Flaunden is a village in Hertfordshire, England, on the border with Buckinghamshire. It is in the civil parish of Bovingdon. Old Flaunden was on the banks of the River Chess in Buckinghamshire but owing to constant flooding was moved up the hill into Hertfordshire in the early 19th century; the new church at the top of the hill was built in 1838 and was designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott. There was a Baptist chapel in Flaunden, the graveyard remains. Flaunden has two pubs: The Bricklayers Arms and The Green Dragon, a Grade II listed public house dating from the early 17th century, it is on the Campaign for Real Ale's National Inventory of Historic Pub Interiors. Media related to Flaunden at Wikimedia Commons
Little Gaddesden is a village and civil parish in the borough of Dacorum, Hertfordshire 3 miles north of Berkhamsted. As well as Little Gaddesden village, the parish contains the settlements of Ashridge and part of Ringshall; the total population at the 2011 Census was 1,125. Little Gaddesden is an area of outstanding natural beauty and a conservation area protected by the National Trust. Little Gaddesden and the surrounding area of the Ashridge Estate is owned and managed by the National Trust; this area has been used in many films, notably: First Knight, the Harry Potter series, Son of Rambow and more Robin Hood starring Russell Crowe. TV programmes filmed here include the Netflix biographical drama The Crown, Midsomer Murders, Cranford, a Jamie Oliver advertisement for Sainsburys. There is a vigorous community life with over 25 different societies. Local residents are kept updated on events in Little Gaddesden through the Gaddesden Diary, published seasonally; the Parish News provides a further summary.
Little Gaddesden has many period properties, of note: Ashridge House, The Manor House situated on the Green along with John O’Gaddesden House and Marian House, Little Gaddesden House along Nettleden Road heading towards the hamlet of Nettleden and the Old Rectory past the village shop heading to Ringshall. In the early 17th century, Thomas Egerton, 1st Viscount Brackley, had purchased Ashridge House, one of the largest country houses in England, from Queen Elizabeth I, who had inherited it from her father who had appropriated it after the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539. Ashridge House served the Egerton family as a residence until the 19th century; the Egertons had a family chapel with burial vault in Little Gaddesden Church, where many monuments commemorate the Dukes and Earls of Bridgewater and their families. Among those buried here is the 3rd Duke of Bridgewater, famous as the originator of British inland navigation and the Bridgewater Canal. Hudnall was in the parish of Edlesborough, Buckinghamshire until it was transferred to the parish of Little Gaddesden in 1884.
Nearby villages and Hamlets of Little Gaddesden include: Aldbury, Great Gaddesden, Gaddesden Row, Nettleden, Potten End, Northchurch, Studham, Wigginton and Flamstead. The Ashridge Estate that surrounds the village is a 5,000-acre area of open countryside and woodland on the edge of the Chiltern Hills, with a rich variety of wildlife including fallow deer and muntjac. There are large areas of mature woodlands with carpets of spring bluebells and fine autumnal displays, along with the panorama from the Bridgewater Monument. Local amenities include the Alford Arms public house, Bridgewater Arms public house, Little Gaddesden village shop and post office, Munn's Farm Shop, Ivinghoe Beacon, Pitstone Windmill, Frithsden Vineyard, Gaddesden Place, the Gaddesden Estate, Walter Swinburn racing stables, Stocks House, Ashridge Business School known as Ashridge House, London Gliding Club, Dunstable Downs and Whipsnade Zoo. Little Gaddesden Church of England primary school is a primary school with 100 students.
The school is linked with the Diocese of St. Albans. Vicars Bell was headmaster of the school for 34 years. Little Gaddesden plays host to a variety of sports clubs, this includes badminton, Little Gaddesden bowls & croquet club, Little Gaddesden cricket club, a junior football club, a tennis club, Ashridge golf club. John Motson, football commentator, owns a house in the village. Mark Webber, Formula 1 driver, owns a house in the village. Luther Blissett, former professional footballer and manager, owns a house in the village. Tim Sherwood, former professional footballer and manager, owns a house in the village. Adrian Scarborough, owns a house in the village. Fiona Bruce, newsreader and television presenter, owns a house in the village. Roger Bolton, radio presenter, owns a house in the village. Sarah Brightman, was brought up in the village. Darcey Croft and founder of Barenaturals, was born and raised in the village. Ronnie Wood, a member of the Rolling Stones, owns a house in the village. Vicars Bell, local schoolteacher and author.
J. Leonhardt, A Century Remembered: The Millennium Book for Little Gaddesden, Ringshall and Ashridge, Rural Heritage Society, 2002, ISBN 0-9542174-0-3. Roger Bolton, The Witch and Spy: And Other Little Gaddesden Lives, ISBN 9781781488850 Gerald Massey: a biography - Chapter 5 Little Gaddesden at British History Online Little Gaddesden Village Website Gaddesden Estate Gaddesden Place Little Gaddesden - Includes information on the Manor House Little Gaddesden TV - Egerton Bridgewater Mausoleum Egerton family: Little Gaddesden Little Gaddesden and Egerton family The Gaddesden Society Parochial Parish Church St. Peter and St. Paul, Little Gaddesden
Bovingdon is a large village in Hertfordshire, four miles southwest of Hemel Hempstead, it is a civil parish within the local authority area of Dacorum. It forms the largest part of the ward of Bovingdon and Chipperfield, which had a population of 4,600 at the 2001 census, increasing to 9,000 at the 2011 Census; the name is first mentioned in deeds from 1200 as Bovyndon. It could originate from Old English Bufan dune meaning "above the down" or from Bofa's down, the down belonging to Bofa. There are two churches in the village: the Anglican Church; the Baptist church changed to Baptist. The Baptist church has a weekly morning service at 10:30 a.m. with a Sunday school. St Lawrence's Church was built in 1845 by Talbot Bury; the churchyard includes an avenue of clipped yew trees. Both churches organise a live nativity play every Christmas; the village is sometimes confused with Bovington Camp in Dorset. Halfpenny Green Airfield in Shropshire was renamed from Bobbington, the name of the local village, during World War II after a B-17 tried to land there when the crew became lost.
The village is medieval in origin but it has expanded since the 1940s. It now has a large commuter population; the old parts of the village are around the High Street and the Green. What used to be the Bobsleigh Inn on Box Lane, just east of the village, is a large house with some parts dating to the sixteenth century, it used to be a restaurant. It was the Bovingdon Country Club until 1964 when Tony Nash, the son of the owner, was part of the gold medal winning British two-man bobsleigh team at the Winter Olympics at Innsbruck in Austria, it was renamed the Bobsleigh Inn in his honour. During World War 2 many celebrities stayed at the Country Club while entertaining troops at the airfield, including Bob Hope, James Stewart and Glenn Miller. Next to Bovingdon is the disused former World War II, Eighth Air Force and post-war Royal Air Force airfield, RAF Bovingdon; the airfield was built in 1942. Between 1943 and 1946 it became a B-17 operational training base for units such as 92nd Bomber Group, B-17 Flying Fortress Combat Crew Replacement Centre, 11th CCRC, 8th USAAF HQ Squadron.
The RAF resumed control until 1951 the USAF took over again until 1962 flying B-26 Marauders, B-29 Superfortresses, B-50 Superfortresses. General Dwight D. Eisenhower's personal aircraft was said to be located here, as Bovingdon was the closest Eighth Air Force airfield to London. Flying ceased in 1969, though some flying scenes for the film Hanover Street were shot there in 1978; the airfield served as airport for Hemel Hempstead during most of the postwar period. Several films have been made there including The War Lover, 633 Squadron, Hanover Street, an episode of The Persuaders!, The Man with the Golden Gun, Mosquito Squadron, the Live Aid recreation in the film Bohemian Rhapsody. The airfield site houses a VOR navigational beacon, code BNN; the airspace above the airfield and nearby Chesham is known as the Bovingdon stack and is a holding area for aircraft approaching Heathrow Airport, 20 miles to the south. At busy times on a clear day a dozen planes circle. Part of the airfield was used to build The Mount Prison during the 1980s.
The remainder of the site is used for a Saturday market and there is a permanent circuit for banger racing although there has not been any regular racing since 2008. The airfield is a site for paintballing. Of the three original runways, the North East/South West runway is still complete, used for parking on market days; the North West/South East runway is gone. The East/West runway is still complete, the Eastern end of, used for the weekend Market, the Western end used to be used by the Farmers aircraft; the control tower still exists, but is in a poor state. A lot of the taxiways, the 2nd World War Bomb Dump trackways are gone, a victim of hardcore reclamation, a common end of a large number of disused airfields in the UK. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb". Goldie – drum-and-bass DJ. Frances de la Tour – actress David Seaman – Footballer Tony Nash – Olympic bobsleigh champion 1964.
David Tremlett – Artist In 1971 the poisoner Graham Frederick Young committed two murders while working for a local photographic company, John Hadland. Brown, Sarah C. M. Bovingdon – A History of a Hertfordshire Village, 2002, pub by Bovingdon Parish Council, Alpine Press, ISBN 0-9542368-0-7 Bovingdon history group Bovingdon and District Horticultural society St Lawrence Parish Church Bovingdon Baptist Church
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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A burh or burg was an Old English fortification or fortified settlement. In the 9th century and invasions by Vikings prompted Alfred the Great to develop a network of burhs and roads to use against such attackers; some were new constructions. As at Lundenburh, many were situated on rivers: this facilitated internal lines of supply while aiming to restrict access to the interior of the kingdom for attackers in shallow-draught vessels such as longships. Burhs had a secondary role as commercial and sometimes administrative centres, their fortifications were used to protect England's various royal mints. Burh and burg were Old English developments of the Proto-Germanic word reconstructed as *burg-s, cognate with the verb *berg-an, they are cognate with German Burg and Scandinavian borg and, in English, developed variously as "borough", "burg", "burgh". Byrig was the plural form of burh and burg: "forts", "fortifications", it was the dative case: "to the fort" or "for the fort". This developed into "bury" and "berry", which were used to describe manor houses, large farms, or settlements beside the fortifications.
In addition to the English foundations described here, these names were sometimes used in Old English calques or variants of native placenames, including the Brittonic *-dunon and Welsh caer, as at Salisbury. Burhs were built as military defences. According to H. R. Loyn, the burh "represented only a stage, though a vitally important one, in the evolution of the medieval English borough and of the medieval town"; the boundaries of ancient burhs can still be traced to modern urban borough limits. Most of these were founded by Alfred the Great in a consciously planned policy, continued under his son Edward the Elder and his daughter, Æthelflæd, the'Lady of the Mercians', her husband Æthelred, Ealdorman of Mercia; the Mercian Register tells of the building of ten burhs by Æthelflæd, some as important as Tamworth and Stafford, others now unidentifiable. Some were based upon pre-existing Roman structures, some newly built, though others may have been built at a date. Æthelstan granted these burhs the right to mint coinage and in the tenth and eleventh centuries the firm rule was that no coin was to be struck outside a burh.
A tenth-century document, now known as the Burghal Hidage and so named by Frederic William Maitland in 1897, cites thirty burhs in Wessex and three in Mercia. At the time, Mercia was ruled by the West Saxon kings; these burhs were all built to defend the region against Viking raids. Only eight of the burhs achieved municipal status in the Middle Ages: Chester, Tamworth, Hertford, Warwick and Maldon; the largest were at Winchester and Warwick, whilst Wallingford and Wareham are the best-preserved examples, with substantial ditches and banks still visible. It has been estimated that construction of Wallingford's 9,000 feet of bank would have taken more than 120,000 man hours. Burh towns usually had regular street layouts, some of which are still preserved. Burhs are thought to have been the origins of urban life in England. In most cases, Alfred's rebuilding of a burh did not cause any change of name, as the sites chosen had been some sort of fortified structure; the burhs were made in a variety of different ways, depending on materials available locally, the size of the settlement or area it was intended to defend.
A burh was built on the site of pre-existing fortifications. Sometimes, the Anglo-Saxons would repair old Roman walls in towns such as Winchester, York, Burgh Castle and Dover. At other times, they would build on the site of old Iron Age forts, such as Dover, utilising the old ditches and ramparts. However, the Anglo-Saxons did not just use old fortifications. Many of the burhs built by the Saxons were new fortified sites, built on strategic sites on the coast, near ports or overlooking roads and trade routes. Substantial new towns were built on flat land with a rectangular layout, at for example Oxford, Wallingford and Wareham. Traditionally, burhs were constructed first with a massive series of banks fronted by a ditch; the bank was timber faced and timber revetted. This was topped by a wooden palisade of stakes, up to 10 feet high, with a walkway. At towns such as Tamworth, the ramparts would decay and push outwards over time, meaning that the ditch and bank would deteriorate. To solve this, Anglo-Saxon builders faced banks with stone, thus further reinforcing the defences and improving their life span.
The purpose of the burhs was to provide defence for a port or town, the surrounding farms and hamlets. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Alfred constructed a series of burhs, listed in the Burghal Hidage numbering over 30, it was Alfred's intention that no English farm or village be any more than 20 miles away from a burh. He built a network of well maintained army roads, known as herepaths, that interconnected the burhs, allowing the population quick access to shelter; the herepaths enabled Alfred's troops to move swiftly to engage the enemy. It meant that reinforcements could be called up from other burhs if needed. Ryan Lavelle believes that each burh would have had a mounted force that would be ready for action against the Vikings, it is probable that there was a system of beacons on the high hills of Wessex that gave advance warning of any invader. Thus with this integrated network o
Hertfordshire Constabulary is the territorial police force responsible for policing the county of Hertfordshire in England. Its headquarters is in Welwyn Garden City. From 2011-2016 the force was headed by Chief Constable Andy Bliss, the current Chief Constable is Charlie Hall QPM; the forces manpower consists of over 3,900 police officers and staff, supported by more than 410 special constables. The Constabulary was founded in 1841, under the County Police Act, five years after the Hertford Borough Police and St Albans Borough Police had been formed. In 1889, the Hertford Borough Police force was merged into Hertfordshire; the first Constables were paid at the level of an agricultural labourer. In Victorian times, officers were entitled to only one rest day in every four to six weeks and were entitled to only one week's unpaid annual leave a year. A ten-hour working day was the norm and no meal breaks were allowed. There were strict constraints on an officer's private life too. For example, officers could not leave their homes without permission and could only go out with their wives so long as they were not absent for more than two hours and someone was home to take messages.
St Albans Constabulary remained independent until 1947 being absorbed into the Hertfordshire Constabulary. It was in 2000 that the current force boundaries came into place with the addition of Hertsmere and Broxbourne, transferred from the Metropolitan Police. In 2006 proposals were made by Charles Clarke, the Home Secretary, that would see the force merge with neighbour forces Bedfordshire Police and Essex Police to form a new strategic police force. However, in July 2006, the Prime Minister Tony Blair signalled that police force mergers would not be forced through by the central government. However, with the economic recession beginning in 2008 the force began working on collaboration with neighbouring forces. First joining with Bedfordshire Police and Cambridgeshire Constabulary in a Strategic Alliance, the three forces formed joint units in Counter Terrorism, Major Crime, Firearms, SOCO, Roads Policing, Operation Planning, Civil Contingencies, ICT and Professional Standards. Working collaboratively in this way protected local policing by local officers, but enabled specialist units to work across, be paid for by, all three forces.
Further collaborative work is underway with call handling and dispatch, human resources and some'back-office' functions being examined for merging. For the foreseeable future, the Constabularly looks to remain an independent force; the decision for any full merger of the three forces will be in the hands of the Police and Crime Commissioners, thereby in turn, the public themselves. Local policing is overseen by the Local Policing Command, headed by a Chief Superintendent; the county is sub-divided into 10 Community Safety Partnerships, which broadly correspond to the local Borough and Council areas. The 10 CSPs, each headed by a Chief Inspector are: Watford, Three Rivers, Dacorum and Hatfield, St Albans, East Herts, Broxbourne and North Herts; each CSP has: 5x Intervention and Response Teams: Each team is headed by a sergeant and aligned to a shift pattern, there is always at least one team on duty at any time during the year. Intervention teams non emergency calls and perform general patrol duties.
Safer Neighbourhood Teams: Combined teams of PCs and PCSOs covering local and quality of life issues. Each Ward/Neighbourhood has at least one PC and PCSO to maintain an up-to-date knowledge of local issues and to address them; each town is headed with an Inspector supervising on a CSP level. Local Crime Unit: Team of Detectives with a remit covering burglaries to assaults. Local policing is supplemented by an array of specialist units, some of which are collaborated with Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire; these include: Armed Policing Unit: Collaborated unit working across the three counties providing Armed Response Vehicles, crewed with Authorised Firearms Officers to assist in the response to dangerous incidents such as those involving firearms and knives. The unit provides a Specialist Firearms Officer capability for hostage rescue and close protection. Dog Unit: Collaborated unit providing a 24/7 Police dog service for tracking and public order duties; the unit provides pre-planned capabilities for explosive and drugs search.
Road Policing Unit: Collaborated unit patrol and respond to serious incidents on the motorway and other road networks. Other duties include responsibilities for taking over pursuits, traffic management and road death investigation. Major Crime Unit: Collaborated unit, responsible for the investigation of murder, stranger rape and kidnap, amongst others. Force Communications Room: Responsible for taking emergency and non-emergency calls and recording crime through Call Handling and the deployment and management of resources through Despatch and Control; the FCR receives an average of deals with over 1,000 incidents every day. Notable major incidents and investigations in which Hertfordshire Constabulary have directed or been involved include: October 2000: Hatfield rail crash: A railway accident that caused 4 deaths and over 70 injuries; the accident exposed major stewardship shortcomings and regulatory oversight failings of Railtrack and triggered its partial re-nationalisation. May 2002: Potters Bar Railway Crash: A railway accident that occurred when a train derailed at high speed, killing 7 and injuring 76.
Part of the train ended up wedged between the station platforms and building structures. December 2005: The Buncefield fire: A major fire caused by a series of explosions at the Buncefield oil storage facility causing
Nash Mills is a civil parish within Hemel Hempstead and Dacorum Borough Council on the northern side of the Grand Union Canal the River Gade, in the southernmost corner of Hemel Hempstead. It takes its name from the mill owned by John Dickinson in the 19th century. Part of its area was reassigned in the 1980s from Three Rivers District Council & Abbots Langley Civil Parish; the borough council ward extends beyond the parish boundary. A corn-mill in the area was recorded in the Domesday Book in the 11th century; the mill had been converted to papermaking in the late 18th century and subsequently purchased in 1811 by John Dickinson and George LongmanNash Mill was renowned for its production of tough thin paper for Samuel Bagster's "Pocket Reference Bible". A major fire in 1813 was a setback, but the insurance enabled redevelopment for large scale production. After an experiment in 1887, fine rag paper was produced on electrically driven machines: a successful innovation at Nash Mill. In 1989, Nash Mill was sold to the international Sappi Group and continued to make paper until 2006, when it was closed down and sold.
Redevelopment plans for housing were publicised in September 2007. By late 2010, the Mill site had been cleared, leaving the mill house, Stephenson's Cottage and the war memorial. John Dickinson had Nash Mills School built in 1847. Arthur Evans, the archaeologist and excavator of Knossos. Sir John Evans and father of Arthur Evans. Abbot's Hill School Apsley, Hertfordshire John Dickinson Stationery Limited Media related to Nash Mills at Wikimedia Commons Nash Mills Parish Council