red sign with a white horizontal bar.
Sometimes one portion of a street is another portion two-way. An advantage of one-way streets is that drivers do not have to watch for vehicles coming in the opposite direction on this type of street; the abstract "No Entry" sign was adopted for standardization at the League of Nations convention in Geneva in 1931. The sign was adapted from Swiss usage, derived from the practice of former European states that marked their boundaries with their formal shield symbols. Restrictions on entry were indicated by tying a blood-red ribbon horizontally around the shield; the sign is known as C1, from its definition in the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals. The European "No Entry" sign was adopted into North American uniform signage in the late 1960s / 1970s, replacing a previous white square sign bearing only the English text in black "Do Not Enter". In addition to the standardized graphic symbol, the US version still retains the wording "Do Not Enter", while the European and Canadian versions have no text.
Since Unicode 5.2, the Miscellaneous Symbols block contains the glyph ⛔, representable in HTML as ⛔. One-way streets may be part of a one-way system, which facilitates a smoother flow of motor traffic through, for example, a city center grid; this is achieved by arranging one-way streets that cross in such a fashion as to eliminate right turns or left turns. Traffic light systems at such junctions may be simpler and may be coordinated to produce a green wave; some of the reasons one-way traffic is specified: The street is too narrow for movement in both directions and the road users unable to coordinate Prevent drivers from cutting through residential streets to bypass traffic lights or other requirements to stop Discourage drivers from cruising through a residential neighborhood Part of a one-way pair of two parallel one-way streets in opposite directions For a proper functioning of a system of paid parking or other restricted vehicular access To calm traffic in historic city centers Eliminate turns that involve crossing in front of oncoming traffic Increase traffic flow and reduce traffic congestion Eliminate the need for a center turn lane that can instead be used for travel Better traffic flow in densely built-up areas where road widening may not be feasible Simplify pedestrian crossing of the street due to walkers only needing to look for oncoming traffic in one direction Eliminate cars' driver-side doors opening into the travel lane in parallel parking spaces for parking lanes located on the left or right side of a street Locate a one-way bike lane on the opposite side of the street from parallel parking spaces to prevent dooring Limited-access highway entrance and exit ramps.
In the United States, 37 states and Puerto Rico allow left turns on red only if both the origin and destination streets are one way. See South Carolina law Section 56-5-970 C3, for example. Five other states – Alaska, Michigan and Washington – allow left turns on red into a one-way street from a two-way street. An attempt was made in 1617 to introduce one-way streets in alleys near the River Thames in London by The Worshipful Company of Carmen who were commissioned by the King to regulate traffic in the square mile of the City of London; the next one-way street in London was Albemarle Street in Mayfair, the location of the Royal Institution. It was so designated in 1800; the first one-way streets in Paris were the Place Charles de Gaulle around the Arc de Triomphe, the Rue de Mogador and the Rue de la Chaussée-d'Antin, created on 13 December 1909. According to the folklore of Eugene, the use of one-way streets in the United States started in Eugene itself. In 1941 6th Ave was converted into a one-way avenue by the Highway Department.
Other sources claim. On 9 September 1934, the on-fire SS Morro Castle was towed to the New Jersey shoreline near the Asbury Park Convention Center and the sightseeing traffic was enormous; the Asbury Park Police Chief decided to make the Ocean Avenue one-way going north and the street one block over in one-way going south, creating a circular route. By the 1950s this "cruising the circuit" became a draw to the area in itself since teens would drive around it looking to hook up with other
Bronson Avenue (Ottawa)
Bronson Avenue is a major north-south arterial road in Ottawa, Canada. It starts as a continuation of the Airport Parkway, an expressway to the Macdonald-Cartier International Airport, it continues past Carleton University, the Glebe, north through Centretown, ends downtown at Sparks Street. Starting as an expressway leading from the Airport Parkway, Bronson becomes a six lane divided principal arterial with little or no direct frontage and a speed limit of 70 km/h. From Colonel By Drive, Bronson Avenue continues as a four-lane undivided principal arterial road through residential and commercial areas with a speed limit of 50 km/h. Upon reaching Albert Street, Bronson ends as a local road for downtown residents. Bronson Avenue is a gateway to the southern neighborhoods of Ottawa and since it is faster to take Bronson Avenue than Bank Street, the street is quite busy at rush hour. Glebe Collegiate Institute and Carleton University border on Bronson Avenue. There has been considerable debate about the nature of the road in the past few years.
Bronson Avenue took its name from Ottawa politician Erskine Henry Bronson. Bronson Avenue is considered a boundary line for several Ottawa neighbourhoods: Centretown Centretown West The Glebe Old Ottawa South Major intersections: Start as a continuation of Airport Parkway - 0.0 km Sunnyside Avenue - 0.9 km Colonel By Drive - 1.3 km Carling Avenue - 2.2 km Highway 417 - 2.6 km Catherine Street - 2.7 km Gladstone Avenue - 3.0 km Somerset Street - 3.4 km Slater Street - 3.9 km Albert Street - 4.0 km Ends at Sparks Street - 4.1 km Bronson Centre Carleton University Google Maps: Bronson Avenue
Airport Parkway (Ottawa)
Airport Parkway is an expressway in Ottawa, Canada. It runs from the Ottawa Macdonald-Cartier International Airport to an interchange with Heron Road where it turns into Bronson Avenue. Airport Parkway is a two-lane expressway for most of its length, is home to one of Ontario's only two single-point urban interchanges at its Hunt Club Road exit; the speed limit is 80 km/h for its entire length. Until 1997, Airport Parkway was maintained by the federal government of Canada under the jurisdiction of the National Capital Commission; the road has had 300 collisions and three fatalities since 2000, making it the focus of future improvements. There has been some discussing in twinning it to a four-lane expressway or freeway, although those discussions have stalled due to local controversy; the following is a list of exits along Airport Parkway. Some exits on Bronson Avenue are included. List of Ontario expressways