Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
East of England Ambulance Service
The East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust is the authority responsible for providing National Health Service ambulance services in the counties of Bedfordshire, Essex, Hertfordshire and Suffolk, in the East of England region. These consist of 7,500 square miles, it is one of 10 Ambulance Trusts providing England with emergency medical services, is part of the NHS, receiving direct government funding for its role. There is no charge to patients for use of the service, under the Patient's Charter every person in the United Kingdom has the right to the attendance of an ambulance in an emergency; as well as providing an emergency ambulance service, the Trust provides non emergency patient transport services, commercial services and special operations such as emergency planning, hazardous materials incident response. The service support a number of emergency charities, such as air ambulances, who provide doctors for serious incidents; the Trust controls the mobilisation of critical care charities throughout its area.
These include Magpas, Essex & Herts Air Ambulance, East Anglian Air Ambulance, BASICS Essex Accident Rescue Service, SARS, NARS and BASICS Hertfordshire. The service can if required, mobilise London's Air Ambulance and the Kent and Sussex Air Ambulance if there is a major incident requiring more than one critical care team, where other teams in the region are operating at maximum capacity; the trauma teams are dispatched by a Critical Care Paramedic at the Critical Care Desk, in their Control Room in Chelmsford, who filters through every call the ambulance service receives and makes a clinical decision on whether to dispatch a critical care resource. The trust was formed on 1 July 2006 following the three-way merger of the Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust, the East Anglian Ambulance NHS Trust and the Essex Ambulance Service NHS Trust; the result was a service covering an area of over 7,500 square miles with a population of 5.8 million people, one which answers more than one million emergency calls per year.
The East Anglian Ambulance NHS Trust had been formed in 1994 from the three-way merger of Cambridgeshire and Suffolk Ambulance Services. In 2009, the Trust was censured by the Care Quality Commission after inspection of an ambulance depot and seven of its 100 ambulance stations found patient-carrying vehicles were "dirty" and that staff were "unsure of basic measures for infection prevention and control"; the service launched an "urgent and comprehensive review" of its ambulance cleaning programme and reiterated its stance on patient safety, adding that "ensuring consistent high standards of cleanliness is a challenge" with so many stations, covering six counties and an area of 7,500 square-miles. In 2015/16, the trust received 1,037,119 emergency calls and handled 500,620 non-emergency patient transport journeys; the trust arrived at 73.6% of emergency Red 1 calls within eight minutes, 69.4% of emergency Red 2 calls within eight minutes. EEAST has around 1,500 volunteers; as of July 2016, the Trust has the following resources in operation: 357 front-line emergency ambulances 201 marked rapid-response vehicles 164 non-emergency ambulances 52 major incident support vehicles Over 130 ambulance stations and response posts 3 emergency operations centers in Bedford and NorwichThe Trust has its own emergency driving school, which trains drivers in 999 emergency driving under blue lights and sirens.
The Trust used the Mercedes Sprinter as front-line Double Staffed Ambulances, with the exception of a single Vauxhall Movano 4 wheel drive vehicle for use at Newmarket Racecourse. In 2009, the service started the transition to a brand-new Sprinter only fleet from a wide range of other brands - including Fords and older Mercedes vehicles; the scheme was finished in 2016, when the last brand-new Sprinter was delivered, although many of the older ones are now ending their cycle life. In March 2018, four new vehicles will be trialled across the East of England, with one concept vehicle being designed for and by the Trust. In May 2018 the trust bought 32 five-year-old vehicles decommissioned by the West Midlands Ambulance Service - described as "clapped out vehicles which colleagues in other trusts would have sent to the scrapyard" and contrasted with the luxury cars with which senior managers were provided in 2017. Ford Mondeos and Skoda Octavia Scouts are the most common amongst the fleet. In addition Land Rover Freelander and Land Rover Discovery Sport operate out of a limited number of bases.
Some Land Rover are used as Officer Cars. Renault Masters and Vauxhall Movanos are used for the Patient Transport Service. A number of these vehicles are fitted with blue sirens for High Dependency transfers; the Hazardous Area Response Team team uses Volkswagen Transporters and Mercedes Sprinters, all of which have 4x4 capability. The new fleet arrived in 2017, standardising these vehicles across the 10 ambulances services in England and Wales, it replaced Iveco Dailys. The trust provides Critical Care Paramedics to 3 local charity air ambulances in the region: Magpas, Essex & Herts Air Ambulance and the East Anglian Air Ambulance; these paramedics work alongside doctors to administer advanced treatment at the scene of the accident. Although the service uses the air ambulances, it does not fund the charit
Ashmanhaugh is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk, situated some 20 km north east of Norwich. See Inside the churches of St Swithins here & Beeston St Lawrence here. Apart from Ashmanhaugh village itself, the parish includes Beeston St Lawrence, a separate parish until 1935; the civil parish has an area of 4.82 square kilometres and in the 2001 census had a population of 197 in 74 households, the population falling to 189 at the 2011 census. For the purposes of local government, the parish falls within the district of North Norfolk; the churches of Ashmanhaugh St Swithin and Beeston St Lawrence are two of 124 existing round-tower churches in Norfolk. ^ Vision of Britain. Ashmanhaugh CP/AP Norfolk through time. Retrieved December 4, 2005. ^ Office for National Statistics & Norfolk County Council, 2001. Census population and household counts for all parishes. Retrieved December 2, 2005.. Information from Genuki Norfolk on Ashmanhaugh. Website with photos of Ashmanhaugh St Swithin
Antingham is a village and civil parish in the north of the English county of Norfolk. The village is located 3 miles north of North Walsham; the civil parish has an area of 6.12 square kilometres and in the 2001 census had a population of 287 in 120 households, the population increasing to 355 at the 2011 Census. For the purposes of local government, the parish falls within the district of North Norfolk; the name of'Antingham' originates from an Old English word meaning "homestead of the family or followers of a man called Anta". Antingham has an entry in the Domesday Book of 1085 where the village, its population, records of land ownership, details about productive resources were extensively detailed. In the survey Antingham is variously recorded by the names Antigeham and Attinga; the main tenants at the time were Thurston Fitzguy. The survey notes four smallholders on the land. A meadow and ploughs of various values are among the items recorded under Antingham. St Mary's parish church, at the south of the village close to the A149 in Church Lane, stands next to the ruins of St Margaret’s Church, abandoned in the late 17th century.
Material from St Margaret's was used to repair. The village was struck by an F1/T2 tornado on 23 November 1981, as part of the record-breaking nationwide tornado outbreak on that day; the parish of Antingham has boundaries with seven other neighbouring parishes. To the north are the parishes of Thorpe Market and Southrepps; the eastern boundary, which follows the River Ant, is with Swafield, south are the parishes of North Walsham and Felmingham. To west lies the parishes of Hanworth and Suffield with most of this boundary following the edge of Gunton Park; the parish is dissected north to south by the A149 road from King’s Lynn to Great Yarmouth. The parish straddles the railway line which runs between Sheringham and Norwich. In the south east corner of the parish are Antingham Ponds which are the source of the River Ant, a tributary of the River Bure; the village of Antingham sits on the Southrepps road, on the eastern side of the A149 and runs north to south from that road to the village of Southrepps.
The centre of the village is at the crossroads of Sandy Lane and Southrepps Road. There is a level crossing on Southrepps Road 200 metres south of this crossroads; the nearest railway station is at Gunton for the Bittern Line which runs between Sheringham and Norwich. The nearest Airport is at Norwich, 17.5 miles south of the village. Media related to Antingham at Wikimedia Commons Information from Genuki Norfolk on Antingham. Antingham Bone Mills Antingham 1875-1975 Antingham in the Domesday Book
Norfolk Fire and Rescue Service
Norfolk Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service for the county of Norfolk in the east of England. The county consists of 2,074 square miles; the Headquarters of Norfolk Fire and Rescue Service is in the village of Hethersett, 6 miles south-west of Norwich. The full address is Whitegates, Hethersett, NR9 3DN. Whitegates was commandeered for use by the National Fire Service during the Second World War and was purchased by Norfolk County Council in 1950; the building was built as a family home in the late eighteenth century and has had various owners over the years. New building at the rear of the original house in recent times has replaced the coach house and stables of earlier times. In 2014-15 the NFRS attended 7,285 incidents where 749 people were 63 fatalities. Consisting of 2143 fires, 2809 special services and 2333 false alarms which required no further action; the service have noticed a reduction in the number of fire's they attend, however an increasing response to Road Traffic Collisions on Norfolk's roads.
30 Rescue Pumps: the standard firefighting vehicle mobilised to all emergency calls. These appliances are equipped with a high-pressure two-stage main pump capable of making foam via an onboard foam inductor system, two high-pressure hose reels, a set of rescue ladders, a light portable fire pump, four breathing apparatus sets, two spare breathing air cylinders and hydraulic rescue equipment, as well as other miscellaneous tools. 4 Heavy Rescue Pumps: similar to the rescue pump, however more emphasis on rescue operations and incidents. 24 Water Tenders: similar to the rescue pump, however less emphasis on rescue equipment but more water capacity. 3 Aerial Ladder Platforms: extendible ladder platforms with rescue cages and additional lighting, these vehicles provide high-level access and firefighting capability, with a vertical reach of 100 ft 80 ft sideways, up to 55 ft below ground level. Rescue Pump: P1 / P2 Water Ladder: P3 / P4 Heavy Rescue Pump: P7 Rural Response Pump: P8 Foam / Water Carrier: W9 Aerial Ladder Platform: A6 Command & Control Unit: C0 Environmental Protection Unit: H0 Fire & Emergency Support Service: FESS Operational & Welfare Support Unit: S1 Technical Rescue Unit: S0 Inshore Rescue Boat Prime Mover: T9Pods: High Volume Pump High Volume Hose Layer CBRN Response: Incident Response Unit: H9 Urban Search & Rescue Unit: Norfolk hosts one of the UK's Urban Search and Rescue teams, these were set up as a response to the 9/11 tragedy in New York.
The Norfolk team comprises 15 wholetime USAR technicians and 16 retained technicians along with a search dog. The team is based in Dereham in central Norfolk alongside the town's retained crew. Search & Rescue Dog Unit: R9 Technical Rescue Unit: S0 Inshore Rescue Boat Operational Support Unit: S1 Prime Mover: T6 / T7 / T8Pods: Module 1 - Technical Search Equipment Module 2 - Heavy Transport, Confined Space & Hot Cutting Equipment Module 3 - Breaching & Breaking Equipment Module 4 - Multi Purpose Vehicle Module 5 - Shoring Operations 1966 Neatishead - three firefighters lost their lives tackling a fire in a bunker at RAF Neatishead; the cause was arson. 1991 Thetford - Plastic recycling centre. A large fire which burned for four days 1994 Norwich - Norwich library destroyed by fire; the main fire station of Norwich was opposite the library but due to the dramatic spread of the fire the building could not be saved 1995 Wroxham - a ten-hour blaze in a department store 1995 Norwich - a fire in the historic Assembly Rooms 1998 Attleborough - Poultry processing plant fire 1999 Ditchingham - Maltings fire 2011 Great Yarmouth - four men killed in industrial accident.
The signal box was not alerted to the accident for 24 minutes 2013 Swaffham - Fish and Chip shop destroyed in blaze with 10 appliances in attendance. 2014 Fakenham - 90 firefighters attended a fire in a department store 2014 Cley-next-the-Sea - a US Air Force Sikorsky HH-60 Pave Hawk crashed, killing four crew 2014 Gillingham - four men killed in helicopter crash in thick fog. 2016 Great Yarmouth - 20 plus appliances and 88 fire crews attend large fire on Regent road inside Regent Arcade and Super Bowl UK Regent. Building destroyed. Facilities UK Firefighter dispute 2002/2003 Historical Fire Brigades of the United Kingdom History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty The Fire Service College Fire Service Chief Fire Officers' Association UK Fire News
East of England
The East of England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics from 1999, it includes the ceremonial counties of Bedfordshire, Essex, Hertfordshire and Suffolk. Essex has the highest population in the region, its population at the 2011 census was 5,847,000. Bedford, Basildon, Southend-on-Sea, Ipswich, Colchester and Cambridge are the region's most populous towns; the southern part of the region lies in the London commuter belt. The region has the lowest elevation range in the UK. North Cambridgeshire and the Essex Coast have most of the around 5% of the region, below 10 metres above sea level; the Fens are in North Cambridgeshire, notable for the lowest point in the country in the land of the village of Holme 2.75 metres below mean sea level, once Whittlesey Mere. The highest point is at Clipper Down at 817 ft, in the far south-western corner of the region in the Ivinghoe Hills. Basildon and Harlow, with Stevenage and Hemel Hempstead, were main New Towns in the 1950s and 1960s, with much industry located there.
In the late 1960s, the Roskill Commission considered Thurleigh in Bedfordshire, Nuthampstead in Hertfordshire and Foulness in Essex as a possible third airport for London. The East of England succeeded the standard statistical region East Anglia; the East of England civil defence region was identical to today's region. England between the Wash and just south of the town of Colchester has since post-Roman times been and continues to be known as East Anglia, including the county traversing the west of this line, Cambridgeshire; the inclusion of Essex as part of East Anglia is open to debate, notably because it was a Saxon kingdom, separate from the kingdom of the East Angles. Essex, despite meaning East-Saxons formed part of the South East England, as did Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, a mixture of definite and debatable Home Counties; the earliest use of the term is from 1695. Charles Davenant, in An essay upon ways and means of supplying the war, wrote, "The Eleven Home Counties, which are thought in Land Taxes to pay more than their proportion..." cited a list including these four.
The term does not appear to have been used in taxation since the 18th century. East Anglia is one of the driest parts of the United Kingdom with average rainfall ranging from 450 mm to 750 mm; this is because low pressure systems and weather fronts from the Atlantic have lost a lot of their moisture over land by the time they reach Eastern England. However the Fens in Cambridgeshire are prone to flooding. Winter is cool but non-prevailing cold easterly winds can affect the area from the continent, these can bring heavy snowfall if the winds interact with a low pressure system over the Atlantic or France. Northerly winds can be cold but are not as cold as easterly winds. Westerly winds bring milder and wetter weather. Southerly winds bring mild air but chill if coming from further east than Spain. Spring is a transitional season that can be chilly to start with but is warm by late-April/May; the weather at this time is changeable and showery. Summer is warm and continental air from mainland Europe or the Azores High leads to at least a few weeks of hot, balmy weather with prolonged warm to hot weather.
The number of summer storms from the Atlantic, such as the remnants of a tropical storm coincides with the location of the jet stream. The East tends to receive much less of their rain than the other regions. Autumn is mild with some days being unsettled and rainy and others warm. At least part of September and early October in the East have warm and settled weather but only in rare years is there an Indian summer where fine weather marks the entire traditional harvest season; the most deprived districts, according to the Indices of deprivation 2007 in the region are, in descending order, Great Yarmouth, Luton and Ipswich. At county level, after Luton and Peterborough, which have a similar level of deprivation, in descending order there is Southend-on-Sea Thurrock; the least deprived districts, in descending order, are South Cambridgeshire, Mid Bedfordshire, East Hertfordshire, St Albans, Rochford, Huntingdonshire, Mid Suffolk, North Hertfordshire, Three Rivers, South Norfolk, East Cambridgeshire and Suffolk Coastal.
At county level, the least deprived areas in the region, in descending order, are Cambridgeshire and Bedfordshire, with all three having a similar level of deprivation Essex. The region has the lowest proportion of jobless households in the UK – 0.5%. In March 2011 the region's unemployment claimant count was 3.0%. Inside the region, the highest rate is Great Yarmouth with 6.2%, followed by Peterborough and Southend-on-Sea on 4.7%. In the 2015 general election, there was an overall swing of 0.25% from the Conservatives to Labour, the Liberal Democrats lost 16% of its vote. All of Hertfordshire and Suffolk is now Conservative; the region's electorate voted 49% Conservative, 22% Labour, 16% UKIP, 8% Liberal Democrat and 4% Green. Like other regions, the division of seats favours th
Bacton is a village and civil parish in Norfolk, England. It is on the Norfolk coast, some 20 km south-east of Cromer, 40 km north-west of Great Yarmouth and 30 km north of Norwich. Besides the village of Bacton, the parish includes the nearby settlements of Bacton Green, Broomholm and Pollard Street, it includes Edingthorpe, added to Bacton civil parish under the County of Norfolk Review Order, 1935. The seaside village is located on the North Norfolk coast between Walcott, Norfolk. Bacton is known for its quiet sandy beaches offering miles of walking along the beach and cliffs; the England Coast Path passes through the village and the Paston Way long distance footpath linking Cromer and North Walsham. In the east of the parish can be found the ruined Cluniac Bromholm Priory; the civil parish has an area of 9.45 km² and in the 2001 census had a population of 1,130 in 474 households the population increasing to 1,194 at the 2011 Census. For the purposes of local government, the parish falls within the district of North Norfolk.
Amenities in the village include a public house, a hotel, two cafes, one restaurant and takeaway food establishments as well as a recreation ground. In addition there are several caravan parks and estates consisting of owned holiday chalets, giving holidaymakers access to the beach. During the First World War there was an airfield located nearby, RAF Bacton; the village and adjoining coastline erected to prevent coastal erosion. Part of this sea wall in nearby Walcott, Norfolk was damaged in the storm surge in December 2013, which caused damage to several caravans and chalets. North of Bacton lies the village of Paston. Media related to Bacton, Norfolk at Wikimedia Commons Information from Genuki Norfolk on Bacton Bacton in the Domesday Book Village News - local newsletter for Bacton, Edingthorpe and Witton Bacton Beach House with photos of the area The Leas Beach Park with photos of Bacton beach, fossils found on the beach and the surrounding area