Lucena del Cid
Lucena del Cid is a municipality in the comarca of Alcalatén, province of Castellon, Valencian Community, Spain
Atzeneta del Maestrat
Atzeneta del Maestrat is a municipality in the comarca of Alcalatén, Castelló, Valencia
Vistabella del Maestrazgo
Vistabella del Maestrazgo is a municipality in the comarca of Alcalatén, Valencia, Spain. It is bordered by the municipalities of Villafranca, Culla, Atzeneta del Maestrat, Xodos, y Villahermosa in the province of Castellon, it is located in "El masis de Penyagolosa" and it is the highest municipality in the Valencian Community with 1,249 m of altitude. Asensio Nebot Penyagolosa
Les Useres (known in Spanish as Useras is a municipality in the comarca of Alcalatén in the Valencian Community, Spain. In August 2007, 120 residents had to be evacuated as a result of a forest fire
L'Alcora (Valencian pronunciation: is a municipality in the comarca of Alcalatén, Valencian Community, Spain. Traces of human presence in the area date from the Bronze Age. Present are remains from the Iberian and Moorish ages, the latter including the castle, which gives the name to L'Alcora's comarca; the fortress was reconquered by the Christians in 1233, after which the current town started to expand at the expenses of the fortress's previous borough. Castle of Alcalatén, a Moorish fortress modified after the Christian conquest, it has an irregular triangular plan, with two large towers. Hermitage of St. Vincent Hermitage of St. Christopher Iberian settlement of Montmirá Fortified hermitage of El Salvador Museum of Ceramics Page at the Touristi Guide of the Valencian Community
Benafigos is a municipality in the comarca of Alcalatén, Castellón Province, Spain. The village is located at high altitude between the Rambla de Benafigos; the climate of the village is continental with long, cold winters and hot summers, the temperature during the night on summer days is pleasant though. Pàgina web de Benafigos País Valencià, poble a poble, comarca a comarca Secció "Poble a poble" del Diari Parlem Institut Valencià d'Estadística. Portal de la Direcció General d'Administració Local de la Generalitat
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".