A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge. Since many of the world's mountain ranges have presented formidable barriers to travel, passes have played a key role in trade and both human and animal migration throughout Earth's history. At lower elevations it may be called a hill pass; the highest vehicle-accessible pass in the world appears to be Mana Pass, located in the Himalayas on the border between India and Tibet, China. Mountain passes make use of a gap, saddle, or col. A topographic saddle is analogous to the mathematical concept of a saddle surface, with a saddle point marking the highest point between two valleys and the lowest point along a ridge. On a topographic map, passes are characterized by contour lines with an hourglass shape, which indicates a low spot between two higher points. Passes are found just above the source of a river, constituting a drainage divide. A pass may be short, consisting of steep slopes to the top of the pass, or may be a valley many kilometres long, whose highest point might only be identifiable by surveying.
Roads have long been built through passes, as well as railways more recently. Some high and rugged passes may have tunnels bored underneath a nearby mountainside to allow faster traffic flow throughout the year; the top of a pass is the only flat ground in the area, is a high vantage point. In some cases this makes it a preferred site for buildings. If a national border follows a mountain range, a pass over the mountains is on the border, there may be a border control or customs station, a military post as well. For instance Argentina and Chile share the world's third-longest international border, 5,300 kilometres long; the border runs north -- south with a total of 42 mountain passes. On a road over a pass, it is customary to have a small roadside sign giving the name of the pass and its elevation above mean sea level; as well as offering easy travel between valleys, passes provide a route between two mountain tops with a minimum of descent. As a result, it is common for tracks to meet at a pass.
Passes traditionally were places for trade routes, cultural exchange, military expeditions etc. A typical example is the Brenner pass in the Alps; some mountain passes above the tree line have problems with snow drift in the winter. This might be alleviated by building the road a few meters above the ground, which will make snow blow off the road. There are many words for pass in the English-speaking world. In the United States, pass is common in the West, the word gap is common in the southern Appalachians, notch in parts of New England, saddle in northern Idaho. Scotland has the Gaelic term bealach. In the Lake District of north-west England, the term hause is used, although the term pass is common—one distinction is that a pass can refer to a route, as well as the highest part thereof, while a hause is that highest part flattened somewhat into a high-level plateau. There are thousands of named passes around the world, some of which are well-known, such as the Great St. Bernard Pass at 2,473 metres in the Alps, the Chang La at 5,360 metres, the Khardung La at 5,359 metres in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
The roads at Mana Pass at 5,610 metres and Marsimik La at 5,582 metres, on and near the China-India border appear to be world's two highest motorable passes. Khunjerab Pass between Pakistan and China at 4,693 metres is a high-altitude motorable mountain pass. Media related to Mountain passes at Wikimedia Commons
Rifferswil is a village in the district of Affoltern in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. Rifferswil has an area of 6.6 km2. Of this area, 66.4% is used for agricultural purposes, while 22.7% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 9% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. Rifferswil has a population of 1,103; as of 2007, 5.7% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 14%. Most of the population speaks German, with French being second most Italian being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP which received 32.7% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SPS, the Green Party and the CSP; the age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 28.6% of the population, while adults make up 58.4% and seniors make up 13%. In Rifferswil about 88.5% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Rifferswil has an unemployment rate of 1.59%.
As of 2005, there were 58 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 21 businesses involved in this sector. 67 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 15 businesses in this sector. 61 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 21 businesses in this sector. Official website
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
Thalwil is a municipality and town in the district of Horgen in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. As of 2010 its population was of 17,189. Besides the town of Thalwil, the municipality includes the village of Gattikon; the official language of Thalwil is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Thalwil is first mentioned around 1030 as Talwile villam, derived from Tellewilare, Tello's Farm, indicates the early medieval origins of Thalwil as an Alemannic farmstead. Only a few graves remain from this period. In 1133 it was mentioned as Telwil; the parish of Thalwil comprised four Wachten: Ludretikon, the oldest hamlet, bordering Rüschlikon Oberdorf, the area around the church Unterdorf, the area south of the railway station Langnau, which separated from Thalwil around 1713In medieval times, the economy consisted of farms, vineyards as well as a small amount of fishing and shipping. This estate was once held by the Barons of Eschenbach; the Abbeys of Muri and Wettingen had significant interests and owned 12 and 3 farms respectively.
Thalwil boasts the oldest wood corporation in the Canton of Zurich, the Bannegg-Waldung. It was first mentioned in 1483, when Muri Abbey granted it to the twelve beneficiaries of the Abbey farms in Thalwil. Today the corporation is owned by 16 members as well as by the Thalwil Gemeinde; the municipality of Thalwil is located on the Zimmerberg ridge between the western shore of Lake Zurich and the Sihl river. It includes the town of Thalwil, on the eastern slopes of the ridge alongside the lake, the village of Gattikon, on the westen slopes and the bank of the Sihl. Thalwil borders on the communes of Rüschlikon, Langnau am Albis, Oberrieden and Erlenbach; the municipality has an area of 5.5 km2. Of this area, 18 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 56.1% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In 1996 housing and buildings made up 42.3% of the total area, while transportation infrastructure made up the rest. Of the total unproductive area, water made up 1.4% of the area.
As of 2007 51.3% of the total municipal area was undergoing some type of construction. The Gemeindewappen consists of two diagonally crossed black bulrushes with green stems and leaves on a white background. Thalwil has a population of 17,857; as of 2007, 21.4% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. As of 2008 the gender distribution of the population was 51.5 % female. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 6%. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most English being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP; the next three most popular parties were the SPS, the FDP and the CSP. The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 18.8% of the population, while adults make up 65.6% and seniors make up 15.6%. In Thalwil about 81.5% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. There are 7,680 households in Thalwil; the historical population is given in the following table: Thalwil is one of the oldest parishes on the shores of Lake Zurich.
It has one of the most spectacular church locations, with the Platte affording views of the lake and its surroundings from Zurich to the Alps. The earliest recorded church was dedicated to St Martin in 1159. In medieval times it was a dependency of Wettingen Abbey. Although it was hit by lightning and looted and set on fire during the War of Zurich, the original building survived for over six hundred years. In 1845 the small and rather dilapidated chapel was demolished and replaced by a much larger church designed by Ferdinand Stadler. A fire set off during repairs on the tower burnt down the new church 100 years but the building was soon restored and has survived to this day; as of 2008 there were 5881 Protestants in Thalwil. In the 2000 census, religion was broken down into several smaller categories. From the census, 41.5% were some type of Protestant, with 39.3% belonging to the Swiss Reformed Church and 2.2% belonging to other Protestant churches. 34.3% of the population were Catholic. Of the rest of the population, 3.8% were Muslim, 5.8% belonged to another religion, 2.6% did not give a religion, 15% were atheist or agnostic.
In the late 1830s the lakeside road was opened. It soon attracted large silk and other textile factories to the former farming village, some run by local families such as Schwarzenbach, Kölliker; this growth was boosted by the new railway lines from Zurich to Zug. Industrialisation brought new workers into the former farming village and increased the population from 1,318 to 6,791. Today, Thalwil has an unemployment rate of 2.51%. As of 2005, there were 53 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 14 businesses involved in this sector. 807 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 115 businesses in this sector. 3721 people are employed with 651 businesses in this sector. As
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Canton of Zürich
The canton of Zürich is a Swiss canton in the northeastern part of the country. With a population of 1,504,346, it is the most populated canton in the country.. Its capital is the city of Zürich; the official language is German. The local Swiss German dialect, called Züritüütsch, is spoken. In English the name of the canton and its capital is written without an umlaut; the Prehistoric pile dwellings around Zürichsee comprises 11 of total 56 Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps in Switzerland, that are located around Zürichsee in the cantons of Schwyz, St. Gallen and Zürich. Located on Zürichsee lakeshore, there are Freienbach–Hurden Rosshorn, Freienbach–Hurden Seefeld, Rapperswil-Jona/Hombrechtikon–Feldbach, Rapperswil-Jona–Technikum, Erlenbach–Winkel, Meilen–Rorenhaab, Wädenswil–Vorder Au, Zürich–Enge Alpenquai, Grosser Hafner and Kleiner Hafner; because the lake has grown in size over time, the original piles are now around 4 metres to 7 metres under the water level of 406 metres. On the small area of about 40 square kilometres around Zürichsee, there the settlements Greifensee–Storen/Wildsberg on Greifensee and Wetzikon–Robenhausen on Pfäffikersee lakeshore.
As well as being part of the 56 Swiss sites of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, each of these 11 prehistoric pile dwellings is listed as a Class object in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance. Zurihgauuia was a subdivision of Turgowe in the Duchy of Alamannia, consisting of the territory between Reuss and Töss. From the 740s, substantial portions of Zürichgau were owned by the Abbey of St. Gall. In c. 760, an administrative re-organisation under counts Ruthard and Warin exempted the castle town of Zürich from comital rule. A county of Zürichgau was established under Louis the Pious, for a count Ruadker, in 820. Zürichgau remained a nominally separate territory in the 9th century but was ruled by the same count as Thurgau. In 915, Zürichgau together with Thurgau fell to the Bucharding dukes of Swabia. In the late 10th century, the county of Zürich was ruled by the Nellenburger, during 1077–1172 by the Lenzburger. By the 13th century, Zürichgau was divided between the Habsburgs and the Kyburger, who held the territory west and east of Lake Zürich, respectively.
The territory of the canton of Zürich corresponds to the lands acquired by the city of Zürich after it became reichsfrei in 1218. Zürich pursued a policy of aggressive territorial expansion during the century following the revolution of the guilds in 1336. Zürich joined the Swiss Confederacy in 1351. Zürich lost the Toggenburg in the Old Zürich War of the 1440s; the northern parts up to the river Rhine came to the canton after the city of Zürich purchased Winterthur from the Habsburgs in 1468. In 1651, Zürich purchased Rafzerfeld from the counts of Sulz. At this point all of the territory of the modern canton was owned by Zürich. In the 18th century, the "inner bailiwicks" were under direct administration of city officials, while the "outer bailiwicks" were ruled by the reeves of Kyburg, Grüningen, Eglisau, Andelfingen, Wädenswil, Knonau; the city of Winterthur retained far-reaching autonomy. Zürichgau, the name of the medieval pagus, was in use for the territories of the city of Zürich during the 15th and 16th century.
Under the short-lived Helvetic Republic, the canton of Zürich became a purely administrative division. In 1803, some former possessions of Zürich to the west gained independence as part of the Canton of Aargau. In 1804 the Kantonspolizei Zürich was established as Landjäger-Corps des Kantons Zürich. A cantonal constitution was replaced in 1831 by a radical-liberal constitution; the Züriputsch, an armed uprising of the conservative rural population against the radical-liberal order, led to the dissolution of the cantonal government, a provisional conservative government was installed by colonel Paul Carl Eduard Ziegler. Under the threat of intervention of the other radical-liberal cantons of the Confederacy, the provisional government declared that the 1831 constitution would remain in effect. In a tumultuous session on 9 September 1839, the cantonal parliament declared its dissolution In the so-called Septemberregime, the newly elected cantonal government replaced all cantonal officials with conservatives, but it was again ousted by a radical-liberal election victory in 1844.
Alfred Escher was a member of the new cantonal parliament of 1844. The radical-liberal era of 1844–1868 was dominated by the so-called System Escher, a network of liberal politicians and industrialists built by Alfred Escher. Escher governed the canton in monarchical fashion, was popularly dubbed Alfred I. or Tsar of All Zürich. Escher controlled all cantonal institutions, at first with little political opposition, expunging all trace of the conservative takeover of 1839. Under Escher, the city of Zürich rose to the status of economic and financial center it still retains. Opposition against the dominance of Sytstem Escher increased after 1863. Th
Langnau am Albis
Langnau am Albis is a village in the district of Horgen in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. Langnau am Albis is first mentioned between 1150 as Langenow. Between 1133 and 1167 it was mentioned as Langenouw. Langnau am Albis has an area of 8.7 km2. Of this area, 27.7 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 22.5% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In 1996 housing and buildings made up 17.1% of the total area, while transportation infrastructure made up the rest. Of the total unproductive area, water made up 0.6% of the area. As of 2007 16.6% of the total municipal area was undergoing some type of construction. It is in the Sihltal valley on the slopes of the Albis mountain range; the area is a rural/suburban community within 10 km of the city center of Zürich. Langnau is one of the larger communities in the Canton of Zürich. Langnau am Albis has a population of 7,533; as of 2007, 21.7% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. As of 2008 the gender distribution of the population was 50.7 % female.
Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 7.2%. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common and Albanian being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP; the next three most popular parties were the SPS, the FDP and the CVP. The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 20.8% of the population, while adults make up 64.6% and seniors make up 14.7%. There are 3 schools in the village. Wolfgraben and Widmer are the two Primary Schools; the entire Swiss population is well educated. In Langnau am Albis about 77.4% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. There are 2,926 households in Langnau am Albis; as of 2008 there were 2,333 Catholics and 2,510 Protestants in Langnau am Albis. In the 2000 census, religion was broken down into several smaller categories. From the census, 42.8% were some type of Protestant, with 40.1% belonging to the Swiss Reformed Church and 2.7% belonging to other Protestant churches.
34.8% of the population were Catholic. Of the rest of the population, 0% were Muslim, 6.6% belonged to another religion, 2.6% did not give a religion, 12.2% were atheist or agnostic. The historical population is given in the following table: Langnau am Albis has an average of 144.6 days of rain per year and on average receives 1,357 mm of precipitation. The wettest month is June during which time Langnau am Albis receives an average of 159 mm of precipitation. During the wettest month, there is precipitation for an average of 14 days. First historical references date the community of Langnau back to 1397. Today's community boasts a high standard of living with a strong school system, plenty of green space, excellent public transportation connecting the surrounding villages and the city of Zürich, a dozen restaurants, 2 hotels, a leading Tennis and Squash Club, an Indoor Swimming Center, the vibrant Football Club Langnau, the Turbine Theater, a public library, over 45 other clubs and social organizations.
Langnau am Albis has an unemployment rate of 2.43%. As of 2005, there were 61 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 16 businesses involved in this sector. 305 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 54 businesses in this sector. 851 people are employed with 168 businesses in this sector. As of 2007 38.2% of the working population were employed full-time, 61.8% were employed part-time. A major attraction of the town is the Wildpark Langenberg, a zoo in a undeveloped location on a wooded hill within the town of Langnau where animals such as the wolf and ibex can be watched roaming freely. Views of the Cantons Zurich and Zug and the Swiss Alps can be gained from the Hochwachtturm, a 33m tall wooden tower, accessible to the public, located on top of the Albis range about 1.5 km from the Albis pass. Nearby lie the ruins of the Schnabelburg, a castle erected in 1170 to guard the road from Zurich to Lucerne. Langnau-Gattikon railway station is a stop of the Zurich S-Bahn on the line S4 and is a 21-minute ride from Zürich Hauptbahnhof.
The Zimmerberg bus line, provided by the Sihltal Zürich Uetliberg Bahn, connects the Zimmerberg region and parts of the Sihl Valley. Official website Langnau am Albis in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland