Thomas Wentworth Wills was a sportsman, credited with being Australia's first cricketer of significance and a founder of Australian rules football. Born in the British colony of New South Wales to a wealthy family descended from convicts, Wills grew up in the bush on properties owned by his father, the pastoralist and politician Horatio Wills, in what is now the Australian state of Victoria, he befriended local Aborigines. At the age of 14, Wills went to England to attend Rugby School, where he became captain of its cricket team, played an early version of rugby football. After Rugby, Wills represented the Cambridge University Cricket Club in the annual match against Oxford, played at first-class level for Kent and the Marylebone Cricket Club. An athletic all-rounder with exceptional bowling skills, he was regarded as one of the finest young cricketers in England. Returning to Victoria in 1856, Wills achieved Australia-wide stardom as a cricketer, captaining the Victorian team to repeated victories in intercolonial matches.
He played for, but came to blows with the Melbourne Cricket Club, his larrikin streak and defections to rival clubs straining their relationship. In 1858 he called for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter. After founding the Melbourne Football Club in 1859, Wills co-wrote the first laws of Australian rules football, he and his cousin H. C. A. Harrison spearheaded the sport's development as captains and administrators. In 1861, at the height of his fame, Wills joined his father on an eight-month trek into the Queensland outback to found a new property. Soon after their arrival, Wills' father and 18 others perished in the deadliest massacre of settlers by Aborigines in Australian history. Wills survived and resumed playing sport upon his return to Victoria in 1864, in 1866–67, led an Aboriginal cricket team on an Australian tour as its captain-coach. In a career marked by controversy, Wills challenged cricket's amateur-professional divide, developed a reputation for bending sporting rules to the point of cheating.
In 1872, he became the first bowler to be called for throwing in a top-class Australian match. Dropped from the Victoria XI, he failed in an 1876 comeback attempt, by which time he was considered a relic of a bygone era, his remaining years were characterised by social alienation, flights from creditors, heavy drinking as a means of coping with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms that plagued him after the massacre. In 1880, suffering from delirium tremens, Wills committed suicide by stabbing himself in the heart. Australia's first sporting celebrity, Wills fell into obscurity after his death, but has undergone a revival in Australian culture since the 1980s. Today he is described as an archetypal tragic sports hero and as a symbol of reconciliation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, he has become the central figure in "football's history wars"—an ongoing dispute over whether features of an Aboriginal game were incorporated into early Australian rules football. According to biographer Greg de Moore, Wills "stands alone in all his absurdity, his cracked egalitarian heroism and his fatal self-destructiveness—the finest cricketer and footballer of the age".
Wills was born on 19 August 1835 on the Molonglo Plain near modern-day Canberra, in the British penal colony of New South Wales, as the elder child of Horatio and Elizabeth Wills. Tom was a third-generation Australian of convict descent: his mother's parents were Irish convicts, his paternal grandfather was Edward Wills, an English highwayman whose death sentence for armed robbery was commuted to transportation, arriving in Botany Bay aboard the "hell ship" Hillsborough in 1799. Granted a conditional pardon in 1803, Edward became rich through mercantile activity in Sydney with his free wife Sarah, he died in 1811, five months before Horatio's birth, Sarah remarried to convict George Howe, owner of Australia's first newspaper, The Sydney Gazette. Self-educated, Horatio worked in the Gazette office from a young age, rising to become editor in 1832, the same year he met Elizabeth, an orphan from Parramatta, they married in December 1833. Seventeen months after his birth, Tom was baptised Thomas Wentworth Wills in St Andrew's, after statesman William Wentworth.
Drawing on Wentworth's pro-currency writings and the emancipist cause, Horatio, in his nationalist journal The Currency Lad, made the first call for an Australian republic. Horatio turned to pastoralism in the mid-1830s and moved with his family to the sheep run Burra Burra on the Molonglo River. Although athletic from an early age, Tom was prone to illness, at one stage in 1839 his parents "almost despaired of his recovery"; the following year, in light of explorer Thomas Mitchell's discovery of "Australia Felix", the Willses, with shepherds and their families, became some of the first settlers to overland south to the Grampians in the colony's Port Phillip District. After squatting on Mount William, they moved a few miles north through the foothills of Mount Ararat, named so by Horatio because "like the Ark, we rested there". Horatio went through a period of intense religiosity while in the Grampians, he implored himself and Tom to base their lives upon the New Testament. Living in tents, the Wills family purchased a large property named Lexington in an area used by Djab wurrung Aboriginal clans as a meeting place.
According to family members, Tom, as an only child, "was thrown much into the companio
Wisden Cricketers of the Year
The Wisden Cricketers of the Year are cricketers selected for the honour by the annual publication Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, based on their "influence on the previous English season". The award began in 1889 with the naming of "Six Great Bowlers of the Year", continued with the naming of "Nine Great Batsmen of the Year" in 1890 and "Five Great Wicket-Keepers" in 1891. Since 1897, with a few notable exceptions, the annual award has recognised five players of the year. No players were named in 1916 or 1917, as the First World War prevented any first-class cricket being played in England, while in 1918 and 1919 the recipients were five schoolboy cricketers. From 1941 to 1946, the Second World War caused no players were named. Three players have been sole recipients: Plum Warner and Jack Hobbs; the latter two selections are the only exceptions to the rule that a player may receive the award only once. Hobbs was first recognised in 1909, but was selected a second time in 1926 to honour his breaking W. G. Grace's record of 126 first-class hundreds.
John Wisden and eponymous founder of the almanack, was featured in a special commemorative section in the Jubilee edition of the publication in 1913, 29 years posthumously. From 2000 to 2003 the award was made based on players' impact on cricket worldwide rather than just the preceding season in England, but the decision was reversed in 2004 with the introduction of a separate Wisden Leading Cricketer in the World award; the earliest surviving recipient of the award is Sonny Ramadhin, which he became in August 2015 with the death of Arthur Morris. The longest that a recipient has lived after receiving the award is 77 years by Harry Calder, who died in 1995. Calder, uniquely for a male recipient, played no first-class cricket. Among first-class players, the longest lived after receipt of the award is 74 years by Wilfred Rhodes. Six women have been chosen: Claire Taylor, Charlotte Edwards, Heather Knight, Natalie Sciver, Anya Shrubsole and Tammy Beaumont. Wisden Leading Cricketer in the World Wisden Leading Woman Cricketer in the World Six Giants of the Wisden Century Wisden Australia's Cricketer of the Year Wisden Cricketers of the Century ICC Awards General "Wisden's Five Cricketers of the Year".
Wisden. Retrieved 10 April 2013. Specific Wisden online archive Full List on Cricinfo
South Australia cricket team
The South Australia cricket team, named West End Redbacks, nicknamed the ’Southern Redbacks’, is an Australian men's professional first class cricket team based in Adelaide, South Australia. The Redbacks play their home matches at Adelaide Oval and are the state cricket team for South Australia, representing the state in the Sheffield Shield competition and the limited overs Ryobi One-Day Cup, their Ryobi One-Day Cup uniform features a red body with black sleeves. They are known as the West End Redbacks due to a sponsorship agreement with West End; the Redbacks competed in the now-defunct KFC Twenty20 Big Bash, but were succeeded by the Adelaide Strikers in 2011 because this league was replaced with the Big Bash League. The earliest known first-class match played by South Australia took place against Tasmania on the Adelaide Oval in November 1877. In 1892–93 they joined New South Wales and Victoria and played the inaugural Sheffield Shield season. South Australia won the Shield in just their second attempt.
They have won the competition 13 times in total while they have twice won the One Day tournament now known as the Ryobi One Day Cup. They are the current holders of the KFC 20/20 Big Bash trophy, defeating NSW in the 2010/11 final at Adelaide Oval. Over the years many successful international cricketers have played for South Australia. Clarrie Grimmett played with them during the 1920s and 30s, taking a total of 668 wickets which remains a state record. In 1934 Donald Bradman joined the club after playing with New South Wales, started with scores of 117, 233 and 357 in his first three innings. Others include the Chappell brothers, David Hookes, Darren Lehman,Gil Langley, Jason Gillespe and Terry Jenner. South Australia have imported cricketers to play for them, the most famous being Gary Sobers who appeared in three seasons during the early 1960s and Barry Richards. Richards played just one season with South Australia but managed to set a state record for most runs in a season, making 1538 runs in 1970–71.
Sheffield Shield/Pura Cup 1963–64 1968–69 1970–71 1975–76 1981–82 1995–96One-day Cups 1983–84 1986–87 2011–12KFC Twenty20 Big Bash/Big Bash League 2010/11 Players with international caps are listed in bold. Most runs for South Australia Highest individual score: Don Bradman 369 vs Tasmania in 1935/36Most centuries: Darren Lehmann 42Most runs in a season: Barry Richards 1538 runs in 1970/71Highest partnership: David Hookes and Wayne Phillips 462* vs Tasmania in 1986/87Highest team score: 821-7d vs Queensland in 1939/40Most wickets for South Australia Most wickets in a season: Shaun Tait 65Most wickets in an innings: Tim Wall 10/36 vs NSW in 1932/33Most wickets in a match: George Giffen 17/201 vs Victoria in 1885/86 List of South Australian representative cricketers List of international cricketers from South Australia Official Website of the South Australia cricket team Official Website of Cricket Australia Article on team's history from Cricinfo
Yorkshire County Cricket Club
Yorkshire County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Yorkshire; the club's limited overs team is called the Yorkshire Vikings. Yorkshire teams formed by earlier organisations the old Sheffield Cricket Club, played top-class cricket from the 18th century and the county club has always held first-class status. Yorkshire have competed in the County Championship since the official start of the competition in 1890 and have played in every top-level domestic cricket competition in England. Yorkshire are the most successful team in English cricketing history with 33 County Championship titles, including one shared; the team's most recent Championship title was in 2015, following on from that achieved in 2014. The club's limited-overs kit colours are Cambridge blue, Oxford blue, yellow with Mazars as the main sponsor. Yorkshire play most of their home games at the Headingley Cricket Ground in Leeds.
Another significant venue is at North Marine Road Ground, which houses the annual Scarborough Festival. Yorkshire has used other locations including Bramall Lane, the club's original home; the team drew an average attendance of 8,417 to seven home games in 2015. Champion County – 1867, 1870. Sheffield Cricket Club was formed about this time and there are references to Sheffield matches in Derbyshire in 1757 and at Leeds in 1761. A club was formed in York in 1784. Bedale in North Yorkshire was a noted centre in the early 19th century, but cricket in most rural areas was slow to develop. Yorkshire cricket became centred around Sheffield, where it was more organised than in the rest of the county. From 1771, Sheffield played. Nottingham was the better side and Sheffield sometimes played with more players to give them a greater chance of victory; the Sheffield player Tom Marsden was regarded as one of the leading players in the country in the 1820s. Cricket increased in popularity after one of the 1827 roundarm trial matches was played at the purpose-built Darnall New Ground in Sheffield to evaluate the new style of roundarm bowling.
After this match, many new cricket clubs were formed in the county. In 1833, "Yorkshire" was first used as a team name, although it contained 11 Sheffield players, for a game against Norfolk at the Hyde Park Ground in Sheffield; the name may have arisen from a need to match the status of Norfolk as a county rather than a city. There were some differences in the organisation of the Yorkshire team vis-à-vis those called Sheffield as it included three amateurs while Sheffield teams were professional. Yorkshire, as such, played intermittently over the next thirty years but was not organised in any formal way; some of their opponents were Sussex in 1835. In 1849, Yorkshire played against a "Lancashire" team for the first time, though it was a Sheffield v Manchester match. By 1855, Sheffield and Yorkshire were playing at Bramall Lane. On 7 March 1861, during a meeting at the Adelphi Hotel in Sheffield, a Match Fund Committee was established to run Yorkshire county matches; the committee was made up from the management committee of the Bramall Lane ground and representatives from clubs willing to pay £1 to the fund.
But the committee was unable to persuade other clubs that it was not seeking to promote Sheffield cricket and a lack of funds prevented some matches being played in 1862. By this time, there were several cricketers with good reputations and the county team was one of the strongest in England. On 8 January 1863, Yorkshire County Cricket Club was formed. Membership cost a minimum of 10s and 6d. Like most first-class cricket clubs of the time, Yorkshire relied on private patronage with administrators "paying to serve" and "moneyed enthusiasts" acting as ready match sponsors; the majority of players were freelance professionals who were paid a usual match fee of £5, from which all travel and accommodation had to be paid. Travel could be arduous, living away from home could be "rough" and sometimes the match fee was not enough to cover expenses if, as was a problem with early Yorkshire cricketers, "the ale-house was a temptation"; the first club President was former player Thomas Barker, who had become Mayor of Sheffield, although he never attended any meetings.
Michael Ellison was the first club Treasurer and at some point early in Yorkshire's hi
William Caffyn, known as Billy Caffyn, was an English cricketer who played for Surrey County Cricket Club and various England representative sides. Caffyn was died in 1919 aged 91 in the town, he made five appearances for New South Wales, two for Kent and one for Lancashire as well as appearing five times for Marylebone Cricket Club. Caffyn was a genuine all-rounder being a sound middle order right-handed batsman and a effective rightarm medium fast roundarm bowler, he played a major part in the success of Surrey during the 1850s. Caffyn's known first-class career spanned the 1849 to 1873 seasons, he took 602 wickets in 200 matches at an average of 13.47 runs each with a best analysis of 9/29. He took five wickets in 10 wickets in an innings 11 times, he scored 5885 runs at an average of 17.99 with a highest score of 103. He took 149 catches. In 1860 whilst employed as a professional at Winchester College he played and beat an XI of the Town of Winchester single handed by 28 runs. Caffyn made scores of 35 and 1, with two men fielding for him he bowled out the opposition for 4 and 4.
At the end of the 1859 English cricket season, Caffyn was one of the 12 players who took part in cricket's first-ever overseas tour when an England cricket team led by George Parr visited North America. Caffyn was instrumental in the early development of Australian cricket and the establishment of Anglo-Australian competition. Known in England as the Surrey Pet, he came to Australia with a sponsored 1861/62 team which consisted of Surrey cricketers, again in 1864 after which he stayed on as coach of the Melbourne Cricket Club. After a term in Melbourne, he moved to Sydney where he started a hairdressing business with his wife and coached at the Warwick Club. During this time he was associated with fellow ex-Surrey professional cricketer Charles Lawrence who coached at the Albert Cricket Club in Sydney. In his book Seventy-one Not Out he wrote: The cricket out there in the ten years that have elapsed between the first visit of an English eleven and my leaving the country had made phenomenal improvement...
It is a source of the greatest satisfaction to me that I have in some measure contributed to the successful state of things. Caffyn has the distinction of bowling the first ball in the first match between a team from England and Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground which took place on New Year's Day in 1862 in which his visiting England XI were up against a Victorian XVIII, he played in the first Anglo-Australian first-class cricket match, played from 1 March 1862 and dubbed The World v Surrey at the MCG. The first Test match was not played until 15 years in March 1877, he returned to England in May 1871 and died at his home in Surrey at the age of 91. His house still remains at'Sydneyville' 20 Parkgate Road, unaltered from the time he resided there, the name a testament to his time in Australia. John Arlott rated his book of reminiscences Seventy-one Not out, edited by "Mid-On". Arlott wrote: "...despite its literary limitations, Seventy-one Not out is an essential book for anyone who wants to understand the history of cricket."
History of Test cricket William Caffyn at ESPNcricinfo William Caffyn, Seventy-one not out: the reminiscences of William Caffyn, edited by "Mid-on", Blackwood, 1899 H S Altham, A History of Cricket, Volume 1, George Allen & Unwin, 1926 Derek Birley, A Social History of English Cricket, Aurum, 1999 Rowland Bowen, Cricket: A History of its Growth and Development, Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1970 Arthur Haygarth, Scores & Biographies, Volumes 3-9, Lillywhite, 1862–1867 John Major, More Than A Game, HarperCollins, 2007 – includes the famous 1859 touring team photo taken on board ship at Liverpool Chris Harte, A History of Australian Cricket, Andre Deutsch, 1993 Jack Egan, The Story of Cricket in Australia, Macmillan Australia, 1987
Batting average (cricket)
In cricket, a player's batting average is the total number of runs they have scored divided by the number of times they have been out. Since the number of runs a player scores and how they get out are measures of their own playing ability, independent of their teammates, batting average is a good metric for an individual player's skill as a batter; the number is simple to interpret intuitively. If all the batter's innings were completed, this is the average number of runs they score per innings. If they did not complete all their innings, this number is an estimate of the unknown average number of runs they score per innings; each player has several batting averages, with a different figure calculated for each type of match they play, a player's batting averages may be calculated for individual seasons or series, or at particular grounds, or against particular opponents, or across their whole career. Batting average has been used to gauge cricket players' relative skills since the 18th century.
Most players have career batting averages in the range of 20 to 40. This is the desirable range for wicket-keepers, though some fall short and make up for it with keeping skill; until a substantial increase in scores in the 21st century due to improved bats and smaller grounds among other factors, players who sustained an average above 50 through a career were considered exceptional, before the development of the heavy roller in the 1870s an average of 25 was considered good. All-rounders who are more prominent bowlers than batsmen average something between 20 and 30. 15 and under is typical for specialist bowlers. A small number of players have averaged less than 5 for a complete career, though a player with such an average is a liability unless an exceptional bowler as Alf Valentine, B. S. Chandrasekhar or Glenn McGrath were. Career records for batting average are subject to a minimum qualification of 20 innings played or completed, in order to exclude batsmen who have not played enough games for their skill to be reliably assessed.
Under this qualification, the highest Test batting average belongs to Australia's Sir Donald Bradman, with 99.94. Given that a career batting average over 50 is exceptional, that only five other players have averages over 60, this is an outstanding statistic; the fact that Bradman's average is so far above that of any other cricketer has led several statisticians to argue that, statistically at least, he was the greatest athlete in any sport. Disregarding this 20 innings qualification, the highest career test batting average is 112, by Andy Ganteaume, a Trinidadian Keeper-batsman, dismissed for 112 in his only test innings. Batting averages in One Day International cricket tend to be lower than in Test cricket, because of the need to score runs more and take riskier strokes and the lesser emphasis on building a large innings, it should be remembered in relation to the ODI histogram above, that there were no ODI competitions when Bradman played. If a batter has been dismissed in every single innings this statistic gives the average number of runs they score per innings.
However, for a batter with innings which finished not out, the true average number of runs they score per innings is unknown as it is not known how many runs they would have scored if they could have completed all their not out innings. This statistic is an estimate of the average number of runs. If their scores have a geometric distribution this statistic is the maximum likelihood estimate of their true unknown average. Batting averages can be affected by the number of not outs. For example, Phil Tufnell, noted for his poor batting, has an respectable ODI average of 15, despite a highest score of only 5 not out, as he scored an overall total of 15 runs from 10 innings, but was out only once. A batter who has not been dismissed in any of the innings over which their average is being calculated does not have a batting average, as dividing by zero does not give a result. Highest career batting averages in Test matches. Table shows players with at least 20 innings completed. * denotes not out. Last updated: 14 October 2018.
Highest career batting averages in First-class cricket as follows: Source: Cricinfo Statsguru. Table shows players with at least 50 innings batted, note this table has no requirement for minimum number of runs scored. * denotes not out. Last updated: 10 November 2018. Alternative measures of batting effectiveness have been developed, including: Strike rate measures a different concept to batting average – how the batter scores – so it does not supplant the role of batting average, it is used in limited overs matches, where the speed at which a batter scores is more important than it is in first-class cricket. A system of player rankings was developed to produce a better indication of players' current standings than is provided by comparing their averages. Cricket statistics Batting average Bowling average
Richard Driver was a Sydney solicitor and cricket administrator. Driver was born in Cabramatta, New South Wales, son of Richard Driver, hotel-keeper, his wife Elizabeth, née Powell. In 1859, he became a solicitor for the Sydney City Council and carried out a practice in the Sydney police court. Driver unsuccessfully contested three seats in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly in 1858 and was defeated again for East Sydney in 1859, but won West Macquarie in 1860 and held it to 1869, he was the member for Carcoar from 1869 to 1872 and Windsor from 1872 to his death in 1880. He supported Henry Parkes, but turned down an offer of to be made minister of mines in 1872, he became minister for lands in Parkes' 1877 government and as a cricket lover he provided £700 for improvements to the Sydney Cricket Ground and vested the ground in trustees in 1879, including himself as the representative of the New South Wales Cricket Association. From 1860 to 1880 Driver was an important organizer of visits by English cricket teams and intercolonial matches.
In 1871, he married Elizabeth Margaret Marlow. He is buried at Waverley Cemetery. A road built in the 1890s outside the Sydney Cricket Ground called Driver Avenue is named in his honour. Mennell, Philip. "Driver, Richard". The Dictionary of Australasian Biography. London: Hutchinson & Co – via Wikisource. Sydney Riot of 1879 List of New South Wales representative cricketers