Pine Barrens (New Jersey)
The Pine Barrens known as the Pinelands or the Pines, is a forested area of coastal plain stretching across more than seven counties of New Jersey. The name "pine barrens" refers to the area's sandy, nutrient-poor soil. Although European settlers could not cultivate their familiar crops there, the unique ecology of the Pine Barrens supports a diverse spectrum of plant life, including orchids and carnivorous plants; the area is notable for its populations of rare pygmy pitch pines and other plant species that depend on the frequent fires of the Pine Barrens to reproduce. The sand that composes much of the area's soil is referred to by the locals as sugar sand; the Pine Barrens remains rural and undisturbed despite its proximity to the sprawling metropolitan cities of Philadelphia and New York City, in the center of the densely populated Boston-Washington Corridor on the Eastern Seaboard. The travelled Garden State Parkway and Atlantic City Expressway traverse sections of the eastern and southern Pine Barrens, respectively.
The Pine Barrens territory helps recharge the 17 trillion gallon Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer containing some of the purest water in the United States. As a result of all these factors, in 1978 Congress passed legislation to designate 1.1 million acres of the Pine Barrens as the Pinelands National Reserve to preserve its ecology. A decade it was designated by the United Nations as an International Biosphere Reserve. Development in the Pinelands National Reserve is controlled by an independent state/federal agency, the New Jersey Pinelands Commission; the Pinelands Reserve contains the Wharton, Brendan T. Byrne and Bass River state forests; the reserve includes two National Wild and Scenic Rivers: the Maurice and the Great Egg Harbor. John McPhee's 1967 book The Pine Barrens focuses on the ecology of the region. Between 170–200 million years ago, the Atlantic coastal plain began to form; the Barrens formed in the southernmost, last, area to be formed in New Jersey, 1.8 to 65 mya, the Tertiary era.
Over millions of years, the rising and falling of the coastline deposited minerals underground, culminating with the end of the last ice age about 12,000 years ago, when plants and trees began growing in what is now New Jersey. Forest fires have been a common occurrence before habitation by humans. Fire has played a major ecological role in the Pinelands, the ecotypes "suggest that short fire intervals may have been typical in the Pine Plains for many centuries, or millennia." Around 10,000 years ago, the ancestors of the Lenape people first inhabited the Pine Barrens. The fire regime before European settlement is poorly understood. Scholars know that the Lenape tribes burned the woods in the spring and fall to reduce underbrush, improve plant yields and hunting conditions; the Pine Barrens, with its sandy soil, did not attract a permanent agriculture population. The area's sparse population encouraged a long-lasting attitude that forest fires should be set for local benefit—even on the lands of others.
For instance, it was profitable for charcoal burners to set fires deliberately, in order to make the trees useless for any purpose other than charcoal making purchase the trees for a discount. During the 17th century, the area, now New Jersey was explored and settled by the Swedish and Dutch, who developed whaling and fishing settlements along the Delaware River; the English claimed the area as of 1606 under their London Company, the Dutch abandoned their claim to the English in 1664. The first shipbuilding operations began in the Pine Barrens in 1688, utilizing the cedar and pitch trees, as well as local tar and turpentine; the first sawmills and gristmills opened around 1700, leading to the first European settlements in the Pinelands. During the colonial era, the Pine Barrens was the location of various industries. In 1740, charcoal operations began in the Pine Barrens, the first iron furnace opened in 1765. Bog iron was mined from bogs and waterways, was worked in about 35 furnaces including Batsto, Lake Atsion, Hampton Furnace in Shamong, Hanover Furnace in Pemberton, Ferrago in Lacey, several other locations.
Iron from these early furnaces was instrumental in supplying the American military with weapons and camp tools during the American Revolution, the War of 1812, the Second Barbary War. For example, Commodore Stephen Decatur, Jr. sailed to Algiers armed with 24-pound cannons, cast at Hanover in 1814. The first Indian reservation in the Americas was founded Brotherton in 1758, in what is now Indian Mills in Shamong Township. In 1778 during the Revolutionary War, the British burned and pillaged the village of Chestnut Nuck in a failed attempt to destroy the ironworks at Batsto Village. In 1799 after the war, the first glassworks opened in Port Elizabeth, by that time, whaling operations had stopped; the first cotton mill in the Pine Barrens opened in 1810 at Retreat. Cultivated cranberry bogs begin in the 1830s, in 1832, the first paper mill opened in the region. In 1854, the first railroad across the Pinelands opened, connecting Camden and the newly-established Atlantic City. Railroads soon connected the various small towns.
In 1869, the bog iron industry ended in the Pine Barrens, after the discovery that iron ore could be mined more cheaply in Pennsylvania. Other industries such as paper mills and gristmills rose and fell throughout the years, catering chiefly to local markets. Smaller industries such as charcoal-making and glassmaking were developed, meeting wi
Hammonton, New Jersey
Hammonton is a town in Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States, known as the "Blueberry Capital of the World." As of the 2010 United States Census, the town's population was 14,791, reflecting an increase of 2,187 from the 12,604 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 396 from the 12,208 counted in the 1990 Census. Hammonton was settled in 1812 and was named for John Hammond Coffin, a son of one of the community's earliest settlers, William Coffin, with the "d" in what was "Hammondton" disappearing over time, it was incorporated as a town by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 5, 1866, from portions of Hamilton Township and Mullica Township. It is located directly between Philadelphia and the resort town of Atlantic City, along a former route of the Pennsylvania Railroad, used by NJ Transit's Atlantic City Line. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town had a total area of 41.419 square miles, including 40.887 square miles of land and 0.532 square miles of water.
The town borders Folsom borough, to the southwest, both Hamilton and Mullica townships to the southeast in Atlantic County. It is located in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, so is flat, though the highest point in Atlantic County is located along the Pennsylvania Railroad within the borders of Hammonton; the town is located exactly halfway between Philadelphia and Atlantic City. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the town include Barnard, Caldwell Crossing, Dutchtown, Great Swamp, Rockford, Rockwood and West Mills; the town is one of 56 South Jersey municipalities that are included within the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve, a protected natural area of unique ecology covering 1,100,000 acres, classified as a United States Biosphere Reserve and established by Congress in 1978 as the nation's first National Reserve. All of the town is included in the state-designated Pinelands Area, which includes portions of Atlantic County, along with areas in Burlington, Cape May, Cumberland and Ocean counties.
Due to its location in the Pine Barrens, the soil is sandy, making it ideal for growing blueberries. Low, marshy areas within the Pine Barrens are used for cranberry cultivation. Hammonton lies in the northern reaches of the humid subtropical climate zone, similar to inland southern New Jersey, is characterized by brisk winters, hot summers, plentiful precipitation spread evenly throughout the year. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Hammonton's climate is abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 14,791 people, 5,408 households, 3,758.560 families residing in the town. The population density was 361.8 per square mile. There were 5,715 housing units at an average density of 139.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 81.67% White, 3.00% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 1.37% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 10.81% from other races, 2.85% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 20.93% of the population.
There were 5,408 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.5% were non-families. 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.19. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 26.1% from 45 to 64, 16.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.6 years. For every 100 females there were 99.0 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 95.2 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $59,085 and the median family income was $62,354. Males had a median income of $47,110 versus $36,615 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $25,292. About 8.4% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.1% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 12,604 people, 4,619 households, 3,270 families residing in the town. The population density was 305.5 people per square mile. There were 4,843 housing units at an average density of 117.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 87.85% White, 1.74% African American, 0.14% Native American, 1.14% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 7.83% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.88% of the population. As of the 2000 Census, 45.9% of town residents were of Italian ancestry, the second-highest percentage of any municipality in the United States, highest in New Jersey, among all places with more than 1,000 residents identifying their ancestry. News reports have said. There were 4,619 households out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.6% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.2% were non-families. 23.9% of a
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Camden County, New Jersey
Camden County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. Its county seat is Camden; as of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 510,719, making it the state's 8th-largest county, representing a 0.7% decrease from the 513,657 enumerated at the 2010 Census, in turn having increased by 4,725 from the 508,932 counted in the 2000 Census. The most populous place was Camden, with 77,344 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Winslow Township covered 58.19 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality. It was formed on March 1844, from portions of Gloucester County; the county was named for Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden, a British judge, civil libertarian, defender of the American cause. The county is part of the Camden, NJ Metropolitan Division of the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD / Delaware Valley Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 227.293 square miles, including 221.263 square miles of land and 6.030 square miles of water.
Located in a coastal / alluvial plain, the county is uniformly low-lying. The highest points are a survey benchmark near the Burlington County line at 219 feet above sea level; the low point is sea level, along the Delaware River. The county borders the following counties: Burlington County, New Jersey – northeast Atlantic County, New Jersey – southeast Gloucester County, New Jersey – southwest Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania – northwest Great Egg Harbor Scenic and Recreational River In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Camden have ranged from a low of 26 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −11 °F was recorded in February 1934 and a record high of 106 °F was recorded in August 1918. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.75 inches in February to 4.35 inches in July. While many of its municipalities are working class, Camden County has many contrasts in its demographics. Most of Camden and parts of Lindenwold are considered impoverished, while Cherry Hill, Voorhees Township, Haddon Heights and Haddonfield have upper-income enclaves.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 513,657 people, 190,980 households, 129,866.400 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,321.5 per square mile. There were 204,943 housing units at an average density of 926.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 65.29% White, 19.55% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 5.11% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 7.08% from other races, 2.62% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.24% of the population. There were 190,980 households out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.3% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 32% were non-families. 26.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.22. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 9% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 27.2% from 45 to 64, 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37.9 years. For every 100 females there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 89.7 males. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 508,932 people, 185,744 households, 129,835 families residing in the county; the population density was 2,289 people per square mile. There were 199,679 housing units at an average density of 898 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 70.88% White American, 18.09% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 3.72% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.09% from other races, 1.93% from two or more races. 9.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among those residents listing their ancestry, 20.6% of residents were of Irish, 18.2% Italian, 15.7% German and 8.1% English ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 185,744 households out of which 34.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.8% were married couples living together, 15.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.1% were non-families.
25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.23. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.8% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 30.5% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.1 males. The median income for a household in the county was $48,097, the median income for a family was $57,429. Males had a median income of $41,609 versus $30,470 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,354. About 8.1% of families and 10.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.5% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over. The county is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders consisting of seven members chosen at-large in partisan elections for three-year terms on a staggered basis by the residents of the county, with either two or three seats up for election each year as part of the November general election.
At a reorganization meeting held in January after each election, the newly constituted Freeholder Board selects one of its members to ser
Atlantic County, New Jersey
Atlantic County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2010 United States Census, the county had a population of 274,549, having increased by 21,997 from the 252,552 counted at the 2000 Census, As of the 2017 Census Bureau estimate, the county's population was 269,918, making it the 15th-largest of the state's 21 counties, its county seat is the Mays Landing section of Hamilton Township. The most populous place was Egg Harbor Township, with 43,323 residents at the time of the 2010 Census; this county forms the Atlantic City–Hammonton Metropolitan Statistical Area, part of the Delaware Valley Combined Statistical Area. Since the 6th millennium BC, Indigenous people have inhabited New Jersey. By the 17th century, the Absegami tribe of the Unalachtigo Lenape tribe – "people near the ocean" – stayed along the streams and back bays of what is now Atlantic County; the group referred to the broader area as Scheyichbi – "land bordering the ocean". European settlement by the Dutch and England contributed to the demise of the indigenous people.
In 1674, West Jersey was established, its provincial government designated the court of Burlington County in 1681, splitting off Gloucester County five years from the southern portion. This county was bounded by the Mullica River to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Great Egg Harbor River and Tuckahoe River to the south. Great Egg Harbour Township called New Weymouth and just Egg Harbor, was designated in 1693 from the eastern portions of Gloucester County; the region's early settlers, many of them Quakers, lived along the area's waterways. In 1695, John Somers purchased 300 acres of land on the northern shore of the Great Egg Harbor Bay in 1695, the same year he began ferry service across the bay to Cape May County, his son, built Somers Mansion between 1720 and 1726, the oldest home in existence in the county. Daniel Leeds first surveyed the coastal waters of Egg Harbor in 1698 finding Leeds Point. In 1735 according to folklore, Mother Leeds gave birth and cursed her 13th child in Leeds Point, which became known as the Jersey Devil.
In the early 18th century, George May founded Mays Landing. In 1774, the northern portion of Egg Harbor Township became Galloway Township. In 1785, residents in what is now Atlantic County requested to split from Gloucester County to the New Jersey legislature, wanting a local court. Mays Landing – the region's largest community at the time, had more saloons than churches. Criminals could escape custody before reaching Gloucester City on a four-day wagon ride. In 1798, the western portion split off to become Weymouth Township, in 1813, the northwestern portion partitioned to become Hamilton Township. On February 7, 1837, the New Jersey legislature designated Atlantic County from Galloway, Hamilton and Egg Harbor townships, choosing Mays Landing as the county seat. In the same year, the Board of Freeholders was established as the county government; as of the 1830 census, the townships making up Atlantic County only had a population of 8,164, making it the least populated New Jersey county. By that time, a continuous line of houses extended from Somers Point to Absecon.
Mullica Township was established from Galloway Township in 1837. In 1852, Dr. Jonathan Pitney recommended Absecon Island as a health resort, formed the Camden and Atlantic Railroad Company to construct the line from Camden to the coast; the company purchased land from Atlantic and Galloway Townships in 1853 promoted and sold the lots. Atlantic City formed on May 1854, in advance of the rail line opening on July 4 of that year. In 1858, Egg Harbor City was formed from portions of Mullica townships. In 1866, Hammonton was founded from Mullica townships. A year portions of Hamilton Township split off to become Buena Vista Township. In 1872, Absecon was split from portions of Egg Galloway townships. By 1885, more than half of the county's population lived in Atlantic City, by 1910 this more than two-thirds of the county lived there. With more people moving to the area in the late 1800s into the early 1900s, several municipalities were created in short succession – Margate in 1885, Somers Point in 1886, Pleasantville and Linwood in 1889, Brigantine in 1890, Longport in 1898, Ventnor in 1903, Northfield and Port Republic in 1905, Folsom in 1906.
On May 17, 1906, the eastern coastal boundary of Atlantic County was established. The final municipalities in the county to be created were Corbin City from Weymouth Township in 1922, Estell Manor from Weymouth Township in 1925, Buena from Buena Township in 1948. In 1938, the county's western border was clarified with Camden and Burlington counties using geographic coordinates. After a peak in prominence in the 1920s during the prohibition era, Atlantic City began declining in population in the 1950s as tourism declined; the county's growth shifted to the mainland. In 1973, the New Jersey Coastal Area Facilities Review Act required additional state permitting for construction in the eastern half of the county. In the same ballot as the 1976 presidential election, 56.8% of New Jersey voters approved an initiative to allow legalized gambling in Atlantic City. Two years Resorts Atlantic City opened as the first casino in the city, there were 15 by 1990. Since five have closed, including four in 2014, while two casinos – the Borgata and Ocean Resort Casino – have opened.
Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Atlantic City opened in 2018, refurbishing the
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti