People's Party (Spain)
The People's Party is a conservative, liberal-conservative and Christian-democratic political party in Spain. The People's Party was a re-foundation in 1989 of the People's Alliance, a party led and founded by Manuel Fraga Iribarne, a former Minister of the Interior and Minister of Tourism during Francisco Franco's dictatorship; the new party combined the conservative AP with several small Christian democratic and liberal parties. In 2002, Manuel Fraga received the honorary title of "Founding Chairman"; the party's youth organization is New Generations of the People's Party of Spain. The PP is a member of the center-right European People's Party, in the European Parliament its 16 MEPs sit in the EPP Group; the PP is a member of the Centrist Democrat International and the International Democrat Union. The PP was one of the founding organizations of the Budapest-based Robert Schuman Institute for Developing Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. On 24 May 2018, the National Court found that the PP profited from the illegal kickbacks-for-contracts scheme of the Gürtel case, confirming the existence of an illegal accounting and financing structure that ran in parallel with the party's official one since the party's foundation in 1989 and ruling that the PP helped establish "a genuine and effective system of institutional corruption through the manipulation of central and local public procurement".
This prompted a no confidence vote on Mariano Rajoy's government, brought down on 1 June 2018 in the first successful motion since the Spanish transition to democracy. On 5 June 2018, Rajoy announced his resignation as PP leader; the party has its roots in the People's Alliance founded on 9 October 1976 by former Francoist minister Manuel Fraga. Although Fraga was a member of the reformist faction of the Franco regime, he supported an gradual transition to democracy. However, he badly underestimated the public's distaste for Francoism. Additionally, while he attempted to convey a reformist image, the large number of former Francoists in the party led the public to perceive it as both reactionary and authoritarian. In the June 1977 general election, the AP garnered only 8.3 percent of the vote, putting it in fourth place. In the months following the 1977 elections, dissent erupted within the AP over constitutional issues that arose as the draft document was being formulated. Fraga had wanted from the beginning to brand the party as a traditional European conservative party, wanted to move the AP toward the political centre in order to form a larger centre-right party.
Fraga's wing won the struggle. The AP joined with other moderate conservatives to form the Democratic Coalition, it was hoped that this new coalition would capture the support of those who had voted for the Union of the Democratic Centre in 1977, but who had become disenchanted with the Adolfo Suárez government. In the March 1979 general election, the CD received 6.1 percent of the vote, again finishing a distant fourth. At the AP's Second Party Congress in December 1979, party leaders re-assessed their involvement in the CD. Many felt that the creation of the coalition had confused the voters, they sought to emphasise the AP's independent identity. Fraga resumed control of the party, the political resolutions adopted by the party congress reaffirmed the conservative orientation of the AP. In the early 1980s, Fraga succeeded in rallying the various components of the right around his leadership, he was aided in his efforts to revive the AP by the increasing disintegration of the UCD. In the general elections held in October 1982, the AP gained votes both from previous UCD supporters and from the far right.
It became the major opposition party to the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, securing 25.4 percent of the popular vote. Whereas the AP's parliamentary representation had dropped to 9 seats in 1979, the party allied itself with the small Christian democratic People's Democratic Party and won 106 seats in 1982; the increased strength of the AP was further evidenced in the municipal and regional elections held in May 1983, when the party drew 26 percent of the vote. A significant portion of the electorate appeared to support the AP's emphasis on law and order as well as its pro-business policies. Subsequent political developments belied the party's aspirations to continue increasing its base of support. Prior to the June 1986 elections, the AP joined forces with the PDP and the Liberal Party to form the People's Coalition, in another attempt to expand its constituency to include the centre of the political spectrum; the coalition called for stronger measures against terrorism, for more privatisation, for a reduction in public spending and in taxes.
The CP failed to increase its share of the vote in the 1986 elections, it soon began to disintegrate. When regional elections in late 1986 resulted in further losses for the coalition, Fraga resigned as AP chairman, although he retained his parliamentary seat. At the party congress in February 1987, Antonio Hernández Mancha was chosen to head the AP, declaring that under his leadership the AP would become a "modern right-wing European party", but Hernández Mancha lacked political experience at the national level, the party continued to decline. When support for the AP plummeted in the municipal and regional elections held in June 1987, it was clear that it would be overtaken as major opposition party by Suarez's Democratic and Social Centre. After the resignation of Manuel Fraga and the success
Bonrepòs i Mirambell
Bonrepòs i Mirambell is a municipality in the comarca of Horta Nord in the Valencian Community, Spain. Carlos Soler, football player
Massalfassar is a municipality in the comarca of Horta Nord in the Valencian Community, Spain
Comarcas of Spain
In Spain traditionally and some autonomous communities are divided into comarcas. Some comarcas have a defined status, are regulated by law and their comarcal councils have some power. In some other cases their legal status is not formal for they correspond to natural areas, like valleys, river basins and mountainous areas, or to historical regions overlapping different provinces and ancient kingdoms. In such comarcas or natural regions municipalities have resorted to organizing themselves in mancomunidad, like the Taula del Sénia, the only legal formula that has allowed those comarcas to manage their public municipal resources meaningfully. There is a comarca, the Cerdanya, divided between two states, the southwestern half being counted as a comarca of Spain, while the northeastern half is part of France. In English, a comarca is equivalent to a district, area or zone. Alto Almanzora Poniente Almeriense Níjar Los Vélez Levante Almería Bahía de Cádiz Bajo Guadalquivir called Costa Noroeste Campo de Gibraltar La Janda Campiña de Jerez called Marco de Jerez Sierra de Cádiz Alto Guadalquivir Campiña de Baena Campiña Este - Guadajoz Campiña Sur Los Pedroches Subbetica Valle del Guadiato Valle Medio del Guadalquivir Granadin Alpujarra Comarca de Alhama Comarca de Baza Comarca de Guadix Comarca de Huéscar Comarca de Loja Granadin Coast Los Montes Lecrin Valley Vega de Granada Andévalo Condado de Huelva Cuenca Minera de Huelva Costa Occidental de Huelva Huelva Sierra de Huelva Alto Guadalquivir - Cazorla La Campiña El Condado Área Metropolitana de Jaén La Loma Las Villas Norte Sierra Mágina Sierra de Segura Sierra Sur de Jaén Antequera Axarquía Costa del Sol Occidental Málaga Serranía de Ronda Valle del Guadalhorce Aljarafe Bajo Guadalquivir Campiña Estepa Marisma Sierra Norte Sierra Sur La Vega Alto Gállego Bajo Cinca called Baix Cinca Cinca Medio Hoya de Huesca called Plana de Uesca Jacetania La Litera called La Llitera Monegros Ribagorza Sobrarbe Somontano de Barbastro Bajo Martín Jiloca Cuencas Mineras Andorra-Sierra de Arcos Bajo Aragón Comunidad de Teruel Maestrazgo Sierra de Albarracín Comarca, named after the Sierra de Albarracín mountain range Gúdar-Javalambre Matarraña called Matarranya Aranda Bajo Aragón-Caspe called Baix Aragó-Casp Campo de Belchite Campo de Borja Campo de Cariñena Campo de Daroca Cinco Villas Comunidad de Calatayud Ribera Alta del Ebro Ribera Baja del Ebro Tarazona y el Moncayo Valdejalón Zaragoza Avilés Caudal Eo-Navia Gijón / Xixón Nalón Narcea Oriente Oviedo / Uviéu Serra de Tramuntana Es Raiguer Es Pla Migjorn Llevant Menorca Eivissa Formentera Añana Aiara / Ayala Agurain / Salvatierra Vitoria-Gasteiz Zuia Arabako Mendialdea / Montaña Alavesa Arabako Errioxa / Rioja Alavesa Arratia-Nerbioi Busturialdea Durangaldea Enkarterri Greater Bilbao Lea-Artibai Uribe Bidasoa-Txingudi Debabarrena Debagoiena Goierri Donostialdea Tolosaldea Urola Kosta Fuerteventura Lanzarote Las Palmas El Hierro La Gomera La Palma Tenerife Valle de Güímar Valle de la Orotava Icod Daute Isla Baja Isora-Teno Tenerife Sur Tenerife Sur Acentejo Metropolitana-Anaga Comarca de Santander Besaya Saja-Nansa Costa occidental Costa oriental Trasmiera Pas-Miera Asón-Agüera Liébana Campoo-Los Valles Alt Penedès Anoia Bages Baix Llobregat Barcelonès Berguedà Garraf Maresme Moianès Osona Vallès Occidental Vallès Oriental Alt Empordà Baix Empordà Baixa Cerdanya Garrotxa Gironès Osona Pla de l'Estany Ripollès Selva Alt Urgell Alta Ribagorça Baixa Cerdanya Garrigues Noguera Pallars Jussà Pallars Sobirà Pla d'Urgell Segarra Segrià Solsonès Urgell Val d'Aran Alt Camp Baix Camp Baix Ebre Baix Penedès Conca de Barberà Montsià Priorat Ribera d'Ebre Tarragonès Terra Alta Llanos de Albacete Campos de Hellín La Mancha del Júcar-Centro La Manchuela Monte Ibérico–Corredor de Almansa Sierra de Alcaraz y Campo de Montiel Sierra del Segura Campo de Montiel.
Alcarria conquense. La Mancha de Cuenca. Manchuela conquense. Serranía Alta. Serranía Baja. Serranía Media-Campichuelo. Campiña de Guadalajara Campiña del Henares La Alcarria La Serranía Señorío de Molina-Alto Tajo Campo de San Juan La Jara La Campana de Oropesa Mancha Alta de Toledo Mesa de Ocaña Montes de Toledo La Sagra Sierra de San Vicente Tierras de Talavera Torrijos La Moraña Comarca de Ávila Comarca de El Barco de Ávila - Piedrahíta Comarca de Burgohondo - El Tiemblo - Cebreros Comarca de Arenas de San Pedro Merindades Páramos La Bureba Ebro Odra-Pisuerga Alfoz de Burgos Montes de Oca Arlanza Sierra de la Demanda Ribera del Duero La Montaña de Luna La Montaña de Riaño La Cabrera Astorga El Bierzo Tierras de León La Bañeza El Páramo Esla-Campos Sahagún Cerrato Palentino Montaña Palentina Páramos Valles Tierra de Campos Comarca de Vitigudino Comarca de Ciudad Rodrigo La Armuña Las Villas Tierra de Peñaranda Tierra de Cantalapiedra Tierra de Ledesma Comarca de Guijuelo Tierra de Alba Sierra de Béjar Sierra de Francia Campo de Salamanca An official classification establishes three comarcas: Segovia.
Cuéllar. Sepúlveda.or sometimes four: Tierra de Pinares. Segovia. Sepúlveda. Tierra de Ayllón. However, historic approaches establish six comarcas: Tierra de Pinares. Tierra de Ayllón. Tierras de Cantalejo y
Horchata, or orxata, is a name given to various plant milk beverages of similar taste and appearance. Horchata, which comes from the Latin term Hordeata, which in turn comes from Hordeum, is a term related to a Mediterranean tradition of grain-based beverages; the Valencian or Chufa horchata is made with dried and sweetened tiger nuts. This form of horchata is now properly called horchata de chufa or, in West African countries such as Nigeria and Mali, kunnu aya, it spread to Iberia with the Muslim conquest, prior to 1000CE. There are 13th-century records of a horchata-like beverage made near Valencia. From Valencia, where it remained popular, the concept of Horchata was brought to the New World. Here, drinks called agua de horchata or horchata came to be made with white rice and cinnamon or Canella instead of tiger nuts. Sometimes these drinks had vanilla were served adorned with fruit. Today and other similarly-flavoured plant milk beverages are sold in various parts of the world as varieties of horchata or kunnu.
The drink now known as horchata de chufa is the original form of horchata. It is made from soaked and sweetened tiger nuts. According to researchers at the University of Ilorin, kunnu made from tiger nuts is an inexpensive source of protein, it remains popular in Spain, where a regulating council exists to ensure the quality and traceability of the product in relation to the Designation of Origin. There, it is served ice-cold as a natural refreshment in the summer served with fartons. Horchata de chufa is used instead of dairy milk by the lactose-intolerant; the majority of the Spanish tiger nut crop is utilised in the production of horchata de chufa. Alboraya is the most important production centre. In rare instances, various forms of aflatoxin may be present in horchata de chufa. Horchata de arroz is made of rice, sometimes with vanilla and with Canella or cinnamon, it is the most common variety of horchata in Guatemala. In the U. S. it is popular in Mexican ice cream shops. In Alvarado, horchata de arroz is scented with Súchil flowers.
Though horchata de arroz was once homemade, it is now available in both ready-to-drink and powdered form in grocery stores, principally in the U. S. and Latin America. Horchata de arroz is one of the three typical drink flavors of Mexican aguas frescas, together with tamarindo and Jamaica. Horchata de ajonjolí is made with ground sesame seeds. In Puerto Rico, it is made by boiling sugar and cinnamon sticks in water, pouring the infusion over ground sesame seeds to be left overnight; the mixture is strained through a cheesecloth. Some recipes call for added ground rice, ground almonds, evaporated milk, coconut milk and rum, or barley and lime zest. Horchata is made with sesame seeds and sugar in Zulia, an area in the west of Venezuela. Horchata de Melón is made of ground melon seeds. Horchata de morro is made from ground calabash seeds, it is the most consumed variety of horchata in El Salvador and can be found across the country. It can be found in Salvadoran restaurants in the U. S. In the Central American countries of El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, horchata refers to the drink known as semilla de jicaro, made from the jicaro seeds ground with rice and spices such as ground cocoa, sesame seeds, tiger nuts and vanilla.
Ground peanuts and cashews may be added. Because of these ingredients, the horchata is strained before serving. In Ecuador, horchata is a clear red infusion of 18 herbs, is most famous in the province of Loja. Horchata as a flavor makes appearances in ice cream and other sweets, other products such as RumChata, an alcoholic tribute to the beverage; some smoothie shops, cafés, McDonald's in the U. S. have been experimenting with horchata-flavored frappes. The name derives from Valencian orxata from ordiata, made from ordi; the Italian orzata, the French and English orgeat have the same origin, though the beverages themselves have diverged, are no longer made from barley. Various false etymologies exist – one legend links the origins of the name to James I of Aragon, after being given the drink for the first time by a local in Alboraya, was said to have exclaimed in Valencian, "Açò és or, xata!". Kunnu aya Salep Orgeat syrup Chicha Plant milk Almond milk Rice milk The Regulating Council of Denomination of Origin "Chufa de Valencia": Quality council regulating tiger nut horchata in Valencia Article about Horxata, Ltd.: Valencian Horchata in New York City
Metrovalencia is a modern amalgamation of former FEVE narrow gauge diesel and electric operated suburban/regional railways. It is a large suburban network that crosses the city of Valencia, with all trains continuing out to the suburbs, it has destinations on lines that make it more resemble commuter trains. The unique system combines light railway and several tram operations north of the Túria riverbed park with line 4. Trains of lines 1, 3, 5 and 9 have automatic train operation in 25.3 kilometers of underground system. Tram lines 4, 6 and 8 are operated by modern trams; this network consists of more than 156.4 kilometres of route, of which 27.3 kilometres is underground. The system authority Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana uses bilingual signage in Valencian and Spanish. † Notes: In 1998, Line 2 was combined with Line 1. Lines 7 to 9 were created in 2015 by splitting existing branch lines, with the only new stations for these lines consisting of the extension from Manises to Riba-roja de Túria.
The network includes five unmanned stations: Rocafort, Fuente del Jarro, Benaguasil 1 and Font de l´Almaguer. Gauge width: 1,000 mm metre gauge Current system: 750 V DC / 1500 V DC, overhead wire In 2012, an estimated 63,103,814 passengers used the service, a decline of 2.8% from the 65,074,726 who had used it in 2011. The 2011 figures had shown a 5% decline compared to 2010. On average 172,887 passengers a day used the service in 2012 with the busiest day being 18 March, the final day of the Fallas festival, when 482,960 passengers used the service; the three most used stations on the network were all in the centre of Valencia: Xàtiva, beside Valencia's main train station, with 4,769,628 passengers in 2012, Colón, in one of Valencia's main shopping streets, with 4,189,736 passengers and Àngel Guimerà, an interchange station for lines 1,4 and 5 situated beside Valencia old town, with 2,461,012 users. The fourth and fifth busiest stations were Túria, next to Valencia's main bus station, with 2,035,521 and Facultats, serving the University of Valencia, with 1,951,080 users.
The remaining stations in the top eight were Plaça de Espanya and Mislata. The first two of these were located in areas near Valencia centre, while Mislata was the main station for the satellite town of the same name. In 2014, the system carried 60,111,000 passengers. In 2015, 60,686,589 passengers used the network, reversing a decline which had occurred in previous years; the 10 busiest stations were Xàtiva, Colón million, Àngel Guimerà, Túria Facultats, Plaça d'Espanya, Torrent Avinguda, Amistat-Casa de Salud and Benimaclet 7 other stations had more than 1 million users. On 8 October 1988 the tunnel through which line 1 crosses Valencia was opened between Sant Isidre and Ademuz, which connected the line with southbound trains from València-Jesús to Castelló de la Ribera at Sant Isidre. Line 2 went from València-Sud with some trains terminating in Paterna. In May 1994 the tranvia line 4 opened. Valencia was the first city in Spain to use this mode of transport in the modern era. Line 4 was 9.7 kilometres long and had 21 stations.
The line connected the suburban lines with high demand zones such as the Polytechnic University, the new university campus and the Malvarosa beach, which the former line Empalme - Pont de Fusta - El Grau had connected before. One year in May 1995, line 3 was extended from El Palmaret in Alboraria to Alameda; the extension reused the older railway line Pont de Fusta-Rafelbunyol, of which part was scrapped, the rest was switched from 750 V to 1500 V. Further alterations followed five years later. On 16 September 1998, line 2 was merged with line 1, Line 3 was extended from Alameda to Avinguda del Cid in the west and Torrent in the south with some trains only going as far as Jesús. Half a year on 20 May 1999, line 3 was extended from Avinguda del Cid to Mislata-Almassil. In April 2003, the new line 5 was opened; this line took over the previous line 3 connection from Alameda to Torrent, together with a newly constructed branch from Alameda to Ayora 2.3 kilometres. One year the new line 5 was extended, together with line 1, from Torrent to Torrent Avinguda, a distance of 2.3 kilometres.
On 3 October 2005, Bailén station was opened on line 5. This station is between Colón and Jesús, has connections with València-Nord, the main railway station of València. Furthermore, Bailen is close to the Plaça d'Espanya station on line 1. In October 2005, line 4 was extended to Mas del Rosari, on 20 December 2005 to Lloma Llarga-Terramelar. On 2 April 2007, Line 5 was extended to the East to a new station Marítim-Serrería. On 18 April 2007, Line 5 extended to the airport in the west and to the Port in the east, this last section from Marítim-Serreria to Marina Real Juan Carlos 1 is a tram section. Line 3 was extended to the Airport as well to cover the schedule limitations of line 5 to Aeropo
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. Irrigation has other uses in crop production, including frost protection, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil consolidation. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming. Irrigation systems are used for cooling livestock, dust suppression, disposal of sewage, in mining. Irrigation is studied together with drainage, the removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5,000 years and is the product of many cultures, it was the basis for economies and societies across the globe, from Asia to the Southwestern United States. Archaeological investigation has found evidence of irrigation in areas lacking sufficient natural rainfall to support crops for rainfed agriculture.
The earliest known use of the technology dates to the 6th millennium BCE in Khuzistan in the south-west of present-day Iran. Irrigation was used as a means of manipulation of water in the alluvial plains of the Indus valley civilization, the application of it is estimated to have begun around 4500 BC and drastically increased the size and prosperity of their agricultural settlements; the Indus Valley Civilization developed sophisticated irrigation and water-storage systems, including artificial reservoirs at Girnar dated to 3000 BCE, an early canal irrigation system from c. 2600 BCE. Large-scale agriculture was practiced, with an extensive network of canals used for the purpose of irrigation. Farmers in the Mesopotamian plain used irrigation from at least the third millennium BCE, they developed perennial irrigation watering crops throughout the growing season by coaxing water through a matrix of small channels formed in the field. Ancient Egyptians practiced basin irrigation using the flooding of the Nile to inundate land plots, surrounded by dykes.
The flood water remained until the fertile sediment had settled before the engineers returned the surplus to the watercourse. There is evidence of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Amenemhet III in the twelfth dynasty using the natural lake of the Faiyum Oasis as a reservoir to store surpluses of water for use during dry seasons; the lake swelled annually from the flooding of the Nile. The Ancient Nubians developed a form of irrigation by using a waterwheel-like device called a sakia. Irrigation began in Nubia some time between the third and second millennia BCE, it depended upon the flood waters that would flow through the Nile River and other rivers in what is now the Sudan. In sub-Saharan Africa irrigation reached the Niger River region cultures and civilizations by the first or second millennium BCE and was based on wet-season flooding and water harvesting. Evidence of terrace irrigation occurs in pre-Columbian America, early Syria and China. In the Zana Valley of the Andes Mountains in Peru, archaeologists have found remains of three irrigation canals radiocarbon-dated from the 4th millennium BCE, the 3rd millennium BCE and the 9th century CE.
These canals provide the earliest record of irrigation in the New World. Traces of a canal dating from the 5th millennium BCE were found under the 4th-millennium canal. Ancient Persia used irrigation as far back as the 6th millennium BCE to grow barley in areas with insufficient natural rainfall; the Qanats, developed in ancient Persia about 800 BCE, are among the oldest known irrigation methods still in use today. They are now found in the Middle East and North Africa; the system comprises a network of vertical wells and sloping tunnels driven into the sides of cliffs and of steep hills to tap groundwater. The noria, a water wheel with clay pots around the rim powered by the flow of the stream, first came into use at about this time among Roman settlers in North Africa. By 150 BCE the pots were fitted with valves to allow smoother filling as they were forced into the water; the irrigation works of ancient Sri Lanka, the earliest dating from about 300 BCE in the reign of King Pandukabhaya, under continuous development for the next thousand years, were one of the most complex irrigation systems of the ancient world.
In addition to underground canals, the Sinhalese were the first to build artificial reservoirs to store water. These reservoirs and canal systems were used to irrigate paddy fields, which require a lot of water to cultivate. Most of these irrigation systems still exist undamaged up to now, in Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa, because of the advanced and precise engineering; the system was further extended during the reign of King Parakrama Bahu. The oldest known hydraulic engineers of China were Sunshu Ao of the Spring and Autumn period and Ximen Bao of the Warring States period, both of whom worked on large irrigation projects. In the Sichuan region belonging to the state of Qin of ancient China, the Dujiangyan Irrigation System devised by the Qin Chinese hydrologist and irrigation engineer Li Bing was built in 256 BCE to irrigate a vast area of farmland that today still supplies water. By the 2nd century AD, during the Han Dynasty, the Chinese used chain pumps which lifted water from a lower elevation to a higher one.
These were powered by manual foot-pedal, hydraulic waterwheels, or rotating mechanical wheels pulled by oxen. The water was used for public works, providing water for urban residential quarters and palace gardens, bu