Pays de Bray
The Pays de Bray is a small natural region of France situated to the north-east of Rouen, straddling the French departments of the Seine-Maritime and the Oise. The landscape is of a land use which arises from its clay soil, it produces famous cheeses such as Neufchâtel. Etymologically, the name of Bray comes from the Gaulish word braco, which became the Old French Bray, meaning marsh, swamp, or mud; the area appears to be so named as the soil distinguishes it from the neighbouring Pays de Caux. Viewed geologically, the Pays de Bray is a small eroded anticline along the Bray fault, breaking through rocks on the fringe of the Parisian Basin, which forms the chalk plateaus around it, it reveals the beds more deeply. To the north is the Upper Cretaceous plateau of Picardy with the Pays de Caux to the west and the Vexin to the south-east; the erosion has exposed clay beds in an elliptically-shaped region, called the buttonhole of the Pays de Bray. A "boutonnière", in French geological language, is an eroded anticline.
This is why the Pays de Bray's outline is shaped as a buttonhole, marked as it is with surrounding escarpments of 60 to 100 metres in height, making it a distinct physical and cultural entity. The Pays de Bray is rich in springs and several watercourses rise there; the Béthune and the Eaulne flow into the Arques. Among the most notable springs are those of Forges-les-Eaux which gave it and its surroundings the renown of a spa; as a result of its clay-rich soil, the traditional building style of the Pays de Bray is of cob and tile throughout, showing wattle and daub structures. The Bray Fault is part of the Lizard front, represented in The Lizard and Start Point, Devon, it is part of the anticline which lies to the south of the Isle of Wight. The chalk of that island's central ridge is cognate with that of the Pays de Bray's northern escarpment; the syncline to the north of the Isle of Wight underlies the Hampshire Basin and rises in the next anticline to form Salisbury Plain and the Wealden ridge of which the territory of Boulogne-sur-Mer, the Boulonnais is the equivalent feature in France.
The syncline of south Hampshire is represented by the département of Somme. Fundamentally, the Bray fault dates from the late Carboniferous and early Permian but the effect in France and England, of its associated earth movements, has continued so as to fold the overlying Jurassic and Cretaceous strata; the main towns of the Pays de Bray are Forges-les-Eaux and Gournay-en-Bray. It is an agricultural region, its "brand" products are its three AOC, Neufchâtel cheese, the cider spirit and Normandy pommeau. The famous local speciality of fromage frais called petit Suisse was launched from a farm near Gournay-en-Bray; the Pays de Bray is served by several axial roads: From south-east to northwest the "route départmentale" D 915, the Paris-to-Dieppe. From north-east to south-west, the A28 autoroute, joining Abbeville to Tours. From east to west, the route nationale 31 which joins Rouen by Beauvais. From east to west, the A29 autoroute which joins Caen by Amiens and Le Havre; the rail network is reduced to two lines.
The main one, joins Rouen-Rive-Droite to Amiens. The second was joining between gare de Paris-Saint-Lazare and Dieppe via Pontoise but is closed between Serqueux and Dieppe Pays de Caux Vexin normand Pays de Thelle Beauvaisis Petit-Caux French Wikipedia article: Pays de Bray BRGM Carte géologique de la France à l'échelle du millionième 6th edition. ISBN 2-7159-2158-6 Cultural & tourism association of the Normandy part of the Pays de Bray; the English version is not yet running. Site about Neufchâtel-en-Bray; the English version is not yet running
Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point
A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, abbreviated GSSP, is an internationally agreed upon reference point on a stratigraphic section which defines the lower boundary of a stage on the geologic time scale. The effort to define GSSPs is conducted by the International Commission on Stratigraphy, a part of the International Union of Geological Sciences. Most, but not all, GSSPs are based on paleontological changes. Hence GSSPs are described in terms of transitions between different faunal stages, though far more faunal stages have been described than GSSPs; the GSSP definition effort commenced in 1977. As of 2012, 64 of the 101 stages that need a GSSP have been formally defined. A geologic section has to fulfill a set of criteria to be adapted as a GSSP by the ICS; the following list summarizes the criteria: A GSSP has to define the lower boundary of a geologic stage. The lower boundary has to be defined using a primary marker. There should be secondary markers; the horizon in which the marker appears should have minerals.
The marker has to have regional and global correlation in outcrops of the same age The marker should be independent of facies. The outcrop has to have an adequate thickness Sedimentation has to be continuous without any changes in facies The outcrop should be unaffected by tectonic and sedimentary movements, metamorphism The outcrop has to be accessible to research and free to access; this includes that the outcrop has to be located where it can be visited has to be kept in good condition, in accessible terrain, extensive enough to allow repeated sampling and open to researchers of all nationalities. The Precambrian-Cambrian boundary GSSP at Fortune Head, Newfoundland is a typical GSSP, it is set aside as a nature preserve. A continuous section is available from beds that are Precambrian into beds that are Cambrian; the boundary is set at the first appearance of a complex trace fossil Treptichnus pedum, found worldwide. The Fortune Head GSSP is unlikely to be built over. Nonetheless, Treptichnus pedum is less than ideal as a marker fossil as it is not found in every Cambrian sequence, it is not assured that it is found at the same level in every exposure.
In fact, further eroding its value as a boundary marker, it has since been identified in strata 4m below the GSSP! However, no other fossil is known. There is no radiometrically datable bed at the boundary at Fortune Head, but there is one above the boundary in similar beds nearby; these factors have led some geologists to suggest. Once a GSSP boundary has been agreed upon, a "golden spike" is driven into the geologic section to mark the precise boundary for future geologists; the first stratigraphic boundary was defined in 1977 by identifying the Silurian-Devonian boundary with a bronze plaque at a locality called Klonk, northeast of the village of Suchomasty in the Czech Republic. GSSPs are sometimes referred to as Golden Spikes; because defining a GSSP depends on finding well-preserved geologic sections and identifying key events, this task becomes more difficult as one goes farther back in time. Before 630 million years ago, boundaries on the geologic timescale are defined by reference to fixed dates, known as "Global Standard Stratigraphic Ages".
Body form European Mammal Neogene Fauna Geologic time scale New Zealand geologic time scale List of GSSPs North American Land Mammal Age Type locality Hedberg, H. D. International stratigraphic guide: A guide to stratigraphic classification and procedure, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1976 International Stratigraphic Chart from the International Commission on Stratigraphy GSSP table with pages on each ratified GSSP from the ICS Subcommission for Stratigraphic Information USA National Park Service Washington State University Web Geological Time Machine Eon or Aeon, Math Words - An alphabetical index The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point: overview Chart of The Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points: chart Table of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points with links to summary pages for each one: chart GSSPs and Continental drift 3D views Geotime chart displaying geologic time periods compared to the fossil record - Deals with chronology and classifications for laymen
The Aptian is an age in the geologic timescale or a stage in the stratigraphic column. It is a subdivision of the Early or Lower Cretaceous epoch or series and encompasses the time from 125.0 ± 1.0 Ma to 113.0 ± 1.0 Ma, approximately. The Aptian precedes the Albian, all part of the Lower/Early Cretaceous; the Aptian overlaps the upper part of the regionally used stage Urgonian. The Selli Event known as OAE1a, was one of two oceanic Anoxic events in the Cretaceous period, which occurred around 120 Ma and lasted 1 to 1.3 million years. The Aptian extinction was a minor extinction event hypothesized to have occurred around 116 to 117 Ma; the Aptian was named after the small city of Apt in the Provence region of France, known for its crystallized fruits. The original type locality is in the vicinity of Apt; the Aptian was introduced in scientific literature by French palaeontologist Alcide d'Orbigny in 1840. The base of the Aptian stage is laid at magnetic anomaly M0r. A global reference profile for the base had in 2009 not yet been appointed.
The top of the Aptian is at the first appearance of coccolithophore species Praediscosphaera columnata in the stratigraphic record. In the Tethys domain, the Aptian contains eight ammonite biozones: zone of Hypacanthoplites jacobi zone of Nolaniceras nolani zone of Parahoplites melchioris zone of Epicheloniceras subnodosocostatum zone of Duffrenoyia furcata zone of Deshayesites deshayesi zone of Deshayesites weissi zone of Deshayesites oglanlensisSometimes the Aptian is subdivided in three substages or subages: Bedoulian and Clansayesian. Examples of rock units formed during the Aptian are: Antlers Formation, Cedar Mountain Formation, Cloverly Formation, Elrhaz Formation, Jiufotang Formation, Little Atherfield, Mazong Shan, Potomac Formation, Santana Formation, Twin Mountains Formation, Xinminbao Group and Yixian Formation. Eogaudryceras Georgioceras Lithancylus Pictetia Salfeldiella Zuercherella Lower Ammonitoceras Australiceras Cheloniceras Cicatrites Colombiceras Dufrenoya Eotetragonites Helicancylus Melchiorites Parahoplites Procheloniceras Prodeshayesites Pseudosaynella Roloboceras Shastoceras Upper Acanthohoplites Acanthoplites Ammonoceratites Argonauticeras Beudanticeras Burckhardites Cloioceras Desmoceras Diadochoceras Diodochoceras Eodouvilleiceras Epancyloceras Epicheloniceras Gabbioceras Gargasiceras Gyaloceras Hamites Hulenites Hypacanthoplites Jauberticeras Kazanskyella Knemiceras Mathoceras Mathoceratites Megatyloceras Metahamites Miyakoceras Neosilesites Nodosohoplites Nolaniceras Protacanthoplites Protanisoceras Sinzovia Somalites Tetragonites Theganoceras Trochleiceras Tropaeum Uhligella Conoteuthis Vectibelus Lower Parahibolites Peratobelus Tetrabelus Carinonautilus Heminautilus Upper Zhuralevia Upper Euphylloceras Upper Adygeya Naefia Boluochia zhengi Changchengornis hengdaoziensis Chaoyangia beishanensis Confuciusornis sanctus Cuspirostrisornis houi Jeholornis prima Jixiangornis orientalis Largirostrornis sexdentoris Longchengornis sanyanensis Longipteryx chaoyangensis Sapeornis chaoyangensis Sinornis santensis/Cathayornis yandica Songlingornis linghensis Yanornis martini Yixianornis grabaui Sarcosuchus Hybodus Jinanichthys longicephalus Lycoptera davidi Lycoptera muroii Peipiaosteus pani Protosephurus liui Sinamia zdanskyi Amblydectes Anhanguera Araripedactylus dehmi Araripesaurus castilhoi Arthurdactylus conandoylei Boreopterus cuiae Brasileodactylus araripensis Cearadactylus atrox Chaoyangopterus zhangi Dsungaripterus weii Dsungaripterus brancai Eoazhdarcho liaoxiensis Eopteranodon lii Gegepterus changi Haopterus gracilis Hongshanopterus lacustris Huaxiapterus benxiensis Huaxiapterus corollatus Huaxiapterus jii Istiodactylus latidens Istiodactylus sinensis Jidapterus edentus Liaoningopterus gui Liaoxipterus brachyognathus Lonchodectes Longchengpterus zhaoi Ludodactylus sibbicki Nemicolopterus crypticus Nurhachius ignaciobritoi Ornithocheirus simus Ornithocheirus mesembrinus Pricesaurus megalodon Santanadactylus Sinopterus dongi Sinopterus gui Tapejara navigans Tapejara wellnhoferi Thalassodromeus sethi Tropeognathus mesembrinus Tropeognathus robustus Tupandactylus imperator Aptian extinction Gradstein, F.
M.. G. & Smith, A. G.. D'Orbigny, A. C. V. M.. GeoWhen Database - Aptian Mid-Cretaceous timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic charts of the Lower Cretaceous: and, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy
Alcide Charles Victor Marie Dessalines d'Orbigny was a French naturalist who made major contributions in many areas, including zoology, geology and anthropology. D'Orbigny was born in the son of a ship's physician and amateur naturalist; the family moved to La Rochelle in 1820, where his interest in natural history was developed while studying the marine fauna and the microscopic creatures that he named "foraminiferans". In Paris he became a disciple of the geologist Pierre Louis Antoine Georges Cuvier. All his life, he would stay opposed to Lamarckism. D'Orbigny travelled on a mission for the Paris Museum, in South America between 1826 and 1833, he visited Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru and Colombia and returned to France with an enormous collection of more than 10,000 natural history specimens. He described part of his findings in La Relation du Voyage dans l'Amérique Méridionale pendant les annés 1826 à 1833; the other specimens were described by zoologists at the museum. His contemporary, Charles Darwin, arrived in South America in 1832, on hearing that he had been preceded, grumbled that D'Orbigny had collected "the cream of all the good things".
Darwin called D'Orbigny's Voyage a "most important work". They went on to correspond, with D'Orbigny describing some of Darwin's specimens, he was awarded the Gold Medal of the Société de Géographie of Paris in 1834. The South American Paleocene pantodont Alcidedorbignya was named in his honour. In 1840, d'Orbigny started the methodical description of French fossils and published La Paléontologie Française. In 1849 he published a related Prodrome de Paléontologie Stratigraphique, intended as a "Preface to Stratigraphic Palaeontology", in which he described 18,000 species, with biostratigraphical comparisons erected geological stages, the definitions of which rest on their stratotypes. In 1853 he became professor of palaeontology at the Paris Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, publishing his Cours élémentaire that related paleontology to zoology, as a science independent of the uses made of it in stratigraphy; the chair of paleontology was created in his honor. The d'Orbigny collection is housed in the Salle d'Orbigny and is visited by experts.
He described the geological timescales and defined numerous geological strata, still used today as chronostratigraphic reference such as Toarcian, Oxfordian, Aptian and Cenomanian. He died near Paris. D'Orbigny a disciple of Georges Cuvier was a notable advocate of catastrophism, he recognized twenty-seven catastrophes in the fossil record. This became known as the "doctrine of successive creations", he attempted to reconcile the fossil record with the Genesis creation narrative. Both uniformitarian geologists and theologians rejected his idea of successive creations. Palaeontologist Carroll Lane Fenton has noted that his idea of twenty-seven world-wide creations was "absurd" for creationists. L. Sprague de Camp has written. Dragging in the supernatural, d'Orbigny argued that, on twenty-seven separate occasions, God had wiped out all life on earth and started over with a whole new creation." Several zoological and botanical taxa were named in his honor, including the following genera and species.
Alcidedorbignya Muizon & Marshall, 1992 – an extinct genus of pantodont mammal Alcidia Bourguignat, 1889 – a genus of sea snails Ampullaria dorbignyana Philippi, 1851 – a species of freshwater snail Apostolepis dorbignyi Schlegel, 1837 – a species of burrowing snake Asthenes dorbignyi Reichenbach, 1853 - a species of furnariid bird Bachia dorbignyi A. M. C. Duméril & Bibron, 1839 – a species of lizard Cadomites orbignyi de Grossouvre, 1930 – a species of ammonites from the Bathonian · Chaunus dorbignyi – a species of toad Haminoea orbignyana A. de Férussac, 1822 – a species of sea snail Hecticoceras C. Gérard & H. Contaut, 1936 – a subgenus of ammonite from the Callovian Liolaemus dorbignyi Koslowsky, 1898 – a species of lizard Lystrophis dorbignyi A. M. C. Duméril, Bibron & A. H. A. Duméril, 1854 – a species of snake Nerocila orbignyi – a species of ectoparasitic isopod Orbignya Mart. Ex Endl. – a genus of palm trees, which includes the species Orbignya speciosa known as the Brazilian palm tree or babaçu in Portuguese Pinna dorbignyi Hanley, 1858 – a species of bivalve mollusc Potamotrygon orbignyi – a species of freshwater stingray Quadracythere orbignyana – a species of marine ostracod Rhinodoras dorbignyi - a species of thorny catfish Sepia orbignyana A. de Férussac in d'Orbigny, 1826 – a species of cuttlefish known as the pink cuttlefish Subdiscosphinctes orbignyi Hantzpergue, 1987 – a species of ammonites from the Kimmeridgian Trachemys dorbigni – a species of freshwater turtleIn the above list, a taxon author or binomial authority in parentheses indicates that the species was described in a genus other than the genus to which the species is assigned.
D'Orbigny, Alcide. Paléontologie française. Description zoologique et géologique de tous rayonnés fossiles de France. 3. Paris: Arthus Bertrand. P. 807. Retrieved 26 August 2013; the standard author abbreviation A. D. Orb. is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name. La Gazette des Français du Paraguay, Alcide d'Orbigny – Voyageur Naturaliste pour le
A stratigraphic column is a representation used in geology and its subfield of stratigraphy to describe the vertical location of rock units in a particular area. A typical stratigraphic column shows a sequence of sedimentary rocks, with the oldest rocks on the bottom and the youngest on top. In areas that are more geologically complex, such as those that contain intrusive rocks, and/or metamorphism, stratigraphic columns can still indicate the relative locations of these units with respect to one another. However, in these cases, the stratigraphic column must either be a structural column, in which the units are stacked with respect to how they are observed in the field to have been moved by the faults, or a time column, in which the units are stacked in the order in which they were formed. Stratigraphy is a branch of geology that concerns the order and relative position of geologic strata and their relationship to the geologic time scale; the relative time sequencing requires the analysis of the order and position of layers of archaeological remains and the structure of a particular set of strata.
The columns can include igneous and metamorphic rocks, sedimentary rocks are important geologically because of Classical Laws of Geology and how they relate to the accumulation of sediments and the formation of sedimentary environments. Lithology is a study of bedrock; the strata may contain fossils which aid in determining how old they are and geologist’s understanding of sequence and timing. Geologists group together similar lithologies, call these larger sedimentary sequence formations. There are rules on how formations are named, related to where they are located and what rock type are present. All sedimentary formations shall receive distinctive designations; the most desirable names are the first part being geographic and the other lithologic. If it's all the same rock type it may be called the "Lyons Sandstone," or the "Benton Shale." When there are several different lithologies within the formation, use more general terminology such as the "Morrison Formation," which contains siltstone and limestone.
“For regional studies, geologists will study the stratigraphy of as many separate areas as they can, prepare a stratigraphic column for each, combine them in an attempt to understand the regional geologic history of the area”. Principle of Uniformitarianism: defined in the authoritative Glossary of Geology as "the fundamental principle or doctrine that geologic processes and natural laws now operating to modify the Earth's crust have acted in the same regular manner and with the same intensity throughout geologic time, that past geologic events can be explained by phenomena and forces observable today. Law of Original Horizontality: sedimentary rocks are always deposited as horizontal, or nearly horizontal, although these may be disturbed by earth movements; this law was proposed by Nicolaus Steno in the mid-17th century. Law of Superposition: general law upon which all geologic chronology is based: In any sequence of layered rocks, sedimentary or extrusive volcanic, that has not been overturned, the youngest stratum is at the top and the oldest at the base.
The law was stated by Steno in 1669. Cross-cutting relationships: cross-cutting relationships is a principle of geology that states that the geologic feature which cuts another is the younger of the two features, it is a relative dating technique used by geologists. There are two main processes that are relevant to sedimentary strata formation: tectonic forces which build mountains and the surface, erosional processes that transport the sediments to lower energy environments where they are deposited; these processes results in large piles of accumulated sediments whenever there is a change in the depositional environment. The sedimentary particles are deposited dependent on the net energy in the transportation vector water when dealing with sediments clasts. “Brief descriptions of the units may be lettered to the right of the column, as in the figure, or the column may be accompanied by an explanation consisting of a small box for each lithologic symbol and for the other symbols alongside the column.
Columns are constructed from the stratigraphic base upward and should be plotted first in pencil in order to insure spaces for gaps at faults and unconformities. Sections that are thicker than the height of the plate can be broken into two or more segments, with the stratigraphic base at the lower left and the top at the upper right. Bedding and unit boundaries are drawn horizontally, except in detailed sections or generalized sections of distinctly nontabular deposits, as some gravels and volcanic units”; the following elements of a stratigraphic column are essential and are keyed to the figure: title, indicating topic, general location, whether the section is single, averaged, or generalized. Other kinds of information may be included also; this recorded information from above will give geologist a description of what rocks are in a cliff or u
Animantarx is a genus of nodosaurid ankylosaurian dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of western North America. Like other nodosaurs, it would have been a slow-moving quadrupedal herbivore covered in heavy armor scutes, but without a tail club; the skull measures 25 cm in length, suggesting the animal as a whole was no more than 3 meters long. The generic name is composed of arx, referring to its armored nature. In particular, the name is a reference to a comment made by paleontologist R. S. Lull about ankylosaurs, that as "an animated citadel, these animals must have been unassailable..." The type species is the only one known so far, is called A. ramaljonesi after its discoverer, Ramal Jones. His wife, Carol Jones discovered the contemporaneous dinosaur Eolambia nearby. Only one specimen of Animantarx has so far been recovered; the remains include the lower jaw and back half of the skull, along with neck and back vertebrae, various limb elements. Animantarx is characterized by a unique combination of features, including a domed skull back, small horns on the postorbital and quadratojugal bones of the skull, a mandible, only armoured on half of its length.
These fossil remains were discovered in the Mussentuchit Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation in the eastern portion of the U. S. state of Utah. This section of the formation is believed to represent the late Albian through early Cenomanian stages of the Late Cretaceous Period, or about 106 to 97 million years ago. At least 80 other vertebrate species are known from the Mussentuchit, including fish, lizards, crocodilians, dinosaurs and mammals, although not all are complete enough to name. Many dinosaur groups are represented by fossils from this member, including carnivorous theropods as well as several different herbivorous types, including the iguanodont Eolambia; the presence of aquatic animals like fish and frogs, as well as the mudstone in which their fossils are found, suggests that this was a floodplain environment. Earlier layers within the Cedar Mountain Formation contain different nodosaur species; the oldest layer, known as the Yellow Cat Member, contains Gastonia, while the intermediate Poison Strip and Ruby Ranch Members contain remains which may belong to Sauropelta.
The Mussentuchit, the youngest member of the Cedar Mountain, contains only Animantarx. While there is still a lot of exploration left to be done, this division of nodosaur species corresponds with that of other dinosaur groups and provides support for the hypothesis of three separate faunas in the Cedar Mountain Formation; the Mussentuchit fauna includes many taxa which may be of Asian origin and suggests a dispersal event may have occurred from Asia into North America around this time. Fossils in this region are slightly radioactive, remains of Animantarx were discovered following a radiological survey of the area performed by Ramal Jones, which located a higher level of radioactivity at a certain location. Subsequent excavation at this site turned up the fossil skeleton of Animantarx. Animantarx is universally thought of as a nodosaurid ankylosaur, although its precise relationships within that family are uncertain; the most recent cladistic analysis of ankylosaur phylogeny does not include Animantarx, although the authors recognize the genus as Nodosauridae incertae sedis because of its rounded supraorbital protrusions and a "knoblike" acromion on the scapula.
Two separate studies have found Animantarx to be the sister taxon of Edmontonia within Nodosauridae. Timeline of ankylosaur research
Lignite referred to as brown coal, is a soft, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from compressed peat. It is considered the lowest rank of coal due to its low heat content, it has a carbon content around 60–70 percent. It is mined all around the world, is used exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power generation, is the coal, most harmful to health. Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content around 60–70 percent, a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 75 percent, an ash content ranging from 6–19 percent compared with 6–12 percent for bituminous coal; the energy content of lignite ranges from 10 to 20 MJ/kg on a mineral-matter-free basis. The energy content of lignite consumed in the United States averages 15 MJ/kg, on the as-received basis; the energy content of lignite consumed in Victoria, averages 8.4 MJ/kg. Lignite has a high content of volatile matter which makes it easier to convert into gas and liquid petroleum products than higher-ranking coals, its high moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation and storage.
It is now known that efficient processes which remove latent moisture locked within the structure of brown coal will relegate the risk of spontaneous combustion to the same level as black coal, transform the calorific value of brown coal to a black coal equivalent fuel, reduce the emissions profile of'densified' brown coal to a level similar to or better than most black coals. However, removing the moisture increases the cost of the final lignite fuel; because of its low energy density and high moisture content, brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared with higher coal grades. It is burned in power stations near the mines, such as in Australia's Latrobe Valley and Luminant's Monticello plant in Texas; because of latent high moisture content and low energy density of brown coal, carbon dioxide emissions from traditional brown-coal-fired plants are much higher per megawatt generated than for comparable black-coal plants, with the world's highest-emitting plant being Hazelwood Power Station until its closure in March 2017.
The operation of traditional brown-coal plants in combination with strip mining, can be politically contentious due to environmental concerns. In 2014, about 12 percent of Germany's energy and 27 percent of Germany's electricity came from lignite power plants, while in 2014 in Greece, lignite provided about 50 percent of its power needs. An environmentally beneficial use of lignite can be found in its use in cultivation and distribution of biological control microbes that suppress plant disease causing microbes; the carbon enriches the organic matter in the soil while the biological control microbes provide an alternative to chemical pesticides. Reaction with quaternary amine forms a product called amine-treated lignite, used in drilling mud to reduce fluid loss during drilling. Lignite begins as an accumulation of decayed plant material, or peat. Burial by other sediments results in increasing temperature, depending on the local geothermal gradient and tectonic setting, increasing pressure.
This causes compaction of the loss of some of the water and volatile matter. This process, called coalification, concentrates the carbon content, thus the heat content, of the material. Deeper burial and the passage of time result in further expulsion of moisture and volatile matter transforming the material into higher-rank coals such as bituminous and anthracite coal. Lignite deposits are younger than higher-ranked coals, with the majority of them having formed during the Tertiary period; the Latrobe Valley in Victoria, contains estimated reserves of some 65 billion tonnes of brown coal. The deposit is equivalent to 25 percent of known world reserves; the coal seams are up to 100 metres thick, with multiple coal seams giving continuous brown coal thickness of up to 230 metres. Seams are covered by little overburden. Lignite can be separated into two types; the first is xyloid lignite or fossil wood and the second form is the compact lignite or perfect lignite. Although xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood, it can be seen that the combustible woody tissue has experienced a great modification.
It is reducible to a fine powder by trituration, if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash, it yields a considerable quantity of humic acid. Leonardite is an oxidized form of lignite, which contains high levels of humic acid. Jet is a gem-like form of lignite used in various types of jewelry. "Coal and lignite domestic consumption". Global Energy Statistical Yearbook. 2016. Geography in action – an Irish case study Photograph of lignite Coldry:Lignite Dewatering Process Why Brown Coal Should Stay in the Ground Victoria Australia Brown Coal Factsheet Australian mines atlas