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Albrecht Ritschl

Albrecht Ritschl was a German Protestant theologian. Starting in 1852, Ritschl lectured on "Systematic Theology". According to this system, faith was understood to be irreducible to other experiences, beyond the scope of reason. Faith, he said, came not from value judgments. Jesus' divinity, he argued, was best understood as expressing "revelational-value" of Christ for the community that trusts him as God, he held the Christ's message to be committed to a community. Ritschl was born in Berlin, his father, Georg Karl Benjamin Ritschl, became in 1810 a pastor at the church of St Mary in Berlin, from 1827 to 1854 was general superintendent and evangelical bishop of Pomerania. Albrecht Ritschl studied at Bonn, Heidelberg and Tübingen. At Halle he came under Hegelian influences through the teaching of Julius Schaller and Johann Erdmann. In 1845 he became a follower of the Tübingen school, in his work Das Evangelium Marcions und das kanonische Evangelium des Lukas, published in 1846 and in which he argued that the Gospel of Luke was based on the apocryphal Gospel of Marcion, he appears as a disciple of the Hegelian New Testament scholar Ferdinand Baur.

This did not last long with him, for the second edition of his most important work, on the origin of the Old Catholic Church, shows considerable divergence from the first edition, reveals an entire emancipation from Baur's method. Ritschl was professor of theology at Bonn and Göttingen, his addresses on religion delivered at the latter university showing the impression made upon his mind by his enthusiastic studies of Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Schleiermacher. In 1864, Ritschl came the influence of Hermann Lotze, he wrote a large work on the Christian doctrine of justification and atonement, Die Christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung und Versöhnung, published during the years 1870–1874, in 1882–1886 a history of pietism. His system of theology is contained in the former, he died at Göttingen in 1889. His son, Otto Ritschl, was a theologian. Ritschl claimed to carry on the work of Luther and Schleiermacher in ridding faith of the tyranny of scholastic philosophy, his system shows the influence of Kant's destructive criticism of the claims of Pure Reason, recognition of the value of morally conditioned knowledge, doctrine of the kingdom of ends.

He attempted to demonstrate. Ritschl's work made a profound impression on German thought and gave a new confidence to German theology, while at the same time it provoked a storm of hostile criticism. In spite of this resistance the Ritschlian "school" grew with remarkable rapidity, with followers dominating German theological faculties in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; this is mainly due to the bold religious positivism with which he assumes that spiritual experience is real and that faith has not only a legitimate but a paramount claim to provide the highest interpretation of the world. The life of trust in God is a fact, not so much to be explained. Ritschl's standpoint is not that of the individual subject; the objective ground on which he bases his system is the religious experience of the Christian community. The "immediate object of theological knowledge is the faith of the community," and from this positive religious datum theology constructs a "total view of the world and human life."

Thus the essence of Ritschl's work is systematic theology. Nor does he painfully work up to his master-category, for it is given in the knowledge of Jesus revealed to the community; that God is love and that the purpose of His love is the moral organization I of humanity in the "Kingdom of God" – this idea, with its immense range of application-is applied in Ritschl's initial datum. From this vantage-ground Ritschl criticizes the use of Aristotelianism and speculative philosophy in scholastic and Protestant theology, he holds. Hegelianism attempts to squeeze all life into the categories of logic: Aristotelianism deals with "things in general" and ignores the radical distinction between nature and spirit. Neither Hegelianism nor Aristotelianism is "vital" enough to sound the depths of religious life. Neither conceives God "as correlative to human trust", but Ritschl's recoil carries him so far that he is left alone with "practical" experience. "Faith" knows God in His active relation to the kingdom," but not at all as "self-existent".

His limitation of theological knowledge to the bounds of human need might, if logically pressed, run perilously near phenomenalism. In seeking ultimate reality in the circle of "active conscious sensation", he rules out all "metaphysic". Indeed, much, part of normal Christian faith—e.g. The Eternity of the Son—is passed over as beyond the range of his method. Ritschl's theory of "value-judgments" illustrates this form of agnosticism. Religious judgments of value determine objects according to their bearing on our moral and spiritual welfare, they imply a lively sense of radical human need. This sort of knowledge stands quite apart from that produced by "theoretic" and "disinterested" judgments; the former moves in a world of "values", judges things as they are re

4th Airmobile Brigade (France)

The 4th Airmobile Brigade is a helicopter unit of the French Army. It makes up most of the French Army Light Aviation; the brigade is heir to the honours of the 4th Airmobile Division. The French Army announced that the brigade would be disbanded in 2010 and its constituent units placed directly under the command of the Land Forces Command, it was announced, by the French Armed Forces, that the brigade would be reraised on July 1, 2016 as the 4th Air Combat Brigade, headquartered at Clermont-Ferrant, directly subordinated to the COMALAT and including the 1st, 3rd and 5th Combat Helicopter Regiments. 1er Régiment d'Hélicoptères de Combat Combat Helicopter Regiment in Phalsbourg with 22 Gazelle, 20 Puma and 14 Cougar 3e Régiment d'Hélicoptères de Combat Combat Helicopter Regiment in Etain with 37 Gazelle, 16 Puma 5e Régiment d'Hélicoptères de Combat Combat Helicopter Regiment in Pau with 52 various Gazelle and Puma helicopters 4e Compagnie de Commandement et de Transmissions in Clermont-FerrandThe 6e Régiment d'Hélicoptères de Combat Combat Helicopter Regiment in Margny-lès-Compiègne was disbanded in July 2007.

The airport has changed into civil status. Defence Ministry

Sidnie White Crawford

Sidnie White Crawford is professor emerita of Classics and Religious Studies at the University Of Nebraska-Lincoln. She specializes in the Dead Sea Scrolls and Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible, she taught at St. Olaf College and Albright College, she has been a visiting professor at Boston College. White Crawford has a MTS from Harvard Divinity School and PhD from Harvard University from Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations; the supervisor of her dissertation was Frank Moore Cross. White Crawford is the Board Chair of the W. F. Albright Institute of Archaeology in Jerusalem, she was awarded an honorary doctorate at the University of Uppsala in 2018. Monographs 2008 Rewriting Scripture in Second Temple Times. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. 2000 The Temple Scroll and Related Texts. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. In electronic format: Logos Bible Software. Critical Editions 1995 "4QDeuteronomya, c, d, f, g, i, n, o, p" Discoveries in the Judaean Desert XIV, pp. 7–8, 15-38, 45-60, 71-74, 117-136.

Oxford at the Clarendon Press. 1994 "4QReworked Pentateuch: 4Q364-367, with an appendix on 4Q365a", Discoveries in the Judaean Desert XIII, pp. 197–352. Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Commentaries 2013 "Esther," in The CEB Study Bible with Apocrypha, Nashville: Abingdon, 61AP-76AP. 2012 “Esther,” in The Women’s Bible Commentary, Twentieth Anniversary Edition, Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 201-207. 2010 “Judith,” in New Interpreter’s Bible One Volume Commentary, Nashville: Abingdon, 547-554. 2006 “Esther,” “Additions to Esther,” in The Harper Collins Study Bible. San Francisco, CA: Harper Collins. 2003 “Esther,” in Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 329-36. "Esther," "Additions to Esther," "Judith," in New Interpreter's Study Bible. Nashville, TN: Abingdon. 2001 "Jonah" in The HarperCollins Bible Commentary. Ed. by James L. May et al. New York: Harper Collins, pp. 656–659. 1999 The Book of Esther. Introduction and Reflections; the New Interpreter's Bible. III, pp. 853–941.

Nashville, TN: Abingdon. The Additions to Esther: Introduction and Reflections; the New Interpreter's Bible. III, pp. 943–72. Nashville, TN: Abingdon. 1998 & 1992 "Esther" in The Woman's Bible Commentary. 1st and 2nd revised edition. Carol Newsom & Sharon Ringe. Edited Volumes 2007 Up to the Gates of Ekron: Essays on the Archaeology and History of the Eastern Mediterranean in Honor of Seymour Gitin. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society. 2003 The Book of Esther in Modern Research. London: T & T Clark