Avarice (Dürer, Vienna)
Avarice is a small oil-on-limewood painting of 1507 by Albrecht Dürer. It shows a grotesque and wrinkled old woman with one sagging breast hanging out of her crimson robe holding a bag of gold coins with both hands; the work is found on the reverse of his Portrait of Young Man. Avarice is allegorical and serves as a warning at both the transience of life and the ultimate worthlessness of earthly fortune, it is grouped, along with Melencolia I, as one of Dürer's vanitas images. Intended to represent both avarice and the passing nature of youthful beauty, the woman is shown in half-length, painted in thick impasto, she has long straight blond hair, glazed eyes, a long nose, a pinched jaw and a mouth with only two remaining teeth, twisted in a scornful laugh. Her visible right arm is muscular and out of proportion to the rest of her body, while a dark tuft of hair sprouts from her underarm. Only her hair and the regular and noble outlines of her face hint at former beauty; the intense focus of the image is achieved by tight cropping and the contrasting of the lush colouring of the woman's gown and hair against a flat black background.
Art historians have compared the work to a Giorgionesque canvas Col tempo, with which it shares obvious thematic similarities, while Dürer's use of impasto and the rich colouring in the foreground display a debt to the Venetian school. The art historian T. Sturge Moore suggests that Dürer may have wanted to show that he could paint like Giorgione. Others believe that the work is a satire on a sitter who had not paid him as much as he might have wished for an earlier portrait. However, given the artist's financial situation at this time, it seems unlikely that he would have deliberately offended potential patrons or customers. Writer Jessie Allen discounts this theory and believes that the work was unable to attract a buyer and so, to save money, Dürer used the other side of the canvas to create a commercially viable image; the work is seen as unfinished, is sometimes referred to as a sketch. Avarice is held in the Kunsthistorisches Vienna, it is in good condition, the colours retain their vibrancy.
In the Kunsthistoriches it is labeled "Allegorische Frauenfigur/Allegorical Female Figure" Allen, Jessie. Albert Dürer. Kessinger, 2005. ISBN 0-7661-9475-2 Bailey, Martin. Dürer. London: Phidon Press, 1995. ISBN 0-7148-3334-7 Silver, Larry & Smith, Jeffrey Chipps; the Essential Dürer. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010. ISBN 0-8122-4187-8 Sturge Moore, T. Albert Dürer. Bastian Books, 2008. ISBN 0-554-23107-7 Thausing, Moriz. Albert Dürer: His Life and Work, Part 1. Kessinger Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-7661-5416-5
Adam and Eve (Dürer)
Adam and Eve is a pair of oil-on-panel paintings by German Renaissance artist Albrecht Dürer. Completed in 1507, the work followed a engraving of 1504 by Dürer on the same subject, one which offered Dürer the opportunity to depict the ideal human figure. Painted in Nuremberg soon after his return from Venice, the panels were influenced by Italian art. Dürer's observations on his second trip to Italy provided him with new approaches to portraying the human form. Here, he depicts Eve at human scale -- the first full-scale nude subjects in German painting. Adam and Eve's first home was the Prague Castle, the property of collector Rudolf II. During the Thirty Years' War, armies plundered the castle and the panels came to be owned by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, his daughter, gave the work to Philip IV of Spain in 1654. King Charles III ordered in 1777 that the painting be hidden in the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, it arrived at its current home, Madrid's Museo del Prado, in 1827, but was not publicly displayed until 1833.
Adam and Eve Nürnberg, Verlag Hans Carl. Dürer in Dublin: Engravings and woodcuts of Albrecht Dürer. Chester Beatty Library, 1983 Hart, Vaughan. Navel Gazing. On Albrect Dürer's Adam and Eve, The International Journal of Arts Theory and History, 2016, vol.12.1 pp.1-10 https://cgscholar.com/bookstore/works/navel-gazing?category_id=the-arts-in-society
St. Jerome in His Study (Dürer, 1521)
St. Jerome in His Study is an oil on panel painting by German Renaissance artist Albrecht Dürer, completed March 1521, it is in the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga of Portugal. The work was executed by Dürer during his stay in the Netherlands 1520–1521, using an aged local man as model. A preparatory drawing exists in the Albertina of Vienna with an annotation of the man's age; the artist donated the painting to the head of the Portuguese trade mission in the Netherlands, Rodrigo Fernandes de Almada. It remained in the latter's family collection until 1880. Among Dürer's depiction of St. Jerome, this is the one more resembling a portrait, with little space left for the study and its details; the subject is portrayed with great care for details, including the wrinkles to the white-yellowish beard. Differently from the etching, the memento mori suggestion of the finger above a skull has a greater visual relevance. Details in the foreground include the inkpot at right and the bookrest at left, as well as a crucifix on the top left.
Costantino Porcu, ed.. Dürer. Milan: Rizzoli. Page at the museum official website
Albrecht Dürer sometimes spelt in English as Durer or Duerer, without umlaut, was a painter and theorist of the German Renaissance. Born in Nuremberg, Dürer established his reputation and influence across Europe when he was still in his twenties due to his high-quality woodcut prints, he was in communication with the major Italian artists of his time, including Raphael, Giovanni Bellini and Leonardo da Vinci, from 1512 he was patronized by Emperor Maximilian I. Dürer is commemorated by both the Episcopal Churches. Dürer's vast body of work includes engravings, his preferred technique in his prints, altarpieces and self-portraits and books; the woodcuts, such as the Apocalypse series, are more Gothic than the rest of his work. His well-known engravings include the Knight and the Devil, Saint Jerome in his Study and Melencolia I, the subject of extensive analysis and interpretation, his watercolours mark him as one of the first European landscape artists, while his ambitious woodcuts revolutionized the potential of that medium.
Dürer's introduction of classical motifs into Northern art, through his knowledge of Italian artists and German humanists, has secured his reputation as one of the most important figures of the Northern Renaissance. This is reinforced by his theoretical treatises, which involve principles of mathematics and ideal proportions. Dürer was born on 21 May 1471, third child and second son of his parents, who had at least fourteen and as many as eighteen children, his father, Albrecht Dürer the Elder, was a successful goldsmith who in 1455 had moved to Nuremberg from Ajtós, near Gyula in Hungary. One of Albrecht's brothers, Hans Dürer, was a painter and trained under him. Another of Albrecht's brothers, Endres Dürer, took over their father's business and was a master goldsmith; the German name "Dürer" is a translation from the Hungarian, "Ajtósi". It was "Türer", meaning doormaker, "ajtós" in Hungarian. A door is featured in the coat-of-arms. Albrecht Dürer the Younger changed "Türer", his father's diction of the family's surname, to "Dürer", to adapt to the local Nuremberg dialect.
Dürer the Elder married Barbara Holper, daughter of his master when he himself qualified as a master in 1467. Dürer's godfather was Anton Koberger, who left goldsmithing to become a printer and publisher in the year of Dürer's birth, became the most successful publisher in Germany owning twenty-four printing-presses and built a number of offices in Germany and abroad. Koberger's most famous publication was the Nuremberg Chronicle, published in 1493 in German and Latin editions, it contained an unprecedented 1,809 woodcut illustrations by the Wolgemut workshop. Dürer may have worked on some of these; because Dürer left autobiographical writings and became famous by his mid-twenties, his life is well documented by several sources. After a few years of school, Dürer started to learn the basics of goldsmithing and drawing from his father. Though his father wanted him to continue his training as a goldsmith, he showed such a precocious talent in drawing that he started as an apprentice to Michael Wolgemut at the age of fifteen in 1486.
A self-portrait, a drawing in silverpoint, is dated 1484 "when I was a child", as his inscription says. Wolgemut was the leading artist in Nuremberg at the time, with a large workshop producing a variety of works of art, in particular woodcuts for books. Nuremberg was an important and prosperous city, a centre for publishing and many luxury trades, it had strong links with Italy Venice, a short distance across the Alps. After completing his apprenticeship, Dürer followed the common German custom of taking Wanderjahre—in effect gap years—in which the apprentice learned skills from artists in other areas, he left in 1490 to work under Martin Schongauer, the leading engraver of Northern Europe, but who died shortly before Dürer's arrival at Colmar in 1492. It is unclear where Dürer travelled in the intervening period, though it is that he went to Frankfurt and the Netherlands. In Colmar, Dürer was welcomed by Schongauer's brothers, the goldsmiths Caspar and Paul and the painter Ludwig. In 1493 Dürer went to Strasbourg, where he would have experienced the sculpture of Nikolaus Gerhaert.
Dürer's first painted self-portrait was painted at this time to be sent back to his fiancée in Nuremberg. In early 1492 Dürer travelled to Basel to stay with another brother of Martin Schongauer, the goldsmith Georg. Soon after his return to Nuremberg, on 7 July 1494, at the age of 23, Dürer was married to Agnes Frey following an arrangement made during his absence. Agnes was the daughter of a prominent brass worker in the city. However, no children resulted from the marriage, with Albrecht the Dürer name died out; the marriage between Agnes and Albrecht was not a happy one, as indicated by the letters of Dürer in which he quipped to Willibald Pirckheimer in an rough tone about his wife. He made other vulgar remarks. Pirckheimer made no secret of his antipathy towards Agnes, describing her as a miserly shrew with a bitter tongue, who helped cause Dürer's death at a young age, it is speculated by many scholars Albrecht was bisexual, if not homosexual, due to several of his works containing themes of homosexual desire, as well as the in
City walls of Nuremberg
The city walls of old city Nürnberg, in modern-day Nuremberg, are the defensive mechanism surrounding the city of Nuremberg, Germany. Construction started in the 12th Century and ended in the 16th Century, they run for 5 kilometers around the old town; the Nuremberg Castle together with the city wall is meant to be one of Europes most considerable medieval defensive systems. Commons:Stadtmauer Nürnberg Coding and pictures of wall towers and gates. Baukunst-nuernberg Map and photographs
The Four Witches
The Four Witches, or The Four Naked Women, or The Four Sorceresses or Scene in a Brothel) are titles given to a 1497 engraving by the German Renaissance artist Albrecht Dürer. One of his earliest signed engravings, it shows four nude, exuberant women gathered conspiratorially in a circle in a confined interior setting a bath house, which appears to have entrances from either side. Although erotic, a small horned demon representing temptation, is positioned in the left hand portal, peering out and holding what may be a hunting object, is engulfed in flames. Although the engraving has been subject to prolonged and significant scholarly analysis, it remains enigmatic, there is nothing in his writings to indicate his intent. There is no consensus as to its subject matter or its intended meaning, with art historians associating it with either witch hunting or figures from classical mythology; the women stand underneath a suspended globe or sphere, before an open stone window, given the human skull and thigh bone placed across from it, may be a gateway to death, that the women are engaged in some type of nefarious scheme, perhalps linked to the 1487 inquisition treatis Malleus Maleficarum.
The alternative view is that the women represent Greek or Roman goddesses Hecate, patroness of evil magic, poisonous plants, ghosts, or her earthly counterpart Diana. Dürer's monogram. Numerous original prints exist; the women are positioned in an small interior space which contains a window and can be entered or exited from two sides. The small devil in the left hand recess, intended to represent evil, as mammalian anatomy including hind legs, holds a vaguely described object in his claw that appears to consist of sticks and a piece of string comprising a contemporary device for hunting birds and fowl; the devil's form and gestures resembles a similar small bat-like monster in Durer's The Dream of the Doctor of 1498-99, an engraving close in date and style to the Four Witches. The differing hairstyles and headdress suggests; this was so in Nuremberg, where guidelines on the matter were issued by the Nuremberg council. The woman on the left wears a Haube the preserve of married women; the woman to the far right, facing the viewer, wears a long folded veil, indicating that she comes from the middle-class.
At this early stage in his life, Dürer was struggling with both the restrictions of drawing for engraving, the portrayal of nudes. Compared to his udes in the near contemporary Small Fortune which shows a female satyr nursing her infant, or The Penance of St John Chrysostom, the current work seems more reliant on Renaissance proto-types, although they are, according to art historian Charles Ilsley Minott "taller and more graceful." As with many of Dürer's engravings, the intended meaning or source is unclear. Possible interpretations range from the four seasons and the four elements, to Aphrodite and the Graces, the Three Fates, or more four witches or four girls in a brothel; the art historian Marcel Briton suggests that the work may not have any specific meaning, is a portrait of four nudes, "the whim of a young artist annoyed by the puritanical conventionality of his fellow-citizens". Because Dürer did not title the work it has been given many titles over the centuries; when the painting was first described by Karel van Mander in 1604, he wrote that it contained "three or four nude women, looking just like the three Graces."
Common titles have included Scene in a Brothel, Scene of Witchcraft and the Three Graces, The Seasons of the Year, The Four Temperaments, Diana and Hecate Trivia. The human skull and bone left on the floor are intended as either reminders of death, or symbols of magic and invocation; the witches interpretation may be misogynistically linked to the "Malleus maleficarum" the "virulent diatribe" written in 1487 by the Dominican friars and inquisitors Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger. The book endorsed the extermination of witches and so developed a convoluted and detailed legal and theological theory to justify its treatise; because the women's hands are hidden, it is not supposed that the image refers to any specific activity or event. However it was at the time believed that men who had sex with so called she-devils would suffer from illness and impotence. Around 1500 Durer produced Witch Riding Backwards on a Goat, according to art historian Margaret Sullivan, like the current work, reflects "a fascination with the underside of the ancient world rather than an interest in witch manuals or a compelling concern with witchcraft as a punishable offense."
In this context, the engraving is sometimes examined alongside The engraving resembles in a number of ways Hans Baldung Grien's Bewitched Groom, completed the year before his death in 1545. However, it is important to note that Dürer and Baldung's works, while contemporary with the "Malleus maleficarum", come before the widespread outbreak of moral panic leading to the witch-hunting of the 16th and 17th centuries. According to Sullivan, "The work of Direr and Baldung belong to an earlier era, they testify to a different sensibility and were produced by artists who could not have foreseen the terrible times to come" The mos
Nuremberg is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, its 511,628 inhabitants make it the 14th largest city in Germany. On the Pegnitz River and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it lies in the Bavarian administrative region of Middle Franconia, is the largest city and the unofficial capital of Franconia. Nuremberg forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring cities of Fürth and Schwabach with a total population of 787,976, while the larger Nuremberg Metropolitan Region has 3.5 million inhabitants. The city lies about 170 kilometres north of Munich, it is the largest city in the East Franconian dialect area. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, with 39,780 students Bavaria's third and Germany's 11th largest university with campuses in Erlangen and Nuremberg and a university hospital in Erlangen. Nuremberg Airport is the second-busiest airport of Bavaria after Munich Airport, the tenth-busiest airport of Germany.
Staatstheater Nürnberg is one of the five Bavarian state theatres, showing operas, operettas and ballets, plays, as well as concerts. Its orchestra, Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg, is Bavaria's second-largest opera orchestra after the Bavarian State Opera's Bavarian State Orchestra in Munich. Nuremberg is the birthplace of Johann Pachelbel. Nuremberg was the site of major Nazi rallies, it provided the site for the Nuremberg trials, which held to account many major Nazi officials; the first documentary mention of the city, in 1050, mentions Nuremberg as the location of an Imperial castle between the East Franks and the Bavarian March of the Nordgau. From 1050 to 1571 the city expanded and rose in importance due to its location on key trade-routes. King Conrad III established the Burgraviate of Nuremberg, with the first burgraves coming from the Austrian House of Raab. With the extinction of their male line around 1190, the last Raabs count's son-in-law, Frederick I from the House of Hohenzollern, inherited the burgraviate in 1192.
From the late 12th century to the Interregnum, the power of the burgraves diminished as the Hohenstaufen emperors transferred most non-military powers to a castellan, with the city administration and the municipal courts handed over to an Imperial mayor from 1173/74. The strained relations between the burgraves and the castellans, with gradual transferral of powers to the latter in the late 14th and early 15th centuries broke out into open enmity, which influenced the history of the city. Nuremberg is referred to as the "unofficial capital" of the Holy Roman Empire because the Imperial Diet and courts met at Nuremberg Castle; the Diets of Nuremberg played an important role in the administration of the empire. The increasing demands of the Imperial court and the increasing importance of the city attracted increased trade and commerce in Nuremberg. In 1219 Emperor Frederick II granted the Großen Freiheitsbrief, including town rights, Imperial immediacy, the privilege to mint coins, an independent customs policy - wholly removing the city from the purview of the burgraves.
Nuremberg soon became, with Augsburg, one of the two great trade-centers on the route from Italy to Northern Europe. In 1298 the Jews of the town were falsely accused of having desecrated the host, 698 of them were killed in one of the many Rintfleisch massacres. Behind the massacre of 1298 was the desire to combine the northern and southern parts of the city, which were divided by the Pegnitz; the Jews of the German lands suffered many massacres during the plague years of the mid-14th century. In 1349 Nuremberg's Jews suffered a pogrom, they were burned at the stake or expelled, a marketplace was built over the former Jewish quarter. The plague returned to the city in 1405, 1435, 1437, 1482, 1494, 1520 and 1534; the largest growth of Nuremberg occurred in the 14th century. Charles IV's Golden Bull of 1356, naming Nuremberg as the city where newly elected kings of Germany must hold their first Imperial Diet, made Nuremberg one of the three most important cities of the Empire. Charles was the patron of the Frauenkirche, built between 1352 and 1362, where the Imperial court worshipped during its stays in Nuremberg.
The royal and Imperial connection grew stronger in 1423 when the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg granted the Imperial regalia to be kept permanently in Nuremberg, where they remained until 1796, when the advance of French troops required their removal to Regensburg and thence to Vienna. In 1349 the members of the guilds unsuccessfully rebelled against the patricians in a Handwerkeraufstand, supported by merchants and some by councillors, leading to a ban on any self-organisation of the artisans in the city, abolishing the guilds that were customary elsewhere in Europe.