Stettler is a town in east-central Alberta, Canada within the County of Stettler No. 6. It is located 101 km east of Red Deer at the junction of Highway 12 and Highway 56 and 183 km south of Alberta's capital city, Edmonton; the town is nicknamed "The Heart of Alberta." Stettler was founded in 1905 and was named after Swiss immigrant Carl Stettler, who founded a settlement east of the town at Blumenau, as well as being influential in the nearby community of Castor. He served on the first town council of Stettler. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Stettler recorded a population of 5,952 living in 2,415 of its 2,607 total private dwellings, a 3.5% change from its 2011 population of 5,748. With a land area of 13.14 km2, it had a population density of 453.0/km2 in 2016. In the 2011 Census, the Town of Stettler had a population of 5,748 living in 2,350 of its 2,536 total dwellings, a 5.6% change from its 2006 adjusted population of 5,445. With a land area of 13.12 km2, it had a population density of 438.1/km2 in 2011.
The population of the Town of Stettler according to its 2008 municipal census is 5,843. The median household income in 2005 for Stettler was $56,201, below the Alberta provincial average of $63,988; the following people have served as mayor of Stettler. Bob Stewart John Brennen Redford Peeples Robin Sloan Gordon Lealke Keith Ryder James Hunter Dick Richards The town has three schools in the Clearview Public Schools -: Stettler Elementary School Stettler Middle School William E. Hay Composite High School; as well as one school in the East Central Catholic School Division Christ King Catholic School Stettler is home to Alberta Prairie Railway Excursions, a popular attraction delivering rail tours on a line running from Stettler to Big Valley, a 35 km, one-hour trip. ClimateStettler experiences a humid continental climate. Kenn Borek, founder of Kenn Borek Air, was born in Stettler Robert Raymond Cook, "last man to be hanged in Alberta" after the 1959 murder of his family Bob Falkenberg, retired professional hockey player Tricia Helfer, the actress who portrays Number Six on Battlestar Galactica, attended high school in Stettler Brian Ogilvie, retired professional hockey player List of communities in Alberta List of towns in Alberta Official website
Calgary is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta. It is situated at the confluence of the Bow River and the Elbow River in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, about 80 km east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies; the city anchors the south end of what Statistics Canada defines as the "Calgary–Edmonton Corridor". The city had a population of 1,267,344 in 2018, making it Alberta's largest city and Canada's third-largest municipality. In 2016, Calgary had a metropolitan population of 1,392,609, making it the fourth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada; the economy of Calgary includes activity in the energy, financial services and television, transportation and logistics, manufacturing, aerospace and wellness, tourism sectors. The Calgary CMA is home to the second-highest number of corporate head offices in Canada among the country's 800 largest corporations. In 2015, Calgary had the highest number of millionaires per capita of any major city in Canada.
In 1988, Calgary became the first Canadian city to host the Winter Olympic Games. Calgary has been recognized for its high quality of life. In 2018, The Economist magazine ranked Calgary the fourth-most liveable city in the world in their Global Liveability Ranking. Calgary is classed as a Beta global city. Calgary was named after Calgary on the Isle of Scotland. In turn, the name originates from a compound of kald and gart, similar Old Norse words, meaning "cold" and "garden" used when named by the Vikings who inhabited the Inner Hebrides. Alternatively, the name might be Gaelic Cala ghearraidh, meaning "beach of the meadow", or Gaelic for either "clear running water" or "bay farm"; the indigenous peoples of Southern Alberta referred to the Calgary area as "elbow", in reference to the sharp bend made by the Bow River and the Elbow River. In some cases, the area was named after the reeds that grew along the riverbanks, which were used to fashion bows. In the Blackfoot language, the area was known as Mohkínstsis akápiyoyis, meaning "elbow many houses", reflecting its strong settler presence.
The shorter form of the Blackfoot name, Mohkínstsis meaning "elbow", has been the popular Indigenous term for the Calgary area. In the Nakoda language, the area is known as Wincheesh-pah or Wenchi Ispase, both meaning "elbow". In the Nehiyaw Language, the area was known as Otoskwanik meaning "house at the elbow" or Otoskwunee meaning "elbow". In the Tsuut'ina language, the area is known as Kootsisáw meaning "elbow". In the Slavey language, the area was known as Klincho-tinay-indihay meaning "many horse town", referring to the Calgary Stampede and the city's settler heritage. There have been several attempts to revive the indigenous names of Calgary. In response to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, local post-secondary institutions have adopted "official acknowledgements" of indigenous territory using the Blackfoot name of the City, Mohkínstsis. In 2017, the Stoney Nakoda sent an application to the Government of Alberta, to rename Calgary as Wichispa Oyade meaning "elbow town", however this has been challenged by the Piikani Blackfoot.
The Calgary area was inhabited by pre-Clovis people whose presence has been traced back at least 11,000 years. The area has been inhabited by the Niitsitapi, îyârhe Nakoda, the Tsuut'ina First Nations peoples and Métis Nation, Region 3; as Mayor Naheed Nenshi describes, "There have always been people here. In Biblical times there were people here. For generations beyond number, people have come here to this land, drawn here by the water, they come here to fish. He was the first recorded European to visit the area. John Glenn was the first documented European settler in the Calgary area, in 1873. In 1875, the site became a post of the North-West Mounted Police; the NWMP detachment was assigned to protect the western plains from US whisky traders, to protect the fur trade. Named Fort Brisebois, after NWMP officer Éphrem-A. Brisebois, it was renamed Fort Calgary in 1876 by Colonel James Macleod; when the Canadian Pacific Railway reached the area in 1883, a rail station was constructed, Calgary began to grow into an important commercial and agricultural centre.
Over a century the Canadian Pacific Railway headquarters moved to Calgary from Montreal in 1996. Calgary was incorporated as a town in 1884, elected its first mayor, George Murdoch. In 1894, it was incorporated as "The City of Calgary" in what was the North-West Territories; the Calgary Police Service was established in 1885 and assumed municipal, local duties from the NWMP. The Calgary Fire of 1886 occurred on November 7, 1886. Fourteen buildings were destroyed with losses estimated at $103,200. Although no one was killed or injured, city officials drafted a law requiring all large downtown buildings to be built with Paskapoo sandstone, to prevent this from happening again. After the arrival of the railway, the Dominion Government started leasing grazing land at minimal cost; as a result of this policy, large ranching operations were established in the outlying country near Calgary. A transportation and distribution hub, Calgary became the centre of Canada's cattle marketing and meatpacking industries.
By the late 19th century, the Hud
Red Deer River
The Red Deer River is a river in Alberta and a small portion of Saskatchewan, Canada. It is a major tributary of the South Saskatchewan River and is part of the larger Saskatchewan-Nelson system that empties into Hudson Bay. Red Deer River has a total length of 724 km and a drainage area of 45,100 km2, its mean discharge is 70 m3/s. The river got its name from the translation of Was-ka-soo which means "elk river" in the Cree language. Communities located along the Red Deer River include Sundre, Red Deer and Empress, The city of Brooks, as well as Dinosaur Provincial Park, are located in the Red Deer River Basin. A glacial flood about 18,000 years ago eroded out a portion of this basin and all or most of the scenic badlands bearing the dinosaur and other Cretaceous fossils. Joseph Tyrrell discovered a huge coal seam besides large dinosaur skeletons. In June 2013, Canada, experienced heavy rainfall that triggered catastrophic flooding throughout much of the southern half of the province along the Bow, Highwood and Red Deer rivers and tributaries.
Twenty-four municipalities declared local states of emergency as water levels rose and numerous communities were placed under evacuation orders. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police stated. Over 100,000 people have been displaced throughout the region; the river originates on the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rockies, in the Sawback Range near the Skoki Valley inside Banff National Park, flows east through the mountains and foothills region. It turns north-east before Sundre and flows to an artificial reservoir named Gleniffer Lake, created in 1983 by the Dickson Dam and keeps this heading to the city of Red Deer, where it turns east, south before Stettler, it flows south with its valley protected by provincial and regional parks such as Tolman Badlands Heritage Rangeland, Dry Island Buffalo Jump Provincial Park, Dry Island Corridor and Midland Provincial Park. At Drumheller it has a south-east direction, while it flows through Dinosaur Provincial Park it turns east and flows to the Alberta/Saskatchewan border, which it crosses at Empress.
It flows for 16 km through Saskatchewan. The waters of Ewing Lake, Little Fish Lake flow into the Red Deer River. Sport fish include: northern pike, lake whitefish, yellow perch, lake sturgeon, mountain whitefish, brown trout, bull trout, rainbow trout, brook trout, cutthroat trout. Other fish include: emerald shiner, river shiner, spottail shiner, flathead chub, longnose dace, quillback carpsucker, longnose sucker, white sucker, shorthead redhorse, silver redhorse, spoonhead sculpine, lake chub, northern pearl dace, northern redbelly dace, finescale dace, fathead minnow and brook stickleback; the Red Deer River is the water source for the City of Red Deer and the surrounding area. Pipelines cross under the river and there have been leaks disrupting access to potable water. Increased water flow of the Red Deer River system during heavy rainfall in June 2008 eroded supporting soil exposing a section of Pembina Pipeline Corporation's Cremona crude oil pipeline to the Red Deer River currents. About 75 to 125 barrels of crude oil flowed upstream from the breakpoint under a Red Deer River channel, leaving an oily sheen on Gleniffer Reservoir and 6800 kilograms of oil-soaked debris.
The remediation was not completed until 2011. Heavy rains in early June 2012 caused a similar but larger leak on a Plains Midstream Canada 46-year-old pipeline on a Red Deer River tributary, Jackson Creek, Alberta near Gleniffer Lake and Dickson Dam, which spilled 1000 and 3000 barrels of light sour crude into the Red Deer River. List of crossings of the Red Deer River List of longest rivers of Canada List of rivers of Alberta List of rivers of Saskatchewan Glacial Lake Bassano
A concurrency in a road network is an instance of one physical roadway bearing two or more different route numbers. When two roadways share the same right-of-way, it is sometimes called commons. Other terminology for a concurrency includes overlap, duplex, multiplex, dual routing or triple routing. Concurrent numbering can become common in jurisdictions that allow it. Where multiple routes must pass between a single mountain crossing or over a bridge, or through a major city, it is economically and advantageous for them all to be accommodated on a single physical roadway. In some jurisdictions, concurrent numbering is avoided by posting only one route number on highway signs. Most concurrencies are a combination of two route numbers on the same physical roadway; this is practically advantageous as well as economically advantageous. Some countries allow for concurrencies to occur, others do not allow it to happen. In those nations which do permit concurrencies, it can become common. In these countries, there are a variety of concurrences.
An example of this is the concurrency of Interstate 70 and I-76 on the Pennsylvania Turnpike in western Pennsylvania. I-70 merges with the Pennsylvania Turnpike so the route number can continue east into Maryland. A triple Interstate concurrency is found in Wisconsin along the five-mile section of I-41, I-43, I-894 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin; the concurrency of I-41 and I-43 on this roadway is an example of a wrong-way concurrency. The longest Interstate highway concurrency is I-90 for 265 miles across Indiana and Ohio. There are examples of eight-way concurrencies: I-465 around Indianapolis and Georgia State Route 10 Loop around downtown Athens, Georgia. Portions of the 53-mile I-465 overlap with I-74, US Highway 31, US 36, US 40, US 52, US 421, State Road 37 and SR 67—a total of eight other routes. Seven of the eight other designations overlap between exits 46 and 47 to create an eight-way concurrency. In the United States, concurrencies are marked by placing signs for both routes on the same or adjacent posts.
The federal Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices prescribes that when mounting these adjacent signs together that the numbers will be arranged vertically or horizontally in order of precedence. The order to be used is Interstate Highways, U. S. Highways, state highways, county roads, within each class by increasing numerical value. Several states do not have any concurrencies, instead ending routes on each side of one. There are several circumstances. One example occurs along the Oklahoma–Arkansas state line. At the northern end of this border Oklahoma State Highway 20 runs concurrently with Arkansas Highway 43 and the two highways run north–south along the boundary. Concurrencies are found in Canada. British Columbia Highway 5 continues east for 12 kilometres concurrently with Highway 1 and Highway 97, through Kamloops; this stretch of road, which carries Highway 97 south and Highway 5 north on the same lanes, is the only wrong-way concurrency in British Columbia. In Ontario, the Queen Elizabeth Way and Highway 403 run concurrently between Burlington and Oakville, forming the province's only concurrency between two 400-series highways.
The concurrency was not in the original plan which intended for both the QEW and Highway 403 to run parallel to each other, as the Hamilton–Brantford and Mississauga sections of Highway 403 were planned to be linked up along the corridor now occupied by Highway 407. It was planned for the Mississauga section of Highway 403 would be renumbered as Highway 410 but this never came to pass. Highway 403 was signed concurrently along the Queen Elizabeth Way in 2002, remedying the discontinuity to avoid confusing drivers that wanted to travel between the two segments without using the toll Highway 407. Nonetheless, many surface street signs referring to that section of freeway with the QEW/Highway 403 concurrency still only use the highway's original designation of QEW, although the MTO has updated route markers on the QEW to reflect the concurrency. In the United Kingdom, routes do not run concurrently with others. Where this would occur, the roadway takes the number of only one of the routes, while the other routes are considered to have a gap and are signed in brackets.
An example is the meeting of the M60 and the M62 northwest of Manchester: the motorways coincide for the seven miles between junctions 12 and 18 but the motorway between those points is only designated as the M60. European route numbers as designated by UNECE may have concurrencies, but since the E-route numbers are unsigned and unused in the UK, the existence of these concurrencies is purely theoretical. In Sweden and Denmark, the most important highways use only the European route numbers that have cardinal directions. In Sweden the E6 and E20 run concurrently for 280 kilometres. In Denmark the E47 and E55 run concurrently for 157 kilometres. There are more shorter concurrencies. There are two stretches in Sweden
Alberta Highway 10
Alberta Provincial Highway No. 10 referred to as Highway 10, is a 22 km highway in southern Alberta, Canada that forms a part of Hoo Doo Trail. It is located wholly within the Town of Drumheller as a result of the former City of Drumheller's amalgamation with the Municipal District of Badlands No. 7 on January 1, 1998. It begins at Highway 9 in the heart of Drumheller and extends southeast along the Red Deer River where it passes through Rosedale crosses Highway 56 and travels through East Coulee, it ends by splitting off into Highways 570, 564, 569. Highway 10 is 22 km long; the route begins at a signalized intersection with Highway 9 in central Drumheller 400 m south of the Red Deer River. Continuing as four-lane Railway Avenue southeast through the river valley concurrent with Highway 56 at a speed limit of 50 km/h, the highway exits Drumheller, it becomes to a two-lane rural highway with a speed limit of 100 km/h as it passes the Drumheller Regional Landfill and jogs to within 100 m of the Red Deer River.
The highway enters Rosedale where the limit again reduces to 50 km/h. Just prior to crossing the Red Deer River, Highway 10X splits to the southwest from the combined Highway 10/56, paralleling the Rosebud River. Highway 10/56 continues across the Rosebud River, exiting Rosedale where the speed limit again increases to 100 km/h. East of Rosedale, Highway 56 splits due south toward Dalum and Hussar, while Highway 10 continues to the southeast to Cambria after which it crosses the Red Deer River. Highway 849 splits to the north en route to Michichi and Highway 10 continues east paralleling the river, now on its north bank. Highway 573 is the next to split from Highway 10, it proceeds due east while Highway 10 continues southeast through the scenic river valley to Lehigh and East Coulee. East of Lehigh, the road continues east along the north river bank to Dorothy as Highway 570, while Highway 10 veers to the south concurrent with Highway 569 to cross the river. Less than 2 km south of the river, the combined highway meets Highway 564 and the Highway 10 designation ends.
Starting from the west end of Highway 10. The entire route is in Drumheller. Highway 10X is a 5.6 km spur of Highway 10 that runs for 5.6 km, connecting Wayne with Highway 10. Following the amalgamation of the former City of Drumheller with the Municipal District of Badlands No. 7 on January 1, 1998, the entire highway falls within the Town of Drumheller. The road follows the course of the Rosebud River through a 100–150 m deep canyon. Nine bridges lead the road from one side of the river to the other, most of the bridges are paralleled by railroad bridges of a presently abandoned track that used to cart coal from the Wayne mine. At its end, Highway 10X continues as Excelsior Avenue, which crosses the Rosebud River twice more, before splitting into Range Road 195A and Township Road 280A
Speed limits in Canada
Canadian speed limits are set by different levels of government, depending on the jurisdiction under which the road falls, resulting in differences from province to province. The limits have been posted in kilometres per hour since September 1, 1977. Before when Canada used Imperial units, speed limits were in miles per hour. Statutory speed limits are default speed limits set by statute in each territory, they apply on roads. Posted speed limits may differ from the statutory speed limit. In most provinces and territories, statutory speed limits are 50 km/h in urban areas, 80 km/h in rural areas. There is no statutory speed limit for grade-separated freeways. Statutory speed limits for school zones tend to be 30 or 40 km/h in urban areas and 50 km/h in rural areas. A dash means that there is no statutory speed limit: speed limits must always be posted. "N/A" means there is no such roadway in the territory. In Ontario, speeding fines double in areas identified as "Community Safety Zones". In most Canadian provinces, as in most other locales, speed violation fines are double in construction zones, although in Ontario and Alberta, this only applies if workers are present in the construction zone.
In Ontario, as of September 2007, drivers caught speeding 50 km/h over the posted speed limit may have the vehicle that they are driving impounded for seven days, have their license suspended for seven days, have to appear before the court. For a first conviction, they face six demerit points. For a second conviction within 10 years of the first conviction, their license may be suspended for up to 10 years. In Ontario and Québec, trucks must be electronically limited to 105 km/h. Radar detectors in Canada are legal only in British Columbia and Saskatchewan, they are illegal to possess in the other provinces and all three territories. Regardless of whether they are used or not and law enforcement officers may confiscate radar detectors, operational or not, impose substantial fines in provinces where radar detectors are illegal. Quebec penalizes $500 for use of a radar detector, along with confiscation of the device. A speed limit sign reads "MAXIMUM XX", such as "MAXIMUM 80" for 80 km/h. A minimum speed sign reads "XX MINIMUM", such as "60 MINIMUM" for 60 km/h.
In British Columbia, a review of speed limits conducted in 2002 and 2003 for the Ministry of Transportation found that posted limits on investigated roads were unrealistically low for 1309 km and unrealistically high for 208 km. The report recommended increasing speed limits on multi-lane limited-access highways constructed to high design standards from 110 km/h to 120 km/h; as described in that report, the Ministry is using "... Technical Circular T-10/00 to assess speed limits; the practice considers the 85th percentile speed, road geometry, roadside development, crash history." In July 2014, speed limits were adjusted on many of the province's highways, including some which were increased to 120 km/h the highest speed limit in Canada. Speed limits on Ontario freeways were lowered from 70 miles per hour to 60 miles per hour during the 1970s energy crisis and remained at the nearest equivalent upon conversion to metric measurements in 1977. In 2013, "speed too fast / exceed speed limit" contributed to 18.4% of all collisions, while "speeding" accounted for 55.2% of all driving convictions.
An Ontario-based group is lobbying to increase speed limits from 100 km/h to 130 km/h. In 2015, the Ontario government announced a plan to reduce residential speed limits from the statutory default 50 km/h, either by reducing the statutory limit to 40 km/h or by giving municipalities the option to set their own statutory speed limits, as well as allowing posted speed limits in school zones to be lowered to 30 km/h
Wayne is a community within the Town of Drumheller, Canada. It was a hamlet within the former Municipal District of Badlands No. 7 prior to the MD's amalgamation with the former City of Drumheller on January 1, 1998. Wayne is located 10 km southeast of Drumheller's main townsite and 104 km northeast of Calgary, it lies in the Rosebud River valley and has an elevation of 695 m. It is accessed via Highway 10X from Rosedale to the north through a 150 m deep canyon in the badlands, across 11 bridges that span the Rosebud River. Wayne is within Census Division No. 5 and in the federal riding of Crowfoot. Wayne was the site of several coal mines, it is host including the Rosedeer Hotel. List of communities in Alberta