Nathan K. Hall
Nathan Kelsey Hall was an American politician who served in the U. S. House of Representatives and as U. S. Postmaster General, he was born on March 1810 in Marcellus, New York. He began his career as a shoemaker and farmer, but studied law in Buffalo, New York, alongside future U. S. President Millard Fillmore, served him as a law clerk and still as a law partner. After passing the bar examination in 1832, he practiced law and held various elected offices in Buffalo and Erie County, New York, he was elected a member of the New York Legislature in 1846. In 1846 he was elected as Whig to a seat in the 30th Congress, but was not renominated at the end of his term, he was "particularly active in procuring the charter" of the University at Buffalo, which Fillmore founded. In 1850, Fillmore appointed him Postmaster General of the United States, he served from 1850 through 1852, but for a brief stint as acting Secretary of the Interior. He left the office in 1852, when he became a judge of the U. S. District Court for the Northern District of New York.
He held that position 24 years until his death in 1874. He is buried close to his old friend Fillmore at Forest Lawn Cemetery in New York. United States Congress. "Nathan K. Hall". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Nathan Kelsey Hall at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. A biography on Nathan Hall Works by Nathan K. Hall at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Nathan K. Hall at Internet Archive Nathan K. Hall at Find A Grave
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Cave Johnson was for fourteen years a Democratic U. S. Congressman from Tennessee. Johnson was born on January 11, 1793, he acted as one of the campaign managers for presidential candidate James K. Polk at both the Democratic party convention and for the general election. After his victory Polk appointed him United States Postmaster General, a post in which he served from 1845–1849, he was born in Robertson County and died in Clarksville, Tennessee. During his tenure as United States Postmaster General he shifted the department from a collect on delivery postage delivery system to a prepaid postal delivery system by introducing the postage stamp in 1847, he is credited with introducing street corner mail boxes in urban areas. He served as president of the Bank of Tennessee from 1854 to 1860. Johnson died on November 23, 1866. United States Congress. "Cave Johnson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Cave Johnson at Find a Grave
William T. Barry
William Taylor Barry was an American statesman and jurist. He served as Postmaster General for most of the administration of President Andrew Jackson, was the only Cabinet member to not resign in 1831 as a result of the Petticoat affair. Born near Lunenburg, Virginia, he moved to Fayette County, Kentucky, in 1796 with his parents John Barry, an American Revolutionary War veteran, Susannah Barry, he attended the common schools, Pisgah Academy and Kentucky Academy in Woodford County, Transylvania University at Lexington and graduated from the College of William & Mary at Williamsburg, Virginia in 1803, after which studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1805. He commenced practice at Jessamine County, Kentucky and at Lexington, he was a member of Kentucky House of Representatives in 1807, a member of the U. S. House of Representatives from 1810 to 1811, served in the War of 1812, was a U. S. Senator from Kentucky, 1815 to 1816. During his time in the Kentucky Senate he wrote to former President James Madison seeking support for a plan of subsidizing public education across the state.
S. Postmaster General in Andrew Jackson's administration from 1829 to 1835, he was the only member of Jackson's original Cabinet not to resign as a result of the Petticoat Affair, which involved the social ostracism of Margaret O'Neill Eaton, the wife of Secretary of War John H. Eaton by a coalition of Cabinet members wives led by Second Lady Floride Calhoun. Barry, like Jackson, had sided with the Eatons, he was appointed ambassador to Spain, but died before he could take office en route to his post, while stopped in Liverpool, England August 30, 1835. He was interred and a cenotaph still stands at St. James's Cemetery, England. Barry County, Barry County, Missouri and Barryville, New York are named in his honor. During the 1820s, Barry was a member of the prestigious society, Columbian Institute for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences, who counted among their members former presidents Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams and many prominent men of the day, including well-known representatives of the military, government service and other professions.
Barry was an uncle to Kentucky governor Luke P. Blackburn. United States Congress. "William T. Barry". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. William T. Barry at Find A Grave Allen, William B.. A History of Kentucky: Embracing Gleanings, Antiquities, Natural Curiosities and Biographical Sketches of Pioneers, Jurists, Statesmen, Mechanics, Farmers and Other Leading Men, of All Occupations and Pursuits. Bradley & Gilbert. Pp. 254–256. This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
Benjamin Franklin was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a leading author, political theorist, freemason, scientist, humorist, civic activist and diplomat; as a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod and the Franklin stove, among other inventions, he founded many civic organizations, including the Library Company, Philadelphia's first fire department and the University of Pennsylvania. Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies; as the first United States Ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation. Franklin was foundational in defining the American ethos as a marriage of the practical values of thrift, hard work, community spirit, self-governing institutions, opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with the scientific and tolerant values of the Enlightenment.
In the words of historian Henry Steele Commager, "In a Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat." To Walter Isaacson, this makes Franklin "the most accomplished American of his age and the most influential in inventing the type of society America would become."Franklin became a successful newspaper editor and printer in Philadelphia, the leading city in the colonies, publishing the Pennsylvania Gazette at the age of 23. He became wealthy publishing this and Poor Richard's Almanack, which he authored under the pseudonym "Richard Saunders". After 1767, he was associated with the Pennsylvania Chronicle, a newspaper, known for its revolutionary sentiments and criticisms of British policies, he pioneered and was first president of Academy and College of Philadelphia which opened in 1751 and became the University of Pennsylvania. He organized and was the first secretary of the American Philosophical Society and was elected president in 1769.
Franklin became a national hero in America as an agent for several colonies when he spearheaded an effort in London to have the Parliament of Great Britain repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. An accomplished diplomat, he was admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a major figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations, his efforts proved vital for the American Revolution in securing shipments of crucial munitions from France. He was promoted to deputy postmaster-general for the British colonies in 1753, having been Philadelphia postmaster for many years, this enabled him to set up the first national communications network. During the revolution, he became the first United States Postmaster General, he was active in community affairs and colonial and state politics, as well as national and international affairs. From 1785 to 1788, he served as governor of Pennsylvania, he owned and dealt in slaves but, by the 1750s, he argued against slavery from an economic perspective and became one of the most prominent abolitionists.
His colorful life and legacy of scientific and political achievement, his status as one of America's most influential Founding Fathers, have seen Franklin honored more than two centuries after his death on coinage and the $100 bill and the names of many towns, educational institutions, corporations, as well as countless cultural references. Benjamin Franklin's father, Josiah Franklin, was a soaper and candlemaker. Josiah was born at Ecton, England on December 23, 1657, the son of blacksmith and farmer Thomas Franklin, Jane White. Benjamin's father and all four of his grandparents were born in England. Josiah had seventeen children with his two wives, he married his first wife, Anne Child, in about 1677 in Ecton and immigrated with her to Boston in 1683. Following her death, Josiah was married to Abiah Folger on July 9, 1689 in the Old South Meeting House by Samuel Willard. Benjamin, their eighth child, was Josiah Franklin's fifteenth tenth and last son. Abiah Folger was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, on August 15, 1667, to Peter Folger, a miller and schoolteacher, his wife, Mary Morrell Folger, a former indentured servant.
She came from a Puritan family, among the first Pilgrims to flee to Massachusetts for religious freedom, when King Charles I of England began persecuting Puritans. They sailed for Boston in 1635, her father was "the sort of rebel destined to transform colonial America." As clerk of the court, he was jailed for disobeying the local magistrate in defense of middle-class shopkeepers and artisans in conflict with wealthy landowners. Ben Franklin followed in his grandfather's footsteps in his battles against the wealthy Penn family that owned the Pennsylvania Colony. Benjamin Franklin was born on Milk Street, in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 17, 1706, baptized at Old South Meeting House, he was one of seventeen children born to Josiah Franklin, one of ten born by Josiah's second wife, Abiah Folger. Among Benjamin's siblings were his older brother James and his younger sister Jane. Josiah wanted Ben to attend school with the clergy, but only had enough money to send him to school for two years, he did not graduate.
Although "his parents talked of the church as a career" for Franklin, his schooling e
Preston Robert Tisch
Preston Robert Tisch was an American businessman, the chairman and—along with his brother Laurence Tisch—was part owner of the Loews Corporation. From 1991 until his death, Tisch owned 50% of the New York Giants football team and shared ownership of the team with Wellington Mara. Tisch was born in 1926 in the Bensonhurst section of Brooklyn, the son of Sadye and Al Tisch. Tisch received a BA degree in economics from the University of Michigan in 1948, his wife Joan Tisch and his daughter received degrees at the university. While in college Tisch was a member of Sigma Alpha Mu, a Jewish fraternity. On August 16, 1986, he was appointed Postmaster General of the United States Postal Service, serving until March 1, 1988. In 1991, Tisch bought a half-stake in the New York Giants from Wellington Mara's nephew Tim, who had inherited the share from his father and Wellington's brother Jack upon his death and, suffering from Hodgkin's lymphoma, which would claim his life. Tisch held the share until he died on November 2005 from brain cancer.
His share of the Giants passed to his son Steve. Bob began his career in business when he opened a hotel in 1946 with Larry; the brothers continued to expand their hotel business purchasing stock in Loew’s Inc. in 1958, owning the company beginning in 1959, creating Loew’s Corporation as a parent company of Loew’s Theatres and Loew’s Hotels in 1970. Bob was named president and Chief Operating Officer of Loews in 1968, both Bob and his brother retired as co-CEOs of Loews on December 31, 1998. Loews diversified into fields such as insurance and natural gas. Tisch made substantial donations to his alma maters, leading to these institutions naming buildings and a school after him. Tisch Hall, on the University of Michigan central campus, houses that university's history department. New York University's Tisch School of the Arts and NYU Medical Center's Tisch Hospital are named after Laurence A. and Preston Robert Tisch. NYU's Preston Robert Tisch Center for Hospitality and Sports Management was founded in 1995 and expanded in 1999 to meet the needs of a growing student population.
In 1997, the Central Park Zoo opened the Tisch Children's Zoo. Given two months to live by his New York doctors, Tisch lived for 14 more months under care at Duke University Medical Center. In recognition of their efforts, the Tisch family donated $10 million to the Duke Brain Tumor Center, renamed the Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center in October 2005; the Tisch Building in New York City, the headquarters of the Gay Men's Health Crisis is named for him and his wife, on the GMHC Board of Directors, after they donated $3.5 million for it in March 1997. There is additionally a Preston R. Tisch Professorship in Judaic Studies and the Preston Robert Tisch Tennis Building at the University of Michigan. Tisch was a founding member of the Association for a Better New York, which took on the task of tackling city problems that had fallen to the city’s agencies, he additionally helped to found Citymeals on Wheels and served meals to the city’s elderly. There is a Tisch Center for the Arts at the 92Y in New York, Tisch Galleries at the Metropolitan Museum of Arts.
Tisch founded the charity Take the Field, which raised $135 million in public and private funds to repair 43 athletic fields in New York City. In 1948, he married Joan Hyman, they had three children: Steve Tisch is a producer who lives in Beverly Hills. He is the only Tisch child to leave the New York area and serves as the family’s point man in their shared ownership of the New York Giants. Jonathan Tisch is the public face of the hotel division of Loews Corporation. In 1988, he married Laura Steinberg, the daughter of financier and insurance executive Saul Steinberg, at the Central Synagogue in Manhattan, they divorced. In 2007, he married Lizzie Rudnick. Jonathan is an active Democratic Party fund-raiser. Laurie Tisch sits on the board of the Whitney and the Children's Museum of Manhattan and is chairwoman of the Center for Arts Education, a nonprofit group that works to improve arts education in the public schools, she is divorced from Donald Sussman, the founder of Paloma Partners, a hedge fund in Greenwich, Connecticut with $1.5B under management.
She founded the not-for-profit foundation, the Illumination Fund, dedicated to serving the children of New York City with an emphasis on arts education. Preston Robert Tisch at Find a Grave