Salerno is an ancient city and comune in Campania and is the capital of the province of the same name. It is located on the Gulf of Salerno on the Tyrrhenian Sea; the city is divided into three distinct zones: the medieval sector, the 19th century sector and the more densely populated post-war area, with its several apartment blocks. Human settlement at Salerno has a vibrant past, dating back to pre-historic times; the site has been one of the most important and strategic ports on the Mediterranean sea, yielding a rich Greco-Roman heritage. It was Principality of Salerno, in the early Middle Ages. During this time, the Schola Medica Salernitana, the first medical school in the world, was founded. In the 16th century, under the Sanseverino family, among the most powerful feudal lords in southern Italy, the city became a great centre of learning and the arts, the family hired several of the greatest intellectuals of the time. In 1694, the city was struck by several catastrophic earthquakes and plagues.
After a period of Spanish rule which would last until the 18th century, Salerno became part of the Parthenopean Republic. In recent history the city hosted Victor Emmanuel III, the King of Italy, who moved from Rome in 1943 after Italy negotiated a peace with the Allies in World War II, making Salerno the home of the "government of the South" and therefore provisional government seat for six months; some of the Allied landings during Operation Avalanche occurred near Salerno. Today Salerno is an important cultural centre in Italy. A patron saint of Salerno is Saint Matthew, the Apostle, whose relics are kept here at the crypt of Salerno Cathedral; the area of what is now Salerno has been continuously settled since pre-historical times, as the discoveries of Neolithic mummy remains documents.. The Oscan-Etruscan city of Irna, is situated across the Irno river, in what is today the quarter of Fratte; this settlement represented an important base for Etruscan trade with the nearby Greek colonies of Posidonia and Elea.
It was occupied by the Samnites around the 5th century BC as consequence of the Battle of Cumae as part of the Syracusan sphere of influence. With the Roman advance in Campania, Irna began to lose its importance, being supplanted by the new Roman colony of Salernum, developing around an initial castrum; the new city, which lost its military function in favour of its role as a trade center, was connected to Rome by the Via Popilia, which ran towards Lucania and Reggio Calabria. Archaeological remains, although fragmentary, suggest the idea of a lively city. Under the Emperor Diocletian, in the late 3rd century AD, Salernum became the administrative centre of the "Lucania and Bruttii" province. In the following century, during the Gothic Wars, the Goths were defeated by the Byzantines, the Salerno returned to the control of Constantinople, before the Lombards invaded the whole peninsula. Like many coastal cities of southern Italy, Salerno remained untouched by the newcomers, falling only in 646.
It subsequently became part of the Duchy of Benevento. Under the Lombard dukes Salerno enjoyed the most splendid period of its history. In 774 Arechis II of Benevento transferred the seat of the Duchy of Benevento to Salerno, in order to elude Charlemagne's offensive and to secure for himself the control of a strategic area, the centre of coastal and internal communications in Campania. With Arechis II, Salerno became a centre of studies with its famous Medical School; the Lombard prince ordered the city to be fortified. In 839 Salerno declared independence from Benevento, becoming the capital of a flourishing principality stretching out to Capua, northern Calabria and Apulia up to Taranto. Around the year 1000 prince Guaimar IV annexed Amalfi, Sorrento and the whole duchy of Apulia and Calabria, starting to conceive a future unification of the whole southern Italy under Salerno's arms; the coins minted in the city circulated in all the Mediterranean, with the Opulenta Salernum wording to certify its richness.
However, the stability of the Principate was continually shaken by the Saracen attacks and, most of all, by internal struggles. In 1056, one of the numerous plots led to the fall of Guaimar, his weaker son Gisulf II succeeded him. In 1077 Salerno soon lost all its territory to the Normans. On 13 December 1076, the Norman conqueror Robert Guiscard, who had married Guaimar IV's daughter Sikelgaita, besieged Salerno and defeated his brother-in-law Gisulf. In this period the royal palace of Castel Terracena and the cathedral were built, science was boosted as the Schola Medica Salernitana, considered the most ancient medical institution of European West, reached its maximum splendour. At this time in the late 11th century, the city was home to 50,000 people. Salerno played a conspicuous part in the fall of the Norman Kingdom. After the Emperor Henry VI's invasion on behalf of his wife, the heiress to the kingdom, in 1191, Salerno surrendered and promised loyalty on the mere news of an incoming army.
This so disgusted the archbishop, Nicolò d'Aiello, that he abandoned the city and fled to Naples, which held out in a siege. In 1194, the situation reversed itself: Naples capitulated, along with most other cities of the Mezzogiorno, only Salerno resisted, it was pillaged, much reducing its importance and prosperity. Henry had his reasons, though, he had e
Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country. The state of Pernambuco includes the archipelago Fernando de Noronha. With an estimated population of 9.2 million people in 2013, it is the seventh most populous state of Brazil, is the sixth most densely populated and the 19th most extensive among the states and territories of the country. Its capital and largest city, Recife, is one of the most important economic and urban hubs in the country; as of 2013 estimates, Recife's metropolitan area is the fifth most populous in the country, the largest urban agglomeration in Northeast Brazil. In 1982, the city of Olinda, the second oldest city in Brazil, was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Recife, the state capital and Olinda have one of the most traditional Brazilian Carnivals. Both have architecture of Portugal, with centuries-old casarões and churches, kilometers of beaches and much culture; the proximity of the equator guarantees sunshine throughout the year, with average temperatures of 26 °C.
Pernambuco comprises a comparatively narrow coastal zone, a high inland plateau, an intermediate zone formed by the terraces and slopes between the two. Its surface is much broken by the remains of the ancient plateau, worn down by erosion, leaving escarpments and ranges of flat-topped mountains, called chapadas, capped in places by horizontal layers of sandstone. Ranges of these chapadas form the boundary lines with three states–the Serra dos Irmãos and Serra Vermelha with Piauí, the Serra do Araripe with Ceará, the Serra dos Cariris Velhos with Paraíba; the coastal area is fertile, was covered by the humid Pernambuco coastal forests, the northern extension of the Atlantic Forests of eastern Brazil. It is now placed to extensive sugar cane plantations, it has a humid climate, relieved to some extent by the south-east trade winds. The middle zone, called the agreste region, has a drier climate and lighter vegetation, including the semi-deciduous Pernambuco interior forests, where many trees lose their leaves in the dry season.
The inland region, called the sertão is high and dry, devastated by prolonged droughts. The climate is characterized by cool nights. There are two defined seasons, a rainy season from March to June, a dry season for the remaining months; the interior of the state is covered by the dry thorny scrub vegetation called caatinga. The Rio São Francisco is the main water source for this area; the climate is more mild in the countryside of the state because of the Borborema Plateau. Some towns are located more than 1000 meters above sea level, temperatures there can descend to 10 °C and 5 °C in some cities during the winter; the island of Fernando de Noronha in the Atlantic Ocean, 535 km northeast of Recife, has been part of Pernambuco since 1988. The rivers of the state include a number of small plateau streams flowing southward to the São Francisco River, several large streams in the eastern part flowing eastward to the Atlantic; the former are the Moxotó, Pajeú, Terra Nova, Boa Vista and Pontai, are dry channels the greater part of the year.
The largest of the coastal rivers are the Goiana River, formed by the confluence of the Tracunhaem and Capibaribe-mirim, drains a rich agricultural region in the north-east part of the state. A large tributary of the Uná, the Rio Jacuhipe, forms part of the boundary line with Alagoas. Inhabited by numerous tribes of Tupi-Guarani speaking indigenous peoples, Pernambuco was first settled by the Portuguese in the 16th century; the French under Bertrand d'Ornesan tried to establish a French trading post at Pernambuco in 1531. Shortly after King John III of Portugal created the Hereditary Captaincies in 1534, Pernambuco was granted to Duarte Coelho, who arrived in Nova Lusitânia in 1535. Duarte directed military actions against the French-allied Caetés Indians and upon their defeat in 1537 established a settlement at the site of a former Marin Indian village, henceforth known as Olinda, as well as another village at Igarassu. Due to the cultivation of sugar and cotton, Pernambuco was one of the few prosperous captaincies.
With the support of the Dutch West India Company, sugar mills were built and a sugar-based economy developed. In 1612, Pernambuco produced 14,000 tons of sugar. While the sugar industry relied at first on the labor of indigenous peoples the Tupis and Tapuyas, high mortality and economic growth led to the importation of enslaved Africans from the late 17th century; some of these slaves escaped the sugar-producing coastal regions and formed independent inland communities called mocambos, including Palmares. In 1630, Pernambuco, as well as many Portuguese possessions in Brazil, was occupied by the Dutch until 1654; the occupation was resisted and the Dutch conquest was only successful, it was repelled by the Spaniards. In the interim, thousands of the enslaved Africans had fled to Palmares, soon the mocambos there had grown into two significant states; the Dutch Republic, who allowed sugar production to remain in Portuguese hands, regarded suppression of Palmares impor
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Tango is a style of music in 24 or 44 time that originated among European immigrant populations of Argentina and Uruguay. It is traditionally played on a solo guitar, guitar duo, or an ensemble, known as the orquesta típica, which includes at least two violins, piano, double bass, at least two bandoneóns. Sometimes guitars and a clarinet join the ensemble. Tango may include a vocalist. Tango music and dance have become popular throughout the world. Though present forms developed in Argentina and Uruguay from the mid 19th century, there are records of 19th and early 20th century Tango styles in Cuba and Spain, while there is a flamenco Tangos dance that may share a common ancestor in a minuet-style European dance. All sources stress the influence of the African communities and their rhythms, while the instruments and techniques brought in by European immigrants in the 20th century played a major role in its final definition, relating it to the Salon music styles to which Tango would contribute back at a stage.
Angel Villoldo's 1903 tango El Choclo was first recorded no than 1906 in Philadelphia. Villoldo himself recorded it in Paris. Villoldo had to record in Paris. Early tango was played by immigrants in Buenos Aires later in Montevideo; the first generation of tango players was called "Guardia Vieja". It took time to move into wider circles: in the early 20th century it was the favorite music of thugs and gangsters who visited the brothels, in a city with 100,000 more men than women; the complex dances that arose from such rich music reflects how the men would practice the dance in groups, demonstrating male sexuality and causing a blending of emotion and aggressiveness. The music was played on portable instruments: flute and violin trios, with bandoneón arriving at the end of the 19th century; the organito, a portable player-organ, broadened the popularity of certain songs. Eduardo Arolas was the major instrument of the bandoneón's popularization, with Vicente Greco soon standardizing the tango sextet as consisting of piano, double bass, two violins and two bandoneóns.
Like many forms of popular music, tango was associated with the underclass, attempts were made to restrict its influence. In spite of the scorn, like writer Ricardo Güiraldes, were fans. Güiraldes played a part in the international popularization of tango, which had conquered the world by the end of World War I, wrote a poem which describes the music as the "all-absorbing love of a tyrant, jealously guarding his dominion, over women who have surrendered submissively, like obedient beasts". One song that would become the most known of all tango melodies dates from this time; the first two sections of La Cumparsita were composed as a march instrumental in 1916 by teen-aged Gerardo Matos Rodríguez of Uruguay. Besides the global influences mentioned above, early Tango was locally influenced by Payada, the Milonga from Argentine and Uruguay Pampas, Uruguayan Candombe. In Argentina there was Milonga "from the country" since the mid eighteenth century; the first "payador" remembered is Santos Vega. The origins of Milonga seem to be in the Pampa with strong African influences though the local Candombe.
It is believed that this candombe existed and was practised in Argentina since the first slaves were brought into the country. Although the word "tango" to describe a music/dance style had been printed as early as 1823 in Havana, the first Argentinian written reference is from an 1866 newspaper, that quotes the song "La Coqueta". In 1876 a tango-candombe called "El Merenguengué" became popular, after its success in the Afro-Argentines carnival held in February of that year, it is played with harp and flute in addition to the Afro-Argentine Candombe drums. This has been considered as one of the strong points of departure for the birth and development of Tango; the first "group" of tango, was composed of two Afro-Argentines, "the black" Casimiro Alcorta and "the mulatto" Sinforoso. They did small concerts in Buenos Aires since the early 1870s until the early 1890s. "The black Casimiro" is author of "Entrada Prohibida" signed by the brothers Teisseire, "la yapa". It must be said, though that this duo was the author and performer of many of the early tangos now listed as "anonymous", since at that time were not used to signing works.
Before the 1900s, the following tangos were being played: "El queco", "Señora casera", "Andate a la recoleta", "El Porteñito", "Tango Nº1", "Dame la lata", "Que polvo con tanto viento", "No me tires con la tapa de la olla", "El Talar". One of the first women to write tango scores was Eloísa D’Herbil, she wrote such pieces as Y a mí qué, Che no calotiés! and others, between 1872 and 1885. The first is in the Museum of the City Score Rosario. On the other hand, the first copyrighted tango score is "El entrerriano", released in 1896 and printed in 1898 – by Rosendo Mendizabal, an Afro-Argentine; as for the transiti
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Milonga is a musical genre that originated in the Río de la Plata areas of Argentina and Uruguay. It was popular in the 1870s, it was derived from an earlier style of singing known as the payada de contrapunto. The song was set to a lively 24 tempo. "Milonga is an excited habanera." The original habanera divided into four pulses, in a standard two-four where every note was stressed. In becoming milonga, all four notes turned strong, as tempo was doubled; the strength of the first beat weakened the fourth giving an waltz-like feel to milonga: one-two-three, one-two-three. Habanera is a slower, more explicit sounding one, three-four. At least one modern tango pianist believes. Milonga has a syncopated beat, consisting of 8 beats with accents on the 1st, 4th, 5th, 7th beats. Regular 24 2 3 4 6 7 8 Milonga 2 3 6 8, sometimes 3 6 8 332 2 3 5 6 8 Over time, dance steps and other musical influences were added giving rise to the tango. By the 1890s musicians were writing in a structured form, something more than thinly disguised milongas or tangos andaluces, would become the developed tango.
Uruguayan and Argentine artists known for their milonga compositions and interpretations include Roberto Firpo, Angel D'Agostino, Pedro Laurenz, Francisco Canaro, Rodolfo Biagi, Juan d'Arienzo, Edgardo Donato, Gabino Ezeiza, Aníbal Troilo, Lucio Demare, Domingo Federico, Angel Vargas, Mariano Mores, Alfredo Zitarrosa, Francisco Lomuto, Ástor Piazzolla and Carlos Di Sarli. These artists are from the Golden era of tango. Los Moonlights released a song entitled "Milonga de pelo largo" on Moonlights. Argentine composer and pianist Fernando Otero has based many of his orchestral and chamber works on this rhythm,creating compositions for Symphonic Orchestra, String Quartet and Jazz Combos. Kevin Johansen is a modern Argentine rock artist who has a number of songs that combine folkloric and pop music with a milonga rhythm. Argentine Tango Chamarrita Milonga Tango Tango music Vals Video recordings"Milonga sin Palabras" on YouTube Played by Eckhart Duo
Julio de Caro
Julio de Caro was an Argentine composer and conductor prominent in the Tango genre. His father opened a conservatory in the San Telmo district, in 1913, soon becoming one of the city's best known sources for music, instruments and lessons, he and his brother, were both taught the piano and violin, respectively. Against his father's wishes, Julio obtained a spot as a second violinist at the Lorea Theatre for a 1915 performance of a zarzuela. Despite his father's punishment and objections, the brothers began attending Buenos Aires' popular tango recitals; some of these early influences included bandleaders Eduardo Arolas, Juan Carlos Cobián, Roberto Firpo. At his friends' prompting, de Caro rose to the stage during a tango performance at the Palais de Glace, an elegant multi-purpose venue, in 1917. Granted an instrument by Firpo's violinist, de Caro's performance elicited a standing ovation, as well as Eduardo Arolas' offer for a permanent spot in his orchestra; the elder de Caro resisted it, the talented young musician resorted to stealth to join Arolas' orchestra, for which he wrote his first tango, Mon beguin.
His father forced the 18-year-old out of the house, a drastic move that pushed Francisco to join his brother. The two traveled with a success in both Argentina and neighboring Uruguay; the brothers contributed to its fortunes, composing - among other standards in tango: Mala pinta, Mi encanto, Pura labia, Don Antonio, A palada, Era buena la paisana, Percanta arrepentida, Gringuita y La cañada. A business disagreement led de Caro and pianist José María Rizzuti to leave Arolas' group in 1919, they formed a quartet with bandoneonist Pedro Maffia and violinist José Rosito, with whom they performed to acclaim at a café facing the Argentine Supreme Court. The group separated in 1920, de Caro and Rizzuti joined bandleader Osvaldo Fresedo, with whom they would tour in the United States. De Caro relocated to Montevideo, where he joined Minotto Di Cicco's orchestra, he was reunited with Maffia in Buenos Aires under Juan Carlos Cobián's direction, in 1923. His marriage ended, shortly afterwards. Cobián's decision to follow a love interest to New York City led to the de Caro brothers' being reunited in need of a band, at the end of 1923.
Their success at a high society New Year's Eve ball led to lucrative contracts in popular downtown cafés and for a new medium: radio. The Julio de Caro Orchestra received a recording contract from RCA Victor and, in April 1925, performed for Edward, the Prince of Wales. U. S. jazz bandleader Paul Whiteman introduced de Caro to the Stroh violin that year. The device had been invented for radio performances for its ability to project sound above the rest of the orchestra, the conductor soon found it an indispensable tool; the renowned bandleader composed numerous pieces in honor of some of the prominent figures in Argentine life that attended his performances, notably chief surgeon Enrique Finochietto and President Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear. The orchestra toured France by invitation, in 1931, they performed at Nice's Palais de la Méditerranée, for Prince Umberto di Savoia, for the Rothschilds' galas, for Paramount Studios in the making of Luces de Buenos Aires. The orchestra remained successful in Argentina, debuting at the nation's leading opera house, the Colón Theatre, in 1935, at the Teatro Opera, where they presented a comprehensive "Evolution of the Tango" - leading listeners through its development from 1870, onwards.
A surprise visit by the brothers' aging parents following one of these performances led to the family's reconciliation. His orchestra continued its prominence among tango fans for years, introducing young talent such as vocalist Edmundo Rivero, for instance, his audiences declining, Julio de Caro retired from his orchestra in 1954, however. He remarried in 1959 and returned to a recording studio only in 1975, collaborating with author Ernesto Sábato, composer Ben Molar and arranger Luis Stazo and others to make Los 14 de Julio de Caro, he was honored by the national government with a declaration of December 11 as "National Tango Day. Julio de Caro died in the seaside resort city of Mar del Plata, on March 11, 1980, at age 80, he was interred at Buenos Aires' Chacarita Cemetery, beside his brother, Francisco. Other notable relatives include his cousin, the poet Julia de Caro and his grand-niece, the American Fencer Natalie Julia Vie. Julio de Caro on todotango.com Julio de Caro on tango.info