Constitution of Argentina
The Constitution of Argentina is the basic governing document of Argentina, the primary source of existing law in Argentina. Its first version was written in 1853 by a Constitutional Assembly gathered in Santa Fe, the doctrinal basis was taken in part from the United States Constitution, it was reformed in 1860, 1866, 1898, 1949, 1957, the current version is the reformed text of 1994. The first attempt to divide political power in Argentina was during the government created after the May Revolution: the Primera Junta could not create new taxes without the Cabildo's authorization. Many revolutionary leaders, led by Mariano Moreno, wanted to declare independence and to make a constitution in order to build an independent state. In October 1811, the Junta Grande, which succeeded the Primera Junta, enacted the Regulation for the Division of Power, but it was not accepted by the executive power; the freedom of press and the Decree on Individual Security were accepted by November. In 1813, the General Constitutional Assembly was intended to declare a constitution but it could only declare the freedom for slaves' sons.
In 1819 and 1826 were declared two constitutions that failed because of the disagreement between Federalists and Unitarians. Many other constitutional pacts existed between 1820 and 1853; the most important of them are: the Treaty of Pilar, the Treaty of the Cuadrilátero, the Federal Pact, the Palermo Protocol, the Treaty of San Nicolás. The Federal Pact urged all the provinces to call a General Federal Congress, however this would have limited Juan Manuel de Rosas's power, the most powerful province governor, so the Congress was never called; when Rosas was defeated, in 1852, the Treaty of San Nicolás called the Constitutional Congress that, in Santa Fe, on May 1, 1853, sworn to make effective the federal Constitution. The Province of Buenos Aires left the Argentine Confederation until 1859; the first constitutional amendment to the original 1853 text was performed in 1860 after Buenos Aires rejoined the Argentine Confederation. It consisted of several changes to many of the original articles.
One of the major changes was the renaming of the state: according to the reform, the country would be named República Argentina and, for legal purposes, Nación Argentina, replacing the older Argentine Confederation denomination in all articles of the constitution. Another important inclusion was the constitutional recognizing of Buenos Aires' exclusive rights guaranteed by the Treaty of San Nicolás; the following reform was done in 1866 and established that exportation and importation taxes would be destined to the National Treasury indefinitely, no longer until 1866 as the 1860 reform did. In 1898, another minor constitutional amendment was approved, it allowed a more flexible ratio for proportional apportionment in the Chamber of Deputies and set the number of ministries to eight. During Juan Domingo Perón's government the Argentine Constitution of 1949 was passed, a major revision of the constitution, its goal was to modernize and adapt the text to the twentieth century's concepts of democracy, as for example, including a list of social rights including better working conditions for the working class, right to good education, etc.
This was included into the principles stated on the Preamble. It permitted the indefinite reelection of the president. During the military regime known as the Revolución Libertadora that had deposed Perón's government in 1955, in 1957 and before the elections that had to be held in 1958, a Constitutional Convention was elected to reform the constitution; this reform does not include 1949's, implicitly annulling it. The only changes done were to include a summary of Perón's social articles known as article 14 bis and to establish the necessity to have a Labour and Social Security Code. In 1972, a "Constitutional Amendment" done by the military government led by general Alejandro A. Lanusse reformed the 1957 text; this had to last until 1977 but its application could be extended until 1981 if no Constitutional Convention in 1976 decided either to accept it or reject it definitively. This amendment was not applied by the democratic government of Perón in his third term nor by his wife Isabel Perón acting as President after his death.
Some changes were related to the size of Senate and one-term reelection of president and vice-president. Reduced presidential and deputies' terms all to four years; the last version of the Argentine Constitution was done by Carlos Saúl Menem in 1994. It included many of the modifications from the 1972 "amendment" as the growth of the Senate size, one-term presidential reelection and reduction of its term to four years, it made Buenos Aires City an autonomous entity with its own authorities. Other changes were done to ensure a softer presidentialist regime, the inclusion of a new chapter into the Bill of Rights related to politics and environment, the adoption of a much faster legislative procedure for creating laws. In addition with the 1994 constitutional reform, the requirement of belonging to the Roman Catholic faith in order to be President or Vice President of the Republic, was abolished; the Argentine Constitution has four major division types. For example, the First Part is divided into Chapters but not into Sections.
The scheme of the Constitution is the following: Pream
ARA Presidente Sarmiento
ARA Presidente Sarmiento is a museum ship in Argentina built as a training ship for the Argentine Navy and named after Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, the seventh President of Argentina. She is considered to be the last intact cruising training ship from the 1890s; the ship was built for the Argentine Naval Academy. ARA Presidente Sarmiento made thirty seven annual training cruises including six circumnavigations of the globe; the ship was retired as a seagoing vessel in 1938, but continued to serve without sails on Argentine rivers around 1950 and as a stationary training ship until 1961. She is now maintained in her original 1898 appearance as a museum ship in Puerto Madero near downtown Buenos Aires. In addition to its sailing rig this ship includes a large triple expansion steam engine supplied by two coal-fired boilers exhausting through the rear stack. An additional auxiliary boiler exhausting through the forward stack provides steam for other than propulsion, including two engines driving electrical generators on the main deck.
A single coal bunker is positioned between the main and auxiliary boiler rooms A three-wheel chain drive allows up to six helmsmen to control the rudder. Such a crew of operators was not always required due to the inclusion of an electric servo-drive for normal operation but was useful for the training of cadets. Four five inch mounts are positioned two on each side, with additional smaller weapons. Documentation on the ship shows these having had some armor. A single torpedo scuttle using gravity expulsion exited at the bow; the scuttle has been removed and the exit port welded shut, but in the current museum configuration a torpedo is suspended in a position on the main deck ready to enter the former scuttle entrance. Additional torpedo storage is provided below this main deck. ARA Uruguay, a smaller historic tall ship moored nearby in basin number three. Argentine peso moneda nacional. Google Maps location of the Presidente Sarmiento "Buque Museo Fragata Presidente Sarmiento". Armada Argentina.
Retrieved December 26, 2009. Google translation of above
Dr. Juan Hortensio Quijano was the Vice President of Argentina under President Juan Perón from 1946 until his 1952 death in Buenos Aires. Quijano was born in Corrientes Province in 1884, enrolled at the University of Buenos Aires, where he graduated in 1908 and received a juris doctor in 1919, he became a prominent Corrientes Province supporter of the leader of the reformist UCR, Hipólito Yrigoyen, at a time when local politics were dominated by the Autonomist and Liberal parties. His 1918 UCR candidacy for the Corrientes governorship was defeated, he joined the legal department of the Banco de la Nación Argentina. Quijano broke with Yrigoyen's wing of the UCR and joined the opposition "Anti-Personalist" UCR, he left a thriving law practice in Corrientes in 1920 to invest in a logging venture in neighboring Chaco Province, was named head of the Rural Society of Resistencia, in 1936. He parlayed his returns into the establishment of the Banco Popular; the coup d'état of 1943 led to the advent of a populist leader, Col. Juan Perón, whose labor law reform platform Quijano and others in the UCR supported.
This support helped lead to Quijano's August 4, 1945 appointment as Interior Minister, a powerful position in Argentina at the time for its oversight of law enforcement. Perón's success in an October 17 power struggle led to Quijano's establishment of the "Renewal Group," a faction of the UCR endorsing Perón for the upcoming February 1946 elections; these efforts earned Quijano Perón's invitation as his running mate on the Labor Party ticket, comfortably elected. As Vice President, Quijano earned plaudits for his negotiations with neighboring Brazil, resulting in a temporary reintroduction of the ABC Pact that had included the two nations and Chile, earlier in the 20th century. Failing health, had forced Quijano to request his exclusion from the 1951 Perón ticket, his prospective replacement, First Lady Eva Perón, was in poor health and, after she pleaded with him he reluctantly agreed to join the Peronist ticket. Elected overwhelmingly in November 1951, Quijano died before being re-inaugurated.
At the inauguration two months Evita, given the title Spiritual Chief of the Argentine Nation but was herself soon to die as well, took his place. In the 1996 film Evita, he was played by Brian Cobby
Ángel Borlenghi was an Argentine labour leader and politician associated with the Peronist movement. Ángel Gabriel Borlenghi was born in Buenos Aires to Italian immigrants, in 1904. Becoming a retail clerk by profession, Borlenghi's socialist ideology soon led him to join the Commercial Employees' Federation, his position in the union rose after his fellow socialists advanced the 1926 formation of the Argentine Workers' Confederation, Borlenghi was named Secretary General of the FEC when the COA fused with another, leftist union to become the CGT, in 1930. Borlenghi was named director of the Interunion Committee, thus given the twin responsibilities of coordinating policy among the myriad unions in the CGT, as well as resolving conflict as it appeared; the CGT presented its first platform in 1931, drafting a program calling for a guaranteed freedom to organize, greater pay and benefits, a formal say in public policy, among other reforms. Sparing use of strike actions and intense lobbying on Borlenghi's part as the Interunion Committee head, resulted in Congressional passage of the landmark Law 11729, in 1936.
This success arrived during a period of growing divisions in the CGT, however. As head of the largest sector within the CGT at the time, Borlenghi helped separate the more socialist sectors from the rest in 1936, leaving them to reconstitute the smaller USA union. Further contention led to Borlenghi's joining municipal workers' leader Francisco Pérez Leirós into a "CGT Number 2," in 1942; the following June, conservative President Ramón Castillo was deposed in a nationalist coup d'état. The removal of the mercantilist and politically fraudulent Castillo regime elicited initial, positive reactions from both CGTs, Borlenghi engaged in policy discussions with Alberto Gilbert, the new Interior Minister. Gilbert, promptly allied the new regime with the less combative "CGT Number 1," ordering the dissolution of the CGT-2; the decision did not permanently divide the labor movement, because one of the coup's leaders, Lt. Col. Domingo Mercante, was tied through family connections to the railway workers' union.
Its leader, José Domenech, was the Secretary General of the CGT-1. The Railway Union's chief counsel, Juan Atilio Bramuglia, seized this opening to create a close alliance with the government, was joined in these talks by Borlenghi and Pérez Leirós; the negotiations were soon joined by the Secretary of Labor and personal friend of Mercante's: Col. Juan Perón. Union representatives found in Perón a sympathetic and charismatic voice through whom they could be a strong influence in government policy. Only around 10 percent of Argentina's labor force was unionized at the time, many union leaders saw a unique opportunity in Perón, who obtained their support for his request to the president that the Labor Secretariat by made into a cabinet-level ministry. Others supported the idea of backing Perón in a Labor Party ticket, outright. Borlenghi was opposed to such a mutually-binding endorsement, though by 1945, the Labor Minister's record had won him over, as well as much of the now-reunified CGT. Perón rise to prominence fed rivalries within the regime, which had him resign as Vice President and arrested on October 9.
Convinced that he had been permanently sidelined, a meeting of 24 union leaders resolved to create their Labor Party, to proceed with or without Perón. There were two abstentions, however: telecommunications workers' leader Luis Gay and Borlenghi, they joined Perón's mistress, Eva Duarte, in organizing mass demonstrations for his release and by October 17, they had obtained most other unions' support for the measure. The successful mobilization led to the charter of the Labor Party on October 24 - with Perón as its candidate. Borlenghi, still affiliated to the Socialist Party of Argentina, resigned his membership in it when the party joined an opposition alliance, the Democratic Union. Handily elected in February 1946, Perón rewarded Borlenghi's tested support and organizational skill with an appointment as Interior and Justice Ministry; the post would give him purview over the courts, law enforcement and vetting power over most political strategy. He moved to advance the president's agenda by organizing a Labor Party convention for the purpose of re-chartering it as the Peronist Party, in 1947, ordered the purchase of a majority stake in Haynes Publishing, from which El Laborista, Mundo Peronista and an array of other magazines were published as government mouthpieces.
Through his control of the nation's largest police department, the 25,000-man "Policía Federal," Borlenghi had numerous opposition figures jailed. Some of the most intransigent were taken to a basement in the newly expanded Ramos Mejía Hospital, where torture became routine; the president's confidence in Borlenghi was buttressed by the creation of the Federal Security Council in 1951, which included transferring the National Gendarmery and the Naval Prefecture from military control. Faced with such measures, some among the opposition began making conciliatory overtures to the powerful Interior Minister. Others soon followed, though the Peronists' main opposition, the centrist UCR, refused this approach, leading Borlenghi to publicly blame them for the continuation of the state of siege declared in
The Argentine Senate is the upper house of the National Congress of Argentina. The National Senate was established by the Argentine Confederation on July 29, 1854, pursuant to Articles 46 to 54 of the 1853 Constitution. There are three for the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires; the number of senators per province was raised from two to three following the 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution, the change took effect following the May 14, 1995, general elections. Senators are elected to six-year terms by direct election on a provincial basis, with the party with the most votes being awarded two of the province's senate seats and the second-place party receiving the third seat. Senators were indirectly elected to nine-year terms by each provincial legislature; these provisions were abrogated by a 1994 constitutional amendment, direct elections to the Senate took effect in 2001. One-third of the members are elected every two years. One-third of the provinces hold senatorial elections every two years.
The Vice President of the Republic is ex officio President of the Senate, with a casting vote in the event of a tie. In practice, the Provisional President presides over the chamber most of the time; the Senate must obtain this being an absolute majority. It has the power to approve bills passed by the Chamber of Deputies, call for joint sessions with the Lower House or special sessions with experts and interested parties, submit bills for the president's signature; the Senate must introduce any changes to federal revenue sharing policies, ratify international treaties, approve changes to constitutional or federal criminal laws, as well as confirm or impeach presidential nominees to the cabinet, the judiciary, the armed forces, the diplomatic corps, among other federal posts. There are twenty-four standing committees made up of fifteen members each, namely: Agreements Constitutional Affairs Foreign Affairs and Worship Justice and Criminal Affairs General Legislation Budget and Finance Administrative and Municipal Affairs National Defense Domestic Security and Drug Trafficking National Economy and Investment Industry and Trade Regional Economies, Micro and Medium Enterprises Labor and Social Security Agriculture, Cattle Raising and Fishing Education, Culture and Technology Rights and Guarantees Mining and Fuels Health and Sports Infrastructure and Transport Systems and Freedom of Speech Environment and Human Development Population and Human Development Federal Revenue Sharing Tourism.
According to Section 55 of the Argentine Constitution, candidates for the Argentine Senate must: be at least 30 years old have been a citizen of Argentina for six years be native to the province of his office, or have been a resident of that province for two years. See List of current members of the Argentine SenateAll data from official website; the current members of the Senate were elected in 2013, 2015 and 2017. The titular President of the Senate is the Vice President of Argentina. However, day to day leadership of the Senate is exercised by the Provisional President. Current leadership positions include: List of current Argentine senators Argentine Chamber of Deputies List of former Argentine Senators List of legislatures by country senado.gov.ar – Senate of Argentina
United States Naval Academy
The United States Naval Academy is a four-year coeducational federal service academy adjacent to Annapolis, Maryland. Established on 10 October 1845, under Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, it is the second oldest of the United States' five service academies, educates officers for commissioning into the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps; the 338-acre campus is located on the former grounds of Fort Severn at the confluence of the Severn River and Chesapeake Bay in Anne Arundel County, 33 miles east of Washington, D. C. and 26 miles southeast of Baltimore. The entire campus is a National Historic Landmark and home to many historic sites and monuments, it replaced Philadelphia Naval Asylum, in Philadelphia, that served as the first United States Naval Academy from 1838 to 1845 when the Naval Academy formed in Annapolis. Candidates for admission must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination from a Member of Congress. Students are referred to as midshipmen. Tuition for midshipmen is funded by the Navy in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation.
1,200 "plebes" enter the Academy each summer for the rigorous Plebe Summer. About 1,000 midshipmen graduate. Graduates are commissioned as ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps, but a small number can be cross-commissioned as officers in other U. S. services, the services of allied nations. The United States Naval Academy has some of the highest paid graduates in the country according to starting salary; the academic program grants a bachelor of science degree with a curriculum that grades midshipmen's performance upon a broad academic program, military leadership performance, mandatory participation in competitive athletics. Midshipmen are required to adhere to the academy's Honor Concept; the United States Naval Academy's campus is located in unincorporated Anne Arundel County, adjacent to Annapolis, at the confluence of the Severn River and the Chesapeake Bay. In its 2016 edition, U. S. News & World Report ranked the U. S. Naval Academy as the No. 1 public liberal arts college and tied for the 12th best overall liberal arts college in the U.
S. In the category of High School Counselor Rankings of National Liberal Arts Colleges, the Naval Academy is tied for No. 1 with the U. S. Military Academy and the U. S. Air Force Academy, is tied for the No. 5 spot for Best Undergraduate Engineering program at schools where doctorates not offered. In 2016, Forbes ranked the U. S. Naval Academy as No. 24 overall in its report "America's Top Colleges". Prospective candidates must either be nominated by certain public officials—or be the child of a Medal of Honor recipient, which entitles a qualified candidate to automatic admission without nomination. Nominations may be made by members of and delegates to Congress, the President or Vice-President, the Secretary of the Navy or certain other sources. Candidates must pass a physical fitness test and a thorough medical exam as part of the application process; the class of 2020 had 1,355 offers of appointment made to 17,043 applicants. In the 21st century, there have been about 1,200 students in each new class of plebes.
The U. S. government pays for tuition and board. Midshipmen receive monthly pay of $1,017.00, as of 2015. From this amount, pay is automatically deducted for the cost of uniforms, supplies and other miscellaneous expenses. Midshipmen only receive a portion of their total pay in cash while the rest is released during "firstie" year. Midshipmen fourth-class to midshipmen second-class receive monthly stipends of $100, $200, $300, respectively. Midshipmen first-class receive the difference between pay and outstanding expenses. Students at the naval academy are addressed as an official military rank and paygrade; as midshipmen are in the United States Navy, starting from the moment that they raise their hands and affirm the oath of office at the swearing-in ceremony, they are subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice, of which USNA regulations are a part, as well as to all executive policies and orders formulated by the Department of the Navy. The same term covers both females. Upon graduation, most naval academy midshipmen are commissioned as ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps and serve a minimum of five years after their commissioning.
If they are selected to serve as a pilot, they will serve 8–11 years minimum from their date of winging, if they are selected to serve as a naval flight officer they will serve 6–8 years. Foreign midshipmen are commissioned into the armed forces of their native countries; the most recent graduating class, that of 2017, inducted 1,200 midshipmen in 2013 and graduated 1,053 in 2017. 768 were commissioned as 259 as Marine 2nd Lieutenants. This graduating class was composed of 242 women and 811 men Since 1959, midshipmen have been eligible for an interservice commission in the Air Force or Army, provided they meet that service's eligibility standards. Starting in 2004, midshipmen became eligible to seek Coast Guard commissions; every year, a small number of graduates do this -- four. In 2017, two members of the class were commissioned as Air Force 2nd Lieutenants. A small number of foreign students are admitted each year. In 2017, 17 foreign midshipmen were graduated. At the beginning of their second-class year, midshipmen make their commitment known as signing their "2-for-7."
This represents a commitment to f
Pedro Pablo Ramírez
Pedro Pablo Ramirez Menchaca was de facto President of Argentina from June 7, 1943 to February 24, 1944. He was the leader of Guardia Nacional, Argentina's Fascist militia. After graduating from the Argentine military college in 1904 as a second lieutenant, Ramírez was promoted in 1910 as first lieutenant of the cavalry. In 1911, he was sent to Germany for training with the Fifth Hussars cavalry in Kaiser Wilhelm's Prussian Army, he returned home in 1913, with a German wife, prior to the outbreak of World War I. Advancing in rank as a specialist in cavalry tactics, he assisted fellow General José Félix Uriburu in a authoritarian coup that deposed Hipólito Yrigoyen in 1930. Ramírez was sent to Rome to observe Mussolini's army until his return in 1932; when Uriburu set free elections and died, General Ramírez worked behind the scenes to plan a return of fascism to Argentina. Over the next several years, he organized the Milicia Nacionalista, authored a program for a state ruled by the militia. In 1942, Ramírez was appointed as War Minister by President Ramón Castillo, began to reorganize the Argentine Army.
At the same time, the Guardia Nacional joined with another party to form "Recuperacion Nacional," a fascist political party. Castillo fired Ramírez following a cabinet meeting on May 18, 1943. Two weeks on June 4, 1943, Ramírez assisted Arturo Rawson in overthrowing Castillo's government, was again made Minister of War. Three days on June 7 Ramírez forced Rawson's resignation and maintained Argentina's neutrality during World War II. Argentina was torn by between Britain, who wanted the country to stay neutral, the US, who wanted it to join the Allies. Ramírez stayed neutral and the United States refused requests for Lend-Lease aid. Argentina declared war on Germany and Japan during the government of Edelmiro Farrell. Despite having been brought to power through a coup d'état, Peronist historiography never calls him a dictator. Ramirez makes a brief appearance in the film Evita during the song "The Lady's Got Potential", which depicts Juan Peron's rise to power. Here he is depicted as a elderly man by Hector Malamud.
Mendelevich, Pablo. El Final. Buenos Aires: Ediciones B. ISBN 978-987-627-166-0. Pedro Pablo Ramírez at Find a Grave Newspaper clippings about Pedro Pablo Ramírez in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics