Kingdom of Romania
The Kingdom of Romania was a constitutional monarchy at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It existed from 1881, when prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was crowned as King Carol I of Romania, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Romanian parliament proclaimed Romania a socialist republic. From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities under a single prince to an autonomous principality with a Hohenzollern monarchy; the country gained its independence from the Ottoman Empire during the 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War, when it received Northern Dobruja in exchange for the southern part of Bessarabia. The kingdom's territory during the reign of King Carol I, between 14 March 1881 and 27 September 1914 is sometimes referred as the Romanian Old Kingdom, to distinguish it from "Greater Romania", which included the provinces that became part of the state after World War I. With the exception of the southern halves of Bukovina and Transylvania, these territories were ceded to neighboring countries in 1940, under the pressure of Nazi Germany or the Soviet Union.
Following a disastrous World War II campaign on the side of the Axis powers and name change, Romania joined the Allies in 1944, recovering Northern Transylvania. The influence of the neighboring Soviet Union and the policies followed by Communist-dominated coalition governments led to the abolition of the monarchy, with Romania becoming a People's Republic on the last day of 1947; the 1859 ascendancy of Alexandru Ioan Cuza as prince of both Moldavia and Wallachia under the nominal suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire united an identifiably Romanian nation under a single ruler. On 5 February 1862 the two principalities were formally united to form the Principality of Romania, with Bucharest as its capital. On 23 February 1866 a so-called Monstrous coalition, composed of Conservatives and radical Liberals, forced Cuza to abdicate; the German prince Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was appointed as Prince of Romania, in a move to assure German backing to unity and future independence. He adopted the Romanian spelling of his name and his descendants would rule Romania until the overthrow of the monarchy in 1947.
Following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, Romania was recognized as an independent state by the Treaty of Berlin, 1878 and acquired Dobruja, although it was forced to surrender southern Bessarabia to Russia. On 15 March 1881, as an assertion of full sovereignty, the Romanian parliament raised the country to the status of a kingdom, Carol was crowned as king on 10 May; the new state, squeezed between the Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, Russian Empires, with Slavic populations on its southwestern and northeastern borders, the Black Sea due east, Hungarian neighbors on its western and northwestern borders, looked to the West France, for its cultural and administrative models. Abstaining from the Initial Balkan War against the Ottoman Empire, the Kingdom of Romania entered the Second Balkan War in June 1913 against the Tsardom of Bulgaria. 330,000 Romanian troops moved into Bulgaria. One army occupied Southern Dobrudja and another moved into northern Bulgaria to threaten Sofia, helping to bring an end to the war.
Romania thus acquired the ethnically-mixed territory of Southern Dobrudja, which it had desired for years. In 1916 Romania entered World War I on the Entente side. Romania engaged in a conflict against Bulgaria but as a result Bulgarian forces, after a series of successful battles, regained Dobruja, ceded from Bulgaria by the treaty of Bucharest and the Berlin congress. Although the Romanian forces did not fare well militarily, by the end of the war the Austrian and Russian empires were gone; the Romanian Old Kingdom is a colloquial term referring to the territory covered by the first independent Romanian nation state, composed of the Danubian Principalities — Wallachia and Moldavia. It was achieved when, under the auspices of the Treaty of Paris, the ad hoc Divans of both countries - which were under Imperial Ottoman suzerainty at the time - voted for Alexander Ioan Cuza as their prince, thus achieving a de facto unification; the region itself is defined by the result of that political act, followed by the inclusion of Northern Dobruja in 1878, the proclamation of the Kingdom of Romania in 1881, the annexation of Southern Dobruja in 1913.
The term came into use after World War I, when the Old Kingdom was opposed to Greater Romania, which included Transylvania, Banat and Bukovina. Nowadays, the term has a historical relevance, is otherwise used as a common term for all regions in Romania included in both the Old Kingdom and present-day borders. Romania delayed in entering World War I, but declared war on the Central Powers in 1916; the Romanian military campaign ended in stalemate when the Central Powers crushed the country's offensive into Transylvania and occupied Wallachia and Dobruja, including Bucharest and the strategically important oil fields, by the end of 1916. In 1917, despite fierce Romanian resistance at Mărăşeşti, due to Russia's withdrawal from the war following the October Revolu
Order of the Crown (Romania)
The Order of the Crown of Romania is a chivalric order set up on 14 March 1881 by King Carol I of Romania to commemorate the establishment of the Kingdom of Romania. It was awarded as a state order until the end of the Romanian monarchy in 1947, it was revived on 30 December 2011 as a dynastic order. The order had five classes, most of them with limited numbers: Grand Cross Grand Officer Commander Officer Knight The religious character of the model of 1881 is a red-enamelled, eight-pointed Maltese Cross with wider margin of gold and white. In the angles of the cross were "C"s, the initials of the founder; the medallion in the middle of the cross shows a royal crown on dark red background. The medallion is surrounded by a white-frost edge surrounded the inscription PRIN NOI INSINE and the order's foundation date of 14 March 1881. On the back of the medallion is the day of the statute as well as the years 1866, 1877, 1881; the Order's sash or ribbon is light blue with two silver stripes. Grand Cross members wore the decoration on a sash from the right shoulder to left waist, Grand Officers and Commanders around the neck and Knights and Officers on the left breast.
For the two highest classes of the order an eight-pointed silver star was worn on the left breast, Grand Cross members wearing it as an order-insignia and Grand Officers as a medallion, surrounded by 4 royal crowns since 1932. Ibrahim of Johor – 1920 Prince Lorenz of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este Princess Muna al-Hussein Dhimitër Beratti Jean-Baptiste Billot Arved Crüger Joseph Dietrich John Dill Max von Fabeck Josef Harpe William Horwood August Kanitz Gheorghe Manoliu Živojin Mišić Hendrik Pieter Nicolaas Muller Mihailo Petrović Radomir Putnik Lt.-col. Constantin C. Roșescu, participant in Operation Autonomous Nicholas Medforth-Mills Lech Wałęsa, 2nd President of Poland George Julian Zolnay Erich Abraham Arthur Irving Andrews, American college professor. Awarded c. 1929 for "historical writings on Rumanian subjects". Henry Bond, British Army officer Kurt Lottner Kennedy, Clyde McLean Awarded July 1919 - Lieutenant 20th Battalion Media related to Order of the Crown at Wikimedia Commons
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
An aide-de-camp is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank a senior military, police or government officer, or to a member of a royal family or a head of state. An aide-de-camp may participate at ceremonial functions, the first aide-de-camp is the foremost personal aide; this is not to be confused with an adjutant, the senior administrator of a military unit. The badge of office for an aide-de-camp is the aiguillette, a braided cord in gold or other colours, worn on the shoulder of a uniform. Whether it is worn on the left or the right shoulder is dictated by protocol. In some countries, aide-de-camp is considered to be a title of honour, which confers the post-nominal letters ADC or A de C. In Argentina, three officers, are appointed as aide-de-camp to the president of the republic and three others to the minister of defense, these six being the only ones to be called "edecán", one Spanish translation for aide-de-camp. A controversy was raised in 2006, when president Néstor Kirchner decided to promote his army aide-de-camp, Lieutenant Colonel Graham to colonel, one year ahead of his class.
Upon taking office, former president Cristina Kirchner decided to have, for the first time, female officers as her aides-de-camp. In each of the armed forces, the chief of staff and other senior officers have their own adjutants of the rank of major or lieutenant colonel, or its equivalent. At unit level, the unit S-1 doubles as the unit commander's adjutant, although in recent times in many units this practice has been left only for ceremonial purposes, while for everyday duties a senior NCO performs the adjutant's activities. An aiguillette is worn on the right shoulder by aides-de-camp and adjutants as a symbol of their position, the colour of the aiguillette depending of the rank of the person they are serving. In Belgium the title of honorary aide-de-camp to the King can be granted by the royal court for services rendered. Notable people include Major General Baron Édouard Empain, Count Charles John d'Oultremont, Lieutenant General Baron Albert du Roy de Blicquy. An aide-de-camp, according to an 1816 military dictionary, was defined as an officer appointed to attend a general officer, was traditionally under the grade of captain: "The King may appoint for himself as many as he pleases, which appointment gives the rank of colonel in the army.
Generals being field marshals, have four, lieutenant generals two, major generals one". In British colonies and modern-day British overseas territories, an aide-de-camp is appointed to serve the governor and the governor general; these aides were from military branches or native auxiliaries. They were entitled to use letters A de C after their names; the emblem of the office is the aiguillette worn on their uniform. Australian Defence Force officers serve as aides-de-camp to specific senior appointments, such as the Queen, Governor-General, state governors, Chief of the Defence Force, other specified Army and Air Force command appointments. Honorary aides-de-camp to the Governor-General or state governors are entitled to the post-nominal ADC during their appointment. Officers of and above the ranks of rear admiral, major general, air vice marshal in designated command appointments are entitled to an aide de camp with the army rank of captain. Within the navy, an aide-de-camp is called a "flag lieutenant".
In 1973, the Governor of Bermuda, Sir Richard Sharples, his aide-de-camp, Captain Hugh Sayers, were murdered on the grounds of Government House. Aides-de-camp in Canada are appointed to the Queen and some members of the royal family, the governor general, lieutenant governors, to certain other appointments. In addition to the military officers appointed as full-time aides-de-camp to the governor general, several other flag/general and senior officers are appointed ex officio as honorary aides-de-camp to the governor general or Members of the Royal Family including: The Chief of the Defence Staff The commandant of the Royal Military College of Canada A senior officer of the Quebec-based Royal 22e Régiment Commanding officer, The Governor General's Horse Guards Commanding officer, Governor General's Foot Guards Commanding officer, The Canadian Grenadier Guards Commanding officer, The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada The commanding officers of Naval Reserve divisionsMost aides-de-camp wear a gold pattern aiguillette when acting in their official capacity.
All aides-de-camp wear the cypher or badge of the principal to whom they are appointed. Honorary appointees to the Queen, to the Duke of Edinburgh, or the Prince of Wales, wear the appropriate cypher on their uniform epaulette and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters ADC for the duration of their appointment. Aides-de-camp to the governor general wear the governor general's badge and aides-de-camp to a lieutenant governor wear the lieutenant governor's badge
Kingdom of Portugal
The Kingdom of Portugal was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal. It was in existence from 1139 until 1910. After 1415, it was known as the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, between 1815 and 1822, it was known as the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves; the name is often applied to the Portuguese Empire, the realm's extensive overseas colonies. The nucleus of the Portuguese state was the County of Portugal, established in the 9th century as part of the Reconquista, by Vímara Peres, a vassal of the King of Asturias; the county became part of the Kingdom of León in 1097, the Counts of Portugal established themselves as rulers of an independent kingdom in the 12th century, following the battle of São Mamede. The kingdom was ruled by the Alfonsine Dynasty until the 1383–85 Crisis, after which the monarchy passed to the House of Aviz. During the 15th and 16th century, Portuguese exploration established a vast colonial empire. From 1580 to 1640, the Kingdom of Portugal was in personal union with Habsburg Spain.
After the Portuguese Restoration War of 1640–1668, the kingdom passed to the House of Braganza and thereafter to the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. From this time, the influence of Portugal declined, but it remained a major power due to its most valuable colony, Brazil. After the independence of Brazil, Portugal sought to establish itself in Africa, but was forced to yield to the British interests, leading to the collapse of the monarchy in the 5 October 1910 revolution and the establishment of the First Portuguese Republic. Portugal was a decisive absolute monarchy before 1822, it rotated between absolute and constitutional monarchy from 1822 until 1834, was a decisive constitutional monarchy after 1834. The Kingdom of Portugal finds its origins in the County of Portugal; the Portuguese County was a semi-autonomous county of the Kingdom of León. Independence from León took place in three stages: The first on 26 July 1139 when Afonso Henriques was acclaimed King of the Portuguese internally.
The second was on 5 October 1143, when Alfonso VII of León and Castile recognized Afonso Henriques as king through the Treaty of Zamora. The third, in 1179, was the Papal Bull Manifestis Probatum, in which Portugal's independence was recognized by Pope Alexander III. Once Portugal was independent, D. Afonso I's descendants, members of the Portuguese House of Burgundy, would rule Portugal until 1383. After the change in royal houses, all the monarchs of Portugal were descended from Afonso I, one way or another, through both legitimate and illegitimate links. With the start of the 20th century, Republicanism grew in numbers and support in Lisbon among progressive politicians and the influential press; however a minority with regard to the rest of the country, this height of republicanism would benefit politically from the Lisbon Regicide on 1 February 1908. While returning from the Ducal Palace at Vila Viçosa, King Carlos I and the Prince Royal Luís Filipe were assassinated in the Terreiro do Paço, in Lisbon.
With the death of the King and his heir, Carlos I's second son would become monarch as King Manuel II. Manuel's reign, would be short-lived, ending by force with the 5 October 1910 revolution, sending Manuel into exile in Great Britain and giving way to the Portuguese First Republic. On 19 January 1919, the Monarchy of the North was proclaimed in Porto; the monarchy would be deposed a month and no other monarchist counterrevolution in Portugal has happened since. After the republican revolution in October 1910, the remaining colonies of the empire became overseas provinces of the Portuguese Republic until the late 20th century, when the last overseas territories of Portugal were handed over. Kingdom of Algarve United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves List of titles and honours of the Portuguese Crown Portuguese nobility
Order of Aviz
The Military Order of Aviz to 1910 Royal Military Order of Aviz to 1789 Knights of Saint Benedict of Aviz or Friars of Santa Maria of Évora, is a Portuguese order of chivalry, founded in Portugal in 1146. It gave its name and coat of arms to the Aviz Dynasty that ruled Portugal between 1385 and 1580; the order, as a monastic military order, was founded in emulation of such military orders as the Knights Templar, which existed in Portugal as early as 1128, received a grant from Theresa, Countess of Portugal in the year of the Council of Troyes, which confirmed their early statutes. A native order of this kind sprang up in Portugal about 1146. Afonso, the first king, gave to it the town of Évora, captured from the Moors in 1166, the Knights were first called "Friars of Santa Maria of Évora". Pedro Henriques, an illegitimate son of the King's father, was the first grand master. After the conquest of Aviz a castle erected there became the motherhouse of the order, they were called "Knights of St. Benedict of Aviz", since they adopted the Benedictine rule in 1162, as modified by John Ziritu, one of the earliest Cistercian abbots of Portugal.
Like the Knights of Calatrava in Castile, the Knights of Portugal were indebted to the Cistercians for their rule and their habit—a white mantle with a green fleur-de-lysed cross. The Knights of Calatrava surrendered some of their places in Portugal to them on condition that the Knights of Aviz should be subject to the visitation of their grand master. Hence the Knights of Aviz were sometimes regarded as a branch of the Calatravan Order, although they never ceased to have a Portuguese grand master, dependent for temporalities on the Portuguese King. At the death of King Ferdinand war broke out between Portugal; when João I, grand master of the Knights of Aviz, ascended the throne of Portugal, he forbade the knights to submit to Castilian authority, when Gonsalvo de Guzman came to Aviz as Visitor, the knights, while according him hospitality, refused to recognise him as a superior. Guzman protested, the point remained a subject of contention until the Council of Basle, when Portugal was declared to be in the wrong.
But the right of the Calatravans was never exercised, the next grand master of the Knights of Aviz, Fernando Rodrigues de Sequeira, continued to assert supreme authority over them. The mission of the military orders in Portugal seemed to end after the overthrow of Muslim domination, but the Portuguese expeditions across the sea opened up a new field for them; the conquest of Ceuta by King João I, the attacks upon Tangier under João's son Duarte were crusades, inspired by a religious spirit and sanctioned by similar Papal Bulls. The Knights of Aviz and the Knights of Christ from Order of Christ, scions of the Knights Templars, achieved deeds of valour, the former under the Prince Fernando, the latter under Henrique, brother of King Duarte. Fernando displayed a no less heroic forbearance during his six years of captivity among the Muslims, a long martyrdom which after his death placed him among the Blessed; this enthusiasm did not last, the Crusade in Africa degenerated into mere mercantile enterprise.
After the grand mastership of the order had been vested in the King in perpetuity, he availed himself of its income to reward any kind of service in the army or the fleet. If the wealth of the Knights of Aviz was not as great as that of the Knights of Christ, it was still quite large, drawn as it was from some forty-three commanderies; the religious spirit of the knights vanished, they withdrew from their clerical brothers who continued alone the conventual life. They were dispensed from their vow of celibacy by Alexander VI, who tolerated their marriage to prevent scandalous concubinage. Nobility of birth remained the chief requirement of aspirants to the mantle, a requirement confirmed by a decree of 1604. Pope Pius VI and Queen Mary I reformed the order into a secular institution. In 1834, when the civil government of Portugal abolished religious orders and monasteries, after the defeat of King Miguel in the Civil War, under the constitutional monarchy the order lost its properties; the ancient military orders were transformed by the liberal constitution and subsequent legislation into mere orders of merit.
The privileges which once had been an essential part of the membership of the old military orders ceased. In 1910, when the Portuguese monarchy ended, the Republic of Portugal abolished all the orders except the Order of the Tower and Sword. However, in 1917, at the end of the Great War, some of these orders were re-established as mere orders of merit to reward outstanding services to the state, the office of grand master belonging to the head of state, the President of the Republic; the Military Order of Aviz, together with the other Portuguese Orders of Merit, had its statutes revised on several occasions, during the First Republic in 1962, again in 1986. The Military Order of Aviz, together with the Military Orders of Christ and of St. James of the Sword form the group of the "Ancient Military Orders", governed by a chancellor and a council of eight members, appointed by the President of the Republic, to assist him as grand master in all matters concerning the administration of the order.
The order can only be conferred on military personnel, both Portuguese and foreign, for outstanding service. For Portuguese nationals, a minimum of seven years of service in the armed forces is required as well as an outstandi
Croix de guerre (Belgium)
The Croix de guerre or Oorlogskruis, both translating as "War Cross", is a military decoration of the Kingdom of Belgium established by royal decree on 25 October 1915. It was awarded for bravery or other military virtue on the battlefield; the award was reestablished on 20 July 1940 by the Belgian government in exile for recognition of bravery and military virtue during World War II. The post-1940 decoration could be awarded to units that were cited; the decoration was again reestablished by royal decree on 3 April 1954 for award during future conflicts. The World War I Croix de guerre was established by royal decree on 25 October 1915 as an award for bravery or other military virtue on the battlefield, it was only awarded to individuals. The Croix de guerre was not only awarded for bravery but for three years or more of service on the front line, or for good conduct on the battlefield, it was awarded to volunteers older than 40 or younger than 16 after a minimum of 18 months of service, to escaped prisoners of war rejoining the armed forces, to military personnel who were placed on inactive duty because of injury.
The World War I Croix de guerre was a 40mm wide bronze Maltese cross with 3mm in diameter balls at its eight points. It had a 14mm in diameter central medallion bearing the relief image of a "lion rampant" on its obverse and the royal cypher of King Albert I on its reverse. Two 37mm long crossed swords point upwards between it arms. A 14mm high "inverted V" between the two points of the top cross arm is secured to the inside of a 25mm wide by 25mm high royal crown, the ribbon's suspension ring passes through the top orb of the crown giving the cross a total height of 65mm; the World War I Croix de guerre's ribbon is red with five 2mm wide light green longitudinal stripes, three at the center separated by 3mm and one on each side 3mm from the edges. When the person being awarded the Croix de guerre was mentioned in despatches, this distinction was denoted by a device worn on the ribbon, either a small lion or a palm adorned with the monogram "A": Bronze lion: regimental level Silver lion: brigade level Gold lion: divisional level Bronze palm: Army level Silver palm: five bronze palms Gold palm: five silver palmsWhen awarded posthumously, the ribbon of the Croix de guerre was adorned with a narrow black enamel bar.
The individuals listed below were awarded the World War I Croix de guerre: BelgianHis Majesty the King. Robert, 7th Duke d'Ursel Charles de Hemricourt de Grunne Aviator Lieutenant Colonel Baron Willy Coppens Lieutenant General Jean-Baptiste Piron Cavalry Lieutenant General Baron Victor Van Strijdonck de Burkel Lieutenant General knight Antonin de Selliers de Moranville Lieutenant General Félix Wielemans Lieutenant General Baron Émile Dossin de Saint-Georges Lieutenant General Count Gérard-Mathieu Leman Lieutenant General Baron Jules Jacques de Dixmude Lieutenant General Albert Lantonnois van Rode Lieutenant General Baron Armand de Ceuninck Cavalry Lieutenant General Baron Léon de Witte de Haelen Major General Doctor Antoine Depage ′Major General Baron Edouard Empain Georges Lemaître François Ernest SamrayOther CountriesCommandant Kristian Løken Lieutenant Colonel James Neville Marshall Lieutenant Charles Nungesser Sergeant Archie Barwick Corporal Richard Reading, CdeG Major Richard Winters Private Arthur H Whitwell CdeG 1st Class, 12th Royal Fusiliers <London Gazette 15/04/1918 Page 4543> Captain William R. Strong, U.
S. Army 91st Devision <The Helena Independent 21/10/1919 Page 1> The World War II Croix de guerre was established on 20 July 1940 by the Belgian government in exile, it differed from the World War I version in its statute and slight changes to the reverse of the central medallion and the ribbon. It was still awarded to individuals, but was now authorized as a unit award. A war cross being presented to a unit was denoted by a ribbon of the war cross being affixed to the unit coloursThe Belgian fourragère was awarded by the Belgian Government to a unit, cited twice. Award of the fourragère required a specific decree of the Belgian Government; the fourragère is in the same colours as the ribbon of the World War II Croix de guerre. The Belgian fourragère was only worn by those; the World War II Croix de guerre was constructed in the same dimensions as its World War I predecessor, the only real difference being the royal cypher of King Leopold III on its reverse. The new ribbon was still red with light green stripes but there were now six, 1mm wide, positioned three on each side 2mm apart beginning 2mm from the edge of the ribbon.
The same ribbon devices were used as in World War I except the palms were now adorned with the monogram "L". The individuals listed below were awarded the World War II Croix de guerre: Lieutenant General Jean-Baptiste Piron Lieutenant General Jules Joseph Pire Cavalry Lieutenant General Sir Maximilien de Neve de Roden Cavalry Lieutenant General Baron Victor Van Strijdonck de Burkel Count Charles of Limburg Stirum Josephine Van Durme Membre de la résistance Belge François Ernest Samray Larry "Scrappy" Blumer USAAF General George Patton Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery General Harry Crerar Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld Colonel Whitfield Jack First Lieutenant Audie Murphy Major Richard D. "Dick" Winters Christopher Peto General Carl Spaatz William P. Straitiff Sgt. Allison Greenfield TSgt. Captain William A. Dwight Liberation of Bastogne Private - William John Hobson On 3 April 1954, the Belgian government re-established the Croix de guerre but this time without any reference to a specific conflict.